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Wednesday, June 25, 2014

The Science of Soy - The East Viewpoints: Part A5 - Soy Menopause Symptoms in Japanese

By Kyle J. Norton

Soy foods, including tofu have been in traditional Chinese diet over thousands of year, according to Chinese literature. The reduced risk of chronic disease, including metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes and lesser menopause symptoms in advanced age, may be aided by eating a lot of soy food accompanied with large portion of vegetables and fruits. Indeed, according to the study, only 10% of women in the East are experience symptoms of menopause in advanced age compared to over 70% of their Western counterparts.
According to Dr. Mark Messina, Ph.D., Soy foods contributed from 6.5%8 to 12.8%7 of total protein intake in older adult in Japan.(b)

The approval of cardiovascular benefit of soy by FDA in 1999 accompanied with the discovery of health benefits in clinical studies over past decade, prompted the promotion and advertisement of soy's health benefits in every aspect in Western society. Evidences could be seen by walking through the supermarkets and drug stores. Soy supplements and products such as tofu, soy milk, soy-based infant formula, and meatless “texturized vegetable protein” burgers were widely available. According to the United Soybean Board’s 2004–2005, 25% of Americans consume soy foods or beverages at least once per week, and 74% view soy products as healthy.

Today, the promotion of soy are no longer existed, it may be results of discovery of adverse effect in single ingredient and animal studies, as intake of soy is associated to induce risk certain mammary cancers and infertility. The publication of the result have drawn many criticisms. According to Thomas Badger, director and senior investigator at the Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Center in Little Rock, these effects are seen only under certain experimental conditions that are not likely to occur in humans—and therein lies the crux of the debate(a). Equol (4',7-isoflavandiol), an isoflavandiol metabolized from daidzein may be the causes, as 90% of Eastern population are equol producers but only 30% in the West.
The explanation of the positive effect of soy isoflavones in reduced risk of mammary cancers by University of Goettingen may be interesting, as researchers said" Most importantly, there is dispute as to whether isoflavones derived from soy or red clover have negative, positive or any effect at all on the mammary gland or endometrium. It is beyond any doubt that soy products may have cancer preventing properties in a variety of organs including the mammary gland. However, these properties may only be exerted if the developing organ was under the influence of isoflavones during childhood and puberty.

Soybean is the genus Glycine, belonging to the family Fabaceae, one of the legumes that contains twice as much protein per acre as any other major vegetable or grain crop, native to Southeast Asia. Now, it is grown worldwide with suitable climate for commercial profits.
Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Essential amino acid
6. Vitamin A
7. Vitamin B6
8. Vitamin B12
9. Vitamin C
10. Vitamin K
11. Calcium
12. Iron
13. Magnesium
14. Phosphorus
15. Potassium
16. Sodium
17. Zinc
18. Etc.
Phytochemicals
1. Isoflavones
2. Genistein
3. Saponins
4. Beta-sitosterol
5. Daidzein

I. Soy in Eastern population
A. The Japanese population
Japan, an island nation in the Pacific Ocean, lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south(1c). According to Moriyama, Japanese women and men live longer and healthier than everyone else on Earth, it may be result of healthier Japanese diet and lifestyle. According to the World Health Organization, the Japanese have an average of 75 years healthy living with disability-free, it may be due to average soy intake 10 to 70 times higher than in Western people(1a)(1b).

A5. Soy and menopause symptom in Japan
Menopause is defined as a condition in which women have not had a menstrual period in a minimum of 12 months period as a result of the inactive ovaries, assuming the women are not pregnant and experience the ease of visible symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats but not the invisible effects of menopause. During post menopause, any bleeding or spotting should be reported to your doctor immediately, it may be caused by tumors rarely but it is possible. Symptoms may include Bleeding or spotting, Vagina itching and dryness, Hot flash, Bone pain and fracture, Bladder infection, Skin wrinkle, Hypertension, Bone density loss, etc.

Eppidemiological studies, linking soy effect on menopause symptoms have been inconclusive(1)(2)(3)(4). In japanese women, phytochemicals in soy found effectively in reduced vasomotor symptoms of menopause. In a supplement containing equol on the menopausal symptoms of Japanese, researchers at the Tokyo Medical and Dental University, showed that The equol-ingesting grou, noy only significantly reduced severity and frequency of hot flashes as, the severity of neck or shoulder  but  also exhibit trends of improvement in sweating and irritability and a significant improvement in the somatic category symptoms(5). Administration of 10-mg natural S-(-)equol supplement consumed daily for 12 weeks  also indicated an reduction of hot flushes and neck or shoulder muscle stiffness, in postmenopausal Japanese women(6). And fermented soy products hhave been also showed to alleviate the severity of hot flushes(14).
Some researchers suggested that the effectiveness of soy isoflavone  in relieved symptoms of menopause may link to equol-producing status. In a 1-year double-blind, randomized trial in comparison of the effects of isoflavone (75 mg of isoflavone conjugates/day) with those of placebo on bone mineral density, fat mass, and serum isoflavone concentrations in early postmenopausal equol-producer phenotype.Japanese women, found that isoflavones exhibited the preventive effects of isoflavones on bone loss and fat accumulation in early postmenopausal women depend on an individual's equol-producing capacity(7) and S-equol supplement improved mood-related symptoms in perimenopausal/postmenopausal even in equol nonproducers in Japan women, in total of 127 participants completed the trial(8).

Soy isoflavone extracts on testing on lumbar spine or hip BMD in menopausal women of controlled trials published in English, Japanese, or Chinese, showed a result of varying effects of isoflavones on spine BMD across trials associated with study characteristics of intervention duration (6 vs. 12 months), region of participant (Asian vs. Western), and basal BMD (normal bone mass vs. osteopenia or osteoporosis)(9). In ciompared the symptom of hot flash and chilliness in menopause women, Dr. Melby MK. suggested that Japanese women are experience important vasomotor symptom than hot flushes and sweats, it may be result of dietary high in soy(10).

In Osteoporosis, menaquinone-7, the major chemical compound found Japanese fermented soybeans, showed to prevent postmenopausal bone loss(11) and promotion of bone formation(13)(15) as well eleviating early postmenopausal women, such as in palpitation and backaches(15). Other study also suggested that intake of supplementation of isoflavones (ISO) regulary associated to risk reduction of osteoporosis in  middle-aged Japanese menopausal Japanese women(12).

In fact, according to the study of cross-sectional relationships of dietary and other lifestyle variables to menopause by the Gifu University School of Medicine, such as smoking,  calcium and soy product intakes, intakes of fat, cholesterol, and coffee were significantly associated with the onset menopause in Japanese women(16).

Taken altogether, High soy food intakes are associated to reduce symptoms of menopause in Japanese women, chilliness. In take of supplement containing equol are effective in symptom reduction even in non equol producers in these population as well. According to the Royal Hospital for Women, highest soy consumption in Japan lowered the  rates of diseases, such as breast, endometrial, colon and prostatic cancers atherosclerotic,  etc. but induced extremely high urinary levels of phytoestrogen metabolites may be a result of isoflavones in exhibited bioactivity when intake of high concentrations.(17)
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References
(a) The Science of Soy: What Do We Really Know? by Julia R. Barrett
(b) Guideline for healthy soy intake(the Unite Soybean board)
(1c) Japan, Wikipedia
(1a) Erdman JW Jr. AHA Science Advisory: soy protein and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the AHA. Circulation. 2000; 102: 2555–2559
(Soy protein and cardiovascular disease)
(1b) van der Schouw YT, Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Peeters PH, Keinan-Boker L, Rimm EB, Grobbee DE. Prospective study on usual dietary phytoestrogen intake and cardiovascular disease risk in Western women. Circulation. 2005; 111: 465–471(Cardiovascular diseases in women)
(1) S-equol and the fermented soy product SE5-OH containing S-equol similarly decrease ovariectomy-induced increase in rat tail skin temperature in an animal model of hot flushes by Yoneda T1, Ueno T, Uchiyama S.(PubMed)
(2) A pilot study on the effects of S-equol compared to soy isoflavones on menopausal hot flash frequency by Jenks BH1, Iwashita S, Nakagawa Y, Ragland K, Lee J, Carson WH, Ueno T, Uchiyama S.(PubMed)
(3) Extracted or synthesized soybean isoflavones reduce menopausal hot flash frequency and severity: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Taku K1, Melby MK, Kronenberg F, Kurzer MS, Messina M.(PubMed)
(4) Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: a randomized trial by Newton KM1, Reed SD, LaCroix AZ, Grothaus LC, Ehrlich K, Guiltinan J.(PubMed)
(5) Equol improves menopausal symptoms in Japanese women by Aso T.(PubMed)
(6) A natural S-equol supplement alleviates hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms in equol nonproducing postmenopausal Japanese women by Aso T1, Uchiyama S, Matsumura Y, Taguchi M, Nozaki M, Takamatsu K, Ishizuka B, Kubota T, Mizunuma H, Ohta H.(PubMed)
(7) Possible role of equol status in the effects of isoflavone on bone and fat mass in postmenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial by Wu J1, Oka J, Ezaki J, Ohtomo T, Ueno T, Uchiyama S, Toda T, Uehara M, Ishimi Y.(PubMed)
(8) New equol supplement for relieving menopausal symptoms: randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Japanese women by Ishiwata N1, Melby MK, Mizuno S, Watanabe S.(PubMed)
(9) Effect of soy isoflavone extract supplements on bone mineral density in menopausal women: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Taku K1, Melby MK, Takebayashi J, Mizuno S, Ishimi Y, Omori T, Watanabe S.(PubMed)
(10) Chilliness: a vasomotor symptom in Japan by Melby MK.(PubMed)
(11) Intake of fermented soybeans, natto, is associated with reduced bone loss in postmenopausal women: Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Study by Ikeda Y1, Iki M, Morita A, Kajita E, Kagamimori S, Kagawa Y, Yoneshima H.(PubMed)
(12) Soy isoflavone tablets reduce osteoporosis risk factors and obesity in middle-aged Japanese women by Mori M1, Aizawa T, Tokoro M, Miki T, Yamori Y.(PubMed)
(13) Promotion of bone formation by fermented soybean (Natto) intake in premenopausal women by Katsuyama H1, Ideguchi S, Fukunaga M, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K, Sunami S.(PubMed)
(14) Hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms in relation to soy product intake in Japanese women by Nagata C1, Shimizu H, Takami R, Hayashi M, Takeda N, Yasuda K.(PubMed)
(15) Soy intake related to menopausal symptoms, serum lipids, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Japanese women by Somekawa Y1, Chiguchi M, Ishibashi T, Aso T.(PubMed)
(16) Association of diet and other lifestyle with onset of menopause in Japanese women by Nagata C1, Takatsuka N, Inaba S, Kawakami N, Shimizu H.(PubMed)
(17) Phytoestrogens and the menopause by Mackey R1, Eden J.(PubMed)

Wednesday, June 18, 2014

Food therapy - Banana

Banana Banana is the common name of a genus of tropical herbaceous plants. It can grow from 3 to 9 m and belongs to the family of the lily and the orchid.

Nutrients

1. Vitamin B6
2. Vitamin C
3. Fiber
4. Potassium
5. Magnesium
6. Iron7. Etc.

Chemical constituents
1. Sterols
2. 3-Methyl butyl butanoate ester
3. steryl esters
4. Diacylglycerols,
5. SAteryl glucosides,
6. Long chain fatty alcohols
7. Aromatic compounds
8. Linoleic acid
9. Linolenic acid
10. Oleic acids
11. Lectin
12. Fructooligosaccharides

Health benefits
1. Banana and constipation
Constipation is a condition of frequent and hard to pass in bowel movement. According to right diagnosis, approximately 30 percent of US population are experience of gastrointestinal complaint every year. chronic constipation (CC) study in adult Moscow population in a 1189 randomly selected subjects, showed statistical significant of 34.3% subjects affected by the disease, 16.5% had CC according to Rome III criteria. Female have significantly higher rate of 2 symptoms of constipation(1). Fructooligosaccharides, a chemical compound found abundantly in banana, in a study by University of Murcia, showed to increase fecal bolus and the frequency of depositions, with a dose of 4-15 g/day given to healthy subjects will reduce constipation(2).  Unfortunately, its seeds may induce constipation,(3) especially when they are consume in empty stomach, according to 1SFE Medical Project, Luang Namtha(4).

References
(1) [Prevalence and risk factors of constipation in the adult population of Moscow (according to population-based study MUSA)].[Article in Russian] by Lazebnik LB, Prilepskaia SI, Baryshnikov EN, Parfenov AI, Kosacheva TN.(PubMed)
(2) Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health by Sabater-Molina M1, Larqué E, Torrella F, Zamora S.(PubMed)
(3) Intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoars of banana seeds: a case report by choeffl V1, Varatorn R, Blinnikov O, Vidamaly V.(PubMed)
(4) Bowel obstruction from wild bananas: a neglected health problem in Laos by Slesak G1, Mounlaphome K, Inthalad S, Phoutsavath O, Mayxay M, Newton PN.(PubMed)

2. Banana and bacterial activity
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises of the body's defense system against diseases. The immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. Beside foods and nutritional supplements, herbs also play a important role in helping the immune system defend against viruses and bacteria attacks.

According to  the National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, hot water banana peel extract may be effective as bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator, through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae in prawns study(1). The combination of saba (Banana)starch with L. plantarum CIF17AN2 showed a statistically significant in inhibition against Sal. Typhimurium SA2093 in the simulated colon model(2). The study of banana peel efficacy in biosurfactant-producing bacteria, showed the peel may be used to obtain crude biosurfactant fora broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity(3).

References
(1) Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii by Rattanavichai W1, Cheng W. (PubMed)
(2) Antagonistic mechanisms of synbiosis between Lactobacillus plantarum CIF17AN2 and green banana starch in the proximal colon model challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium by Uraipan S1, Brigidi P2, Hongpattarakere T3.(PubMed)
(3) Utilization of banana peel as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65 by Chooklin CS1, Maneerat S, Saimmai A.(PubMed)

3. Banana and Diabetes
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.
According to the University College of Medical Sciences, India, Musa sapientum Linn (banana), has been used in India for the treatment of gastric ulcer, hypertension, diarrhea, dysentery, and diabetes. In rat study, the stem of lyophilized stem juice of M. sapientum Linn., showed to exhibits antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects.(1). In support of the aboce, the Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering study, suggested that ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) exert an anti-diabetic effect by inhibition of α-glucosidases from the intestine, in turn suppressing the carbohydrate absorption into the bloodstream(2). According to the Central Food Technological Research Institute, banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem showed to induce symptoms of hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine sugar, and body weight in banana flower- and pseudostem-treated rats(3).

References
(1) Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of the stem of Musa sapientum Linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Dikshit P1, Shukla K, Tyagi MK, Garg P, Gambhir JK, Shukla R.(PubMed)
(2) Investigation of antihyperglycaemic activity of banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud rasa bale) pseudostem in normal and diabetic rats by Ramu R1, Shirahatti PS, Zameer F, Nagendra Prasad MN.(PubMed).
(3) Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Bhaskar JJ1, Shobha MS, Sambaiah K, Salimath PV.(PubMed)

4. Banana and antihyperlipidemic effects
Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood. The special particle called lipoprotein moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place. If you have too much low density lipoprotein LDL that is known as bad cholesterol, overtime cholesterol can build up in your arterial walls causing blockage and leading to heart attack and stroke.
The pulp of banana fruit (Musa sapientum L. var. Cavendishii) , including soluble and insoluble components of dietary fibre showed to exhibit anti hypocholesterolaemic effect with no affect the concentration of serum cholesterol(1). In support of the above, the University of Auckland study showed that resistant starch in Micronesian banana cultivars showed to have beneficial effects in disease prevention including modulation of glycaemic index diabetes, cholesterol lowering capability and weight management(2). Ethanol extract of mature green fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) (bananas and plantains), according to Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy contained ntioxidant and hypolipidaemic properties and may be used for treating diabetes mellitus(3).

References

(1) Hypocholesterolaemic effect of banana (Musa sapientum L. var. Cavendishii) pulp in the rat fed on a cholesterol-containing diet by Horigome T1, Sakaguchi E, Kishimoto C.(PubMed)
(2) Resistant starch in Micronesian banana cultivars offers health benefits by Thakorlal J1, Perera CO, Smith B, Englberger L, Lorens A.(PubMed)
(3) Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) in alloxan induced diabetic rats by Kaimal S1, Sujatha KS, George S.(PubMed)

5. Banana and gastric ulcer
Gastric ulcer, a type of peptic ulcer is defined as a condition of a localized tissue erosion in the lining the stomach.
Extract of Musa sapientum fruit (MSE) exhibit  antidiabetic and better ulcer healing effects ) in diabetic rat and could be more effective in diabetes with concurrent gastric ulcer, according to the Banaras Hindu University(1). The study of Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var. Paradisiaca (MSE, 100 mg/kg), showed to exert its ulcer protective through its predominant effect on mucosal glycoprotein, cell proliferation, free radicals and antioxidant systems(2). In Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers, active compound of Musa sapientum,  a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin) showed to promote anti-ulcerogenic activity(3).

References
(1) Healing effects of Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca in diabetic rats with co-occurring gastric ulcer: cytokines and growth factor by PCR amplification by Kumar M, Gautam MK, Singh A, Goel RK1.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of plantain banana on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, antioxidants and free radicals by Mohan Kumar M1, Joshi MC, Prabha T, Dorababu M, Goel RK.(PubMed)
(3) Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer. by Prabha P1, Karpagam T, Varalakshmi B, Packiavathy AS.(PubMed)


6. Banana and hypertension
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. High blood pressure means raising pressure in your heart.If it stays high over time it can damage the body in many ways.
Blood pressure medications have undoubtedly prevented many deaths from heart disease in the past 30 years, but they have many side effects such as damaging the kidney
Corosolic acid (CRA), a constituent of banaba leaves, according to the Mukogawa Women's University, showed to ameliorate hypertension, abnormal lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory state in a 14 weeks rat study(1). In healthy volunteers study, banana showed no significant changes in heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate but only significant decrease in plasma ACE activity. Banana treatment decreased the rise of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers subjected to cold stress test without much effect on heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate(2)

References
(1) Corosolic acid prevents oxidative stress, inflammation and hypertension in SHR/NDmcr-cp rats, a model of metabolic syndrome by Yamaguchi Y1, Yamada K, Yoshikawa N, Nakamura K, Haginaka J, Kunitomo M.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of banana on cold stress test & peak expiratory flow rate in healthy volunteers by Sarkar C1, Bairy KL, Rao NM, Udupa EG.(PubMed)


7.  Banana and diarrhea
Diarrhea is a condition of frequent  bowel movements with three loose or liquid each day. prolong period of diarrhea may result in dehydration due to fluid loss.
Banana flakes, according to the 1Pennsylvania Hospital, can be used as a safe, cost-effective treatment for diarrhea in critically ill tube-fed patients. Banana flakes can be given concurrently with a workup for C. difficile colitis, thereby expediting treatment of diarrhea.(1). Green banana or its chemical compound pectin in the study of Bangladeshi children showed to benefit in management of persistent diarrhea in hospitalized children and may also be useful to treat children at home(2). In support to the above, the Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, insisted that green plantain showed to be effective in dietary management of persistent diarrhea, in a prospective, in-hospital controlled trial, two different treatments were administered to a sample of 80 children of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 28 months(3).

References
(1) Banana flakes control diarrhea in enterally fed patients by Emery EA1, Ahmad S, Koethe JD, Skipper A, Perlmutter S, Paskin DL.(PubMed)
(2) Clinical studies in persistent diarrhea: dietary management with green banana or pectin in Bangladeshi children by Rabbani GH1, Teka T, Zaman B, Majid N, Khatun M, Fuchs GJ.(PubMed)
(3) Beneficial role of green plantain [Musa paradisiaca] in the management of persistent diarrhea: a prospective randomized trial by Alvarez-Acosta T1, León C, Acosta-González S, Parra-Soto H, Cluet-Rodriguez I, Rossell MR, Colina-Chourio JA.(PubMed)

8 .Banana and inflammation
9. Banana as antioxidants
BHT and water extracts of banana showed to exhibit its natural antioxidants  in preservation of raw poultry meat and meat products, according to Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology(1). In the comparison of 4 different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol antioxidant effect, researchers at the King Saud University, suggested that Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species(2).

References
(1) Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat by Devatkal SK, Kumboj R, Paul D.(PubMed)
(2) Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection by Karuppiah P1, Mustaffa M.(PubMed)


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Easy recpes

Raw food, volume 2, Healthy, delicios vegetarian cuisine made with living foods  vt Lisa Montgonery, editor, hatherleigh
1. Julie's White Carrot salad
Antanas Vainius
Prep. 10 minites
2 tbsp. tarragon, crushed
1 lime juice
Bunch baby white carrots, csliced
2/3 cup medium diakon, grated
3 tbsp.olive oil
Full spectrum salt to taste
Soak tarragon in lime juice for 5 minutes. Toss diakon and carrots and pour tarragon mixture on carrots/ diakon and olive oil, salt, toss and serve.
Serve on de-seeded tomatos weghes.

2. Carrot Lime salad
Colin Brett (Kimbertes whole foods, www.kimbertowholefoods.com)
Prep. 20 minutes
4 cups shredded carro
1/2 lime juice
1 large bunch cilantro, chopped
1/4 cup chopped basil
1/4 cup pine nuts
1/4 cup apricot, chopped
1 tsp. seasalt
Mix all ingredients in  MIXING BOWL. lET SIT FOR 1 HOUR AND ENJOY.

3. Avocado Mango Salad
Dereck Batnab
Prep. 15 minutes
2 ripe avocado, cubed
2 ripe mangosm cubed
2-3 cups broccoli, cut into bite size pieces
1/2 cup red onion, chopped
1.4 cup raisins
Himalayan salt and fresh groud peppers to taste

Combine all ingredients. Chill and serve.

4. Kale salad
Dr. Scott and Raechelle Walker
Prep. 15 minutes
16 ounces organic Tuscan kale, chopped
1 cup diced cucumber
1 cup diced red pepper
1 cup broccoli florets
1 tsp. cruched garlic
1 cup Bragg's liquid aminos
1/2 cup extra virgin olive oil
Toos ingredients together and enjoy.

5. Sweet cranberry Kale salad
Raw can Roll Cafe (www.rawcanrollcafe.com)
Prep. 15 minutes
1 bunch kale, deivined and chopped
4 ounces apple infused dried cranberries or plain dried cranberry
1/4 chopped small aple (with or without peel)
2 ounces walnus
2 tbsp. agave
1 tsp. orange juice
1tsp. fresh groung pepper
Himalayan pink salt
Combine ingredients together and toss, making sure it it thoroughly ciast with the salt and orange juice.

6. Italian Sea Palm and Cucumber salad
Larry Knowles (Rising tide sea vegetable)
Prep. 35 minutes
1/2 ounces soaked sea palm
1 carrot grated
1 tbsp. olive oil
1 tbsp. balsamic vinegar
1/2 green onion, sliced
1/2 cucumber, seeded and finely julienned
1/4 oregano, crushed
1 pinch celery seed ground
1 clove garlic, finely minced
Soak sea palm in 1 cup of water for 15 minutes and drain. Blot sea palm dry with a clean towel. Cut sea palm inti 1 inch piece. Stir ingredients together, salt to taste and enjoy.

7. Almond sea palm Waldori salad
Larry Knowles (rising Tide sea vegetable)
Prep. 35 minutes
1 cup soaked sea palm
2 cups apple, diced
1 cup celery, chopped
1 cup carrot grated
1 cup rasins
1/2 cup almonds, chopped
Unpasteurised mayonnaise (or olive oil, sunflower oil, lemon juice and salt)
Soak sea palm in 1 cup of water for 15 minutes and drain. Blot sea palm dry with a clean towel. Cut sea palm inti 1 inch piece. Stir ingredients together, add unpasteurized mayonnaise ((or olive oil, sunflower oil, lemon juice and salt) to taste.

8. Asparagus salad
Jeel Odher
Prep. 20 minutes
1 pound asparagus, chopped
1 red pepper, diced
1 yellow pepper, diced
1/2 parsley. chopped
3 scallions, choppped
Zest od 1 orange
1 orange juiced
1 lemon juiced
2 tbsp. cold pressed olive oil
seasalt to taste
Toss all ingredients together and let stand dor 1 hour. Lastr 2- 3 days when refrigerated.

9. Beet  and carrot salad
Cara Graver (the Cob studio, www.thecobstidio.com)
1 beet, scrubbed, unpeeled and grated
2 carrots, scrubbed, unpeeled and grated
Juice of one or more lemons
Combined shredded beet and carrots in a bowl and toss with juice of lemon.

9. Colorful Corn salad
Roger Haeska, Karymyn, Malone (www,howtogoraw.com, www. lightning speedfitness.com, and www. Karymunmalone.com)

4 ears sweet corn, cut off cob
1 cut premium tomato, diced
1/2 cup diced orange bell pepper
1/2 cup cilantro, chopped
1 scallion, finely chopped
1 tomatillo diced
1 tbsp. jalapeno pepper, minced
Juiced of lemon or lime
Mix all ingredients in a large bowl and enjoy.

10. Mexican corn salad
Joel Odhner
Prep. 20 - 30 minutes
2 cups of organic corn kernels
1 cup red pepper, chopped
1/4 cup scallion, chopped
1/4 cup fresh cilantro,finely chopped
2 tbsp. lemon juice
2 tbsp. cold-press extra virgin  olive oil
1/2 tsp. ground cumin
sea salt to taste

Combine all ingredients in a bowl, toss and eat.

11. Pad Thai salad
Kimberton whole foods, (www.kimbertonwholefoods.com)
Soak: nut, 8 hours
Prep. 25 Minutes
2 succhinis, slice into strips with a vegetable peeler
2 large handful of bean sprouts. approximately 2 cups
3/4 cup soaked nuts, chopped (use almonds, peanuts, or cashews)
1 red or yellow bell pepper, cliced into strips
4 green onions, diced
1/2 cup fresh chopped cilantro
Juice from 1 lime
1 tsp. raw, sold press extra virgin olive oil
1/4 tsp. sea salt
Toss all ingredients together in a bowl until well ciated. Add a dash more salt if desired and enjoy.

12. Seaweed salad
Cara Graver (The Cob studio, www.thecobstudio.com)
Prep. 10 minutes plus 15 minutes of soaking time)
1/4 cup arame, or hiziki sea vegetables
1 apple with skin on, seeded, shopped
1 avocado, masked
Juice of lemon
Soak seaweed vegetable in water for at least 15 minutes. Pouroff the water from the seaweed vegetable after they are finished hydrating. Combine sea vegetable, apple and avocado in mixing bowl. Pour juice of one lemon over the salad and toss untilthe salad is thoroughly coasted.


13. Tammu's Fruit salad
Tammy Jereme
Prep. 20 minues
1 personal size seeded watremelon
1 cantalogue
1 honeydrew melon
1 pound red grapes
1 (16 ounces) conyainer strwberries. cliced in quarters
1 (16 ounces) container blue berries
3 kiwis (fruit), to be used a garnish
Use a melon baller to cut the water melon and cantalouge. Combined all ingredients. Be sure to wash all fruit before handling and adding to your salad.

14. Pineapple Jicama salad
Prep. 11 minutes
1 cup pineapple. chunks
1 cup jicama, peeled and cubed
1 cup cucumber, cut into chunks
1/2 cut raw honey
2 tbsp. fresh mint, finely minced
Combined the above ingredietnsin a mixing bowl. Serve and eat.

15. Broccoli salad
15 minutes
4 cups broccoli. florets
1 garlic clove, minced
1 tsp. toasted sesame oil
1 tsp. wheat-free tamari
Pinch of sea salt
Combined ingredients in a bowl, and serve righaway. Alternatively, you can place the broccoli salad in a glass bowl and place in dehydrator at 105 degree F until dish is warm and the flavors meld.

16. Banana Pear Sunny Fruit Leather
Cara graver (The Cob Studio, www.thecobstudio.com)
Prep. 7 minutes
2 ripe banana, peeled
1 ripe bisc pear, cored and seeded
1/4 cup sinflower seeds, soaked
Puree the ingredients in a Vitamix high spped blender. Spreadon Teflex sheet,and dehyfrate over night.

17. Black eye Slaw
Dr, Scottand Reachekke Walker
1-2 cups blackeye peas, (soaked, sprouted, or canned)
1  cob corn kernels (removed from cob)
1 tsp. garlic, chopped
1-2 tomatos diced
1-2 jalapeno peppers
1 avocado, chunks
1/4 cup red onion
1 cup shredded cabbage and carrots
Sea salt to taste
Cilantro to taste
Combine all ingredients in a jarge bowl, toos and serve.

18. Guacamole with Kick!
Lany Wenke
Prep. 11 minutes
1 avocado
1/4 cup diced onions
1 tsp. garlic
1/4 cup diced tomatos
salt to taste
Pepper to taste
Peel the advocado and mash up into a dip-like consistency. Add garlic and salt and pepper, nix together. Add the onions and tomatos and mix. Enjoy.

19. Good faith Farm's Raw olive Tapenade
Jarea Hand man ( Good Faith farm's)
Prep. 25 minutes
1 1/2 cup raw Sevillano olives
3 tbsp. capers
1.2 tsp. fresh rosemary
1/2 tsp. fresh oregano
1 tsp. fresh Italian parsley
1 tsp. lemon zest
1/4 cup olive oil
Puree first 6 ingredients in food processor. Add oil and pulse a few time until oil in mix evenly.

20.Chutney
Wendy Landiak
Prep. 15 minutes
1 cup rasins
2 tbsp. raw vinegar (Bragg's)
2 tbsp. fresh cilantro
1 tbsp. fresh ginger
1/2 cup coconut
2 tsp. garam masala spices
Blend ingredients in a Vitamix blender. Add salt as desire. You can also add hot pepper if you wish. If mixture is to thick add water to thin.

21. Mango Chutney
Wendy Landiak
Prep. 20 minutes
3 cups mango
1 tbsp. vinegar
1 tbsp. lime juice and zest
1 tbsp. freshly grated ginger
1 tbsp. freshly grated tumeric
1 bunch cilantro, chopped
1 Italian Chili, chopped.
1/2 cup red bell pepper
A couple pinches of Himalayan sea salt
Blend ingrediets in a Vitamix blender. If you desire more sweetness, use 1/2 cupdates/rasins puree or 1/4 cup maple syrup.


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Monday, June 16, 2014

Herbal therapy - Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus)

Chaste tree berry is a species of Vitex agnus-castus, genus Vitex, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. It has been used in herbal medicine for thousands of year as anaphrodisiac herb and is considered as Queen herb in treating menstrual problems and discomforts by taking it in a prolonged period of time. There was report that reports chaste tree berry stems and leaves used by women as bedding "to cool the heat of lust" during the time of the Thesmophoria,

Chemical constituents
1.  β-citronellol
2. Labdane-type diterpenoids,
3. Halimane-type diterpenoid,
4. Oleanane-type triterpenoids,
5. Ursane-type triterpenoids,
6. Sesquiterpenoid,
7.  Flavonoid
8. Viteagnusins C, D, E, F, G, and H
9. Abietane-type diterpenoids

Health Benefits
1. Chaste tree berry and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Premenstrual syndrome effects over 70% to 90% of women in the US and less for women in Southeast Asia because of their difference in living style and social structure. It is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, it effects a women's physical and emotional state, and sometimes interferes with daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation. The syndrome occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted over 16 weeks on menopause-related symptoms with combination of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) and Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree/berry), showed a superior effect of the combination when compare to placebo in total PMS-like scores (p = 0.02), PMS-D (p = 0.006), and PMS-C clusters (p = 0.027).  significant reductions in the anxiety (p = 0.003) and hydration (p = 0.002) clusters and  suggested that the combination may be a  potentially significant clinical application for this phytotherapeutic combination in PMS-like symptoms among perimenopausal women(1). The  preliminary data of Technion-Israel Institute of Technology also support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS(2). In a 1634 patients suffering from premenstrual syndrome (PMS), to test fpr the effects of Vitex on psychic and somatic complaints, on the four characteristic PMS symptom complexes depression, anxiety, craving, and hyperhydration (DACH), and on single groups of symptoms, indicated that Vitex treatment period of three menstrual cycles 93% of patients reported a decrease in the number of symptoms or even cessation of PMS complaints(3).
References
(1) Effects of a combination of Hypericum perforatum and Vitex agnus-castus on PMS-like symptoms in late-perimenopausal women: findings from a subpopulation analysis by van Die MD1, Bone KM, Burger HG, Reece JE, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(2) [Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].[Article in Hebrew] by Ben-Arye E1, Oren A, Ben-Arie A.(PubMed)
(3) Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with a phytopharmaceutical formulation containing Vitex agnus castus by Loch EG1, Selle H, Boblitz N.(PubMed)


2. Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus) and leukaemia
Leukemia is defined as condition of abnormal increase of white blood cells produced by the bone marrow and/or the lymphatic system. Depending to the malignant granulocytes or lymphocytes, leukemia is classified into myelogenous or lymphoblastic leukemia.
Bone marrow is soft tissue inside the hollow center of major bone. including spine, pelvis, under arm, leg. etc.
Chaste tree berry may process an anti leukaemia effect. According to the Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Chaste tree berry extract inhibited HL60 liver cancer cell line through  Vitex induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability associated with induction of apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in a a dose- and time-dependent manner(1). Also on leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and U-937, extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex), inhibited both cell lines through its  cytotoxicity activity in dose depend manner(2).


References
(1) Involvement of histone H3 phosphorylation via the activation of p38 MAPK pathway and intracellular redox status in cytotoxicity of HL-60 cells induced by Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract by chi H1, Yuan B1, Yuhara E1, Imai M1, Furutani R1, Fukushima S1, Hazama S1, Hirobe C2, Ohyama K1, Takagi N3, Toyoda H1.(PubMed)
(2) Cytotoxicity of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract and its major component, casticin, correlates with differentiation status in leukemia cell lines by chi H1, Yuan B, Nishimura Y, Imai M, Furutani R, Kamoi S, Seno M, Fukushima S, Hazama S, Hirobe C, Ohyama K, Hu XM, Takagi N, Hirano T, Toyoda H.(PubMed)

3. Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus) and anticancer effects
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results may be in death.

In human uterine cervical canal fibroblast (HCF), human embryo fibroblast (HE-21), ovarian cancer (MCF-7), cervical carcinoma (SKG-3a), breast carcinoma (SKOV-3), gastric signet ring carcinoma (KATO-III), colon carcinoma (COLO 201), and small cell lung carcinoma (Lu-134-A-H) cells, crude extract prepared with ethanol from dried ripened Vitex agnus-castus fruits, inhibited SKOV-3, KATO-III, COLO 201, and Lu-134-A-H cell lines through  its cytotoxic activity and apoptosis(1).
In a human gastric signet ring carcinoma cell line, KATO-III, according to Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, ethanol extract of the dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) also displayed cytotoxic activity through intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane damage(2).  In prostate epithelial cell lines (BPH-1, LNCaP, PC-3), the Extracts of Vitex agnus-castus fruits (VACF), inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner(3).

References
(1) Cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducibility of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract in cultured human normal and cancer cells and effect on growth by Ohyama K1, Akaike T, Hirobe C, Yamakawa T.(PubMed)
(2) Human gastric signet ring carcinoma (KATO-III) cell apoptosis induced by Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract through intracellular oxidative stress by Ohyama K1, Akaike T, Imai M, Toyoda H, Hirobe C, Bessho T.(PubMed)
(3) A Vitex agnus-castus extract inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in prostate epithelial cell lines by Weisskopf M1, Schaffner W, Jundt G, Sulser T, Wyler S, Tullberg-Reinert H.(PubMed)

4. Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus) and Menopausal symptoms
Menopause is the defined as a condition in which a woman is in the transition stage of permanent cessation of the ovaries functions in egg production because of less production of estrogen and progesterone, signalling the end of the reproductive phrase a woman's life. In menopause, menstruation has become irregular and slowly stop overtime, but in some women, menstrual flow comes to a sudden halt.

 In a self-administered questionnaire, containing 15 questions, sent to all gynecologists in private practice in Germany to evaluate the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the treatment of climacteric disorders, 98% of the returnees are experience with therapies of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus) and St. John's wort(1). According to the 1Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, Bundoora, although evidence from rigorous randomized controlled trials is lacking for the individual herb emerging pharmacological evidence supports a role for V. agnus-castus in the alleviation of menopausal symptoms(2). Dr. Chopin Lucks B. in the trial of two essential oils (derived separately from leaf and fruit) of Vitex agnus castus indicated that both essential oil shows a strong symptomatic relief of common menopausal symptoms(3).
Unfortunately, according to the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Agnus castus showed no significant difference in the treatment of climacteric complaints(4) with  a combination of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) and Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste tree/berry) also showed the same(5).


References
(1) The value of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of climacteric symptoms: results of a survey among German gynecologists by von Studnitz FS1, Eulenburg C, Mueck AO, Buhling KJ.(PubMed)
(2) Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste-Tree/Berry) in the treatment of menopause-related complaints by van Die MD1, Burger HG, Teede HJ, Bone KM.(PubMed)
(3) Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: a research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery 8 (2003) 148-154] by Chopin Lucks B.(PubMed)
(4) Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa, Hypericum perforatum and Agnus castus in the treatment of climacteric complaints: a systematic review by Laakmann E1, Grajecki D, Doege K, zu Eulenburg C, Buhling KJ.(PubMed)
(5) Hypericum perforatum with Vitex agnus-castus in menopausal symptoms: a randomized, controlled trial by van Die MD1, Burger HG, Bone KM, Cohen MM, Teede HJ.(PubMed)

5. Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus) and Hyperprolactinaemia
Hyperproclinaemia is a condition with levels of prolactin in the blood that may disrupt the normal menstrual period in women.
Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste tree; chasteberry) has long been sued in herbal medicine for treatment, predominantly in wide range of female reproductive conditions. According to the 1Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology-University, Bundoora, there are some reports of the herb in reducing TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion, normalising a shortened luteal phase, increasing mid-luteal progesterone and 17β-oestradiol levels of which comparable to bromocriptine for reducing serum prolactin levels and ameliorating cyclic mastalgia(1). The study in monitoring the prolactin release 15 and 30 min after i.v. injection of 200 micrograms TRH. 37 complete case reports (placebo: n = 20, verum: n = 17) after 3 month of therapy, indicated that the herb did not change with the exception of 17 beta-estradiol which rouse up in the luteal phase in patients receiving verum with no adverse effect(2).

References
(1) Vitex agnus-castus extracts for female reproductive disorders: a systematic review of clinical trials by van Die MD1, Burger HG, Teede HJ, Bone KM.(PubMed)
(2) [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study].[Article in German] by Milewicz A1, Gejdel E, Sworen H, Sienkiewicz K, Jedrzejak J, Teucher T, Schmitz H.(PubMed)

6. Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus) and  Mastalgia
Mastalgia is a condition of breast tenderness and pain come and gone with monthly periods.
Vitex agnus castus (VACS) extract in treatment phase lasted 3 consequent menstrual cycles (2 x 30 drops/day = 1.8 ml of VASC) or placebo in a double-blind, placebo controlled in two parallel groups (each 50 patients), showed to inbibit cyclical breast pain in women(1).  In support to the view, the study of Gynecology: select topics, indicated that chaste tree may attenuate the symptoms of mastalgia(2) such as premenstrual mastodynia(Breast pain)(3).

References
(1) [Treatment of cyclical mastodynia using an extract of Vitex agnus castus: results of a double-blind comparison with a placebo].[Article in Czech by Halaska M1, Raus K, Bĕles P, Martan A, Paithner KG.(PubMed)
(2) Gynecology: select topics by Sidani M1, Campbell J.(PubMed)
(3) Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus)--pharmacology and clinical indications by Wuttke W1, Jarry H, Christoffel V, Spengler B, Seidlová-Wuttke D.(PubMed)


7. Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus) and Propionibacterium acnes
Propionibacterium acnes is a type of acne dur to infection of    aerotolerant anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium (rod) or as a result of chronic blepharitis and endophthalmitis.
Vitex agnus-castus has long been used for treatment of hormonally induced acne in herbal medicine(1) with mild or no adverse side effect(2). Vitex negundo, a five-leaved chaste tree extract, according to the study by the The Institute of Science, India,  showed a significant inhibition of lipase activity and number of P. acnes(1).

References
(1) The genus Vitex: A review by Rani A1, Sharma A2.(PubMed)
(2) Vitex agnus castus: a systematic review of adverse events by Daniele C1, Thompson Coon J, Pittler MH, Ernst E.(PubMed)
(3) Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes lipase by extracts of Indian medicinal plants by Patil V1, Bandivadekar A, Debjani D.(PubMed)



8. Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus) and oligomenorrhea and Amenorrhea
Oligomenorrhea is an irregular menstruation and defined as a condition of infrequent period or a woman menstrual period does not occur at a interval of greater than 35 days.
Amenorrhea is defined as a health condition of absence of period.
In a study of 37 women with oligomenorrhea and 30 women with amenorrhea received 50 drops of Phyto Hypophyson , a an Agnus castus-containing homeopathic preparation,  or placebo 3 times a day over 3 months or 3 cycles, conducted by Universitäts-Frauenklinik, suggested that women with sterility and oligomenorrhea, a treatment with Phyto Hypophyson L can be recommended over a period of 3-6 months(1). Dr. Veal L. suggested that Vitex agnus-castus, or a blend of essential oils designed to treat amenorrhoea or scanty/irregular periods(2).
References
(1) [The efficacy of the complex medication Phyto-Hypophyson L in female, hormone-related sterility. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical double-blind study].[Article in German] by Bergmann J1, Luft B, Boehmann S, Runnebaum B, Gerhard I.(PubMed)
(2) Complementary therapy and infertility: an Icelandic perspective by Veal L.(PubMed)

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Phytochemical therapy - Polysulfides

Polysulfides are phytochemicals in a class of chemical compounds containing chains of sulfur atoms, belonging to the group of Organosulfides found abundantly in ioxidized product, including beer, wine, whiskey, garlic oil, etc.
1. Phytochemical Polysulfides and colon cancer
Bowel cancer also known as colorectal cancer, is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the colon, rectum, or vermiform appendix. Bowl is divided in 2 parts, the first part of the bowel, the small bowl, is involved with the digestion and absorption of food. The 2nd part, the large bowel which consist the the colon and rectum, is involved in absorption of water from the small bowel contents and broken down of certain materials in the feces into substances of which some of them to be re absorbed and reused by the body. Bowel cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progress cancer and in predictable way.
Bowel cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including U>S and Canada.
According to the study of the University of the Saarland, coumarin polysulfides showed to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HCT116 colon cancer cells, through regulated the phosphatase activity of the cell cycle regulating cdc25(Cell division cycle 25, family of dual-specificity phosphatases) family members(1). Diallylsulfides, another family member of Garlic-derived organo sulphur compounds, also inhibited HCT116 human colon cancer cells, through reduced cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis(2) and colo 205 human colon cancer cells through affected resistant gene expression(3)

Reference
(1) Coumarin polysulfides inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HCT116 colon cancer cells by Saidu NE1, Valente S, Bana E, Kirsch G, Bagrel D, Montenarh M.(PubMed)
(2) Diallylpolysulfides induce growth arrest and apoptosis by Busch C1, Jacob C, Anwar A, Burkholz T, Aicha Ba L, Cerella C, Diederich M, Brandt W, Wessjohann L, Montenarh M.(PubMed)
(3). Diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide affect drug resistant gene expression in colo 205 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by Lai KC1, Kuo CL, Ho HC, Yang JS, Ma CY, Lu HF, Huang HY, Chueh FS, Yu CC, Chung JG.(PubMed)

2. . Phytochemical Polysulfides and breast cancer
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer started in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.
Eating garlic daily and regularly is associated to reduced risk of cancer due to its properties in stimulated cells arrest at G2/M phase, the cells with a sub-G1 DNA content, and the cells with caspase-3 activity(1). In sensitive (MCF-7) and resistant (Vcr-R) human breast carcinoma cells , Diallyl- and dipropyltetrasulfides showed to inhibit growth of both cancer cell lines, through cell cycle arrest associated to antiproliferative effect(2). The Alexandria University study also supported the role of diallyl trisulfide in inhibition of MCF-7 breast cancer but throught enhanced the expression levels of FAS and cyclin D1, but in contrast, downregulated the expression levels of Akt and Bcl-2(3).

References
(1) Anticancer effects of diallyl trisulfide derived from garlic by Seki T1, Hosono T, Hosono-Fukao T, Inada K, Tanaka R, Ogihara J, Ariga T.(PubMed)
(1) Antiproliferative effect of natural tetrasulfides in human breast cancer cells is mediated through the inhibition of the cell division cycle 25 phosphatases by Viry E1, Anwar A, Kirsch G, Jacob C, Diederich M, Bagrel D.(PubMed)
(2) Garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide induced apoptosis in MCF7 human breast cancer cells by Malki A1, El-Saadani M, Sultan AS.(PubMed)

3. Polysulfides and skin cancer
Skin cancer is a medical condition of uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells and often detected at an early stage.
In skin cancer progression, diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is more potent than mono- and disulfides against skin cancer, through inhibited cell growth of human melanoma A375 cells and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells by increasing the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage and by inducing G2/M arrest, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis(1). The study by the National Taiwan University, also showed that Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), extracted from crushed garlic, inhibited skin cancer cell growth through involved in G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis via activation of p53 pathway in response to the oxidative DNA damage(2). The Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, study also insisted that DAS protect against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin tumor formation through anti photocarcinogenesis effect accompanied by the down-regulation of cell-proliferative controls, involving thymine dimer, PCNA, apoptosis, transcription factors NF-κB, and of inflammatory responses involving COX-2, PGE2, and NO, and up-regulation of p53, p21/Cip1 to prevent DNA damage and facilitate DNA repair in hairless mice(3).

References

(1) Molecular mechanisms of garlic-derived allyl sulfides in the inhibition of skin cancer progression by Wang HC1, Pao J, Lin SY, Sheen LY.(PubMed)
(2) Allyl sulfides inhibit cell growth of skin cancer cells through induction of DNA damage mediated G2/M arrest and apoptosis By Wang HC1, Yang JH, Hsieh SC, Sheen LY.(PubMed)
(3) Diallyl sulfide protects against ultraviolet B-induced skin cancers in SKH-1 hairless mouse: analysis of early molecular events in carcinogenesis by Cherng JM1, Tsai KD, Perng DS, Wang JS, Wei CC, Lin JC.(PubMed)


4. Phytochemical Polysulfides and cardiovascular diseases
There are many causes of heart diseases. Most of heart diseases are caused by high blood pressure contributes to hardening of the arteries. High levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) build up in the arteries as a result of uncontrolled diet with high levels of saturated fat and trans fat. Beside cancer, heart disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday. Approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease.
Epidemiologic studies link intake of garlic in association to reduce risk as well as progression of cardiovascular disease(1).
According to the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, polysulfides from garlic are converted into hydrogen sulfide which has the unique property for relaxing vascular smooth muscle, inducing vasodilation of blood vessels, and significant reducing blood pressure(2), probably through its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects(3). The 1Semmelweis University Institute of Human Physiology and Clinical Experimental Research, suggested that H2S as a novel gasotransmitter in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, similarly to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), may be of value in cytoprotection during the evolution of myocardial infarction(4).


References
(1) Garlic and cardiovascular disease: a critical review by Rahman K1, Lowe GM.(PubMed)
(2) Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and cardiovascular diseases by Ginter E1, Simko V.(PubMed)
(3) Hydrogen sulfide-mediated cardioprotection: mechanisms and therapeutic potential by Lavu M1, Bhushan S, Lefer DJ.(PubMed)
(4) The cardioprotective potential of hydrogen sulfide in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (review) by Dongó E1, Hornyák I, Benko Z, Kiss L.(PubMed)


5. Polysulfides and antifungal activity
A range of sulfur-containing natural products showed to inhibit their antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and anticancer properties, through specific chemical properties which converge in chemotypes, including polysulfides(1).
Garlic extracts and individual components, i.e., allicin, ajoen, polysulfides, essential oil, showed  a significant antifungal activity, according to 1Katedra farmaceutické botaniky a ekologie Farmaceutické fakulty Univerzity Karlovy(2). Polysulfides, through its biological activity, showed effectively against candidosis in mice, according to the 1Pharmaceutical Research Laboratories III, Takeda Chemical Industries, Japan(3).

References
(1) A scent of therapy: pharmacological implications of natural products containing redox-active sulfur atoms by Jacob C.(PubMed)
(1) [Pharmaceutical significance of Allium sativum L. 4. Antifungal effects].[Article in Czech]by Sovová M1, Sova P.(PubMed)
(2) Optically active antifungal azoles. II. Synthesis and antifungal activity of polysulfide derivatives of (2R,3R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-mercapto-1-(1H- 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-butanol by Tasaka A1, Tamura N, Matsushita Y, Hayashi R, Okonogi K, Itoh K.(PubMed)

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Sunday, June 8, 2014

Weight loss in Vitamin D Points of view

 Kyle J. Norton (Draft article)

The prevalence of extreme overweight and obesity has caused concerns of scientific community in the South East Asian population, due unhealthy diet and life style change over 2 decades of economic prosperity. Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many Asian countries, affecting even younger age than in Western populations with economic burden in the development of  obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases(1).  One of six Malaysian are either extreme overweight or obese, according to Datin Paduka Santha Kumari, chairman of the Selangor branch of the Malaysian Diabetes Association and  according to global health observatory, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, and an estimated 35.8 million (2.3%) of global DALYs are caused by overweight or obesity, worldwide(2).
Epidemiological studies, linking herbal medicine, foods and vitamins in preventing and treating these diseases have been inconclusive(a)
Some researchers suggested that intake of certain herbal medicine may enhance appetite suppression. According to the Georgetown University Medical Center, average daily food intake was decreased only with the herbal formulation, not the phenylpropanolamine (PPA) at the low and high doses, in comparison of the effectiveness among herbal formulation and a commonly available(3). Other researchers insisted that using herbs and supplements to induce weight loss should be taken with care, as a  considerable number of reports have been published on hepatotoxicity associated with herbal products attributed with weight-reducing properties(4)(5)(6)(7). The College of Medicine, The Ohio State University insisted that various dietary, lifestyle, and psychologic factors are involved in the etiology of Prameha, particularly in relation to disturbances in fat and carbohydrate metabolism(8), without effective management, obtaining a workable weight loss plan may be extremely difficult.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroids found in small amount in few foods, including salmon, mackerel, sardines and tuna. The vitamin plays an important role in modulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, tumor growth suppression and promotion in absorption of minerals, including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.
The serum level of vitamin D
Low levels of micronutrients, including vitamin D are most common among overweight and obese children. According to the study, low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) levels not only is associated to insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases risks(9) but also  incidence of obesity(10).
The study of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese American Children also supported the link of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese American  childrenand suggested that testing for metabolic disorders and low vitamin D levels would be necessary to identify the early indication of NAFLD in childhood will allow for intervention with lifestyle modification, providing a means to reduce the prevalence of NAFLD in children and adults(11).
DR, Peterson CA,  and Dr. Belenchia AM. told PubMed "There is a well-established inverse relationship between vitamin D status and obesity; however, it is unknown as to whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to, or is a consequence of obesity"(12). Some researchers suggested that correction of poor vitamin D status through dietary supplementation may be an effective addition to the standard treatment of obesity and its associated insulin resistance(13) as vitamin D deficiency is accounted for the secular trends in the prevalence of obesity and for individual differences in its onset and severity(14).

Vitamin D and adiponectin
A suggestion of association of low levels of Vitamin D and adiponectin is associated to obesity instead of vitamin D itself(15).
Adiponectin is a  protein involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.
According to the study by the Università del Piemonte Orientale, in the confirmation Adiponectin tight association with obesity and diabetes mellitus, suggested that multimeric adiponectin may be a key plasma protein that links vitamin D deficiency to pediatric obesity(16).
In support the link between Vitamin D and adiponectin and obesity, the Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University study showed that circulating adiponectin appears to be inversely related to beta cell dysfunction in addition to insulin resistance only in obese women(17). Other in the study insisted that since low serum levels of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (DHCC) attenuates (monocyte chemotactic protein-1)MCP-1 and adiponectin production in human adipocytes, thereby reducing the expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors may explain the difficulties so far in determining the role of DHCC in insulin sensitivity and obesity in human(18).

Taken altogether, low serum levels of vitamin D and vitamin D deficiency are associated to increase risk of obesity and obese complications through involvement of vary mechanisms. Over doses of vitamin D supplement may cause excessive calcium absorption, calcification, Urinary stones etc. please make sure to follow the guideline of  the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

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References
(1) Rising Burden of Obesity in Asia by Ambady Ramachandran and Chamukuttan Snehalatha(Journey of Obesity)
(2) Obesity - Situation and trends(WHO)
(3) Influence of a combination of herbs on appetite suppression and weight loss in rats by Talpur NA1, Echard BW, Manohar V, Preuss HG.(PubMed)
(4) [Hepatotoxicity induced by herbs and medicines used to induce weight loss].[Article in Spanish]by Herrera S1, Bruguera M.(PubMed)
(5) A case report of adult lead toxicity following use of Ayurvedic herbal medication by Breeher L1, Gerr F, Fuortes L.(PubMed)
(6) [Chronic lead intoxication associated with Ayurvedic medication].[Article in Dutch] by Kanen BL1, Perenboom RM.(PubMed)
(7) Potential toxicity of caffeine when used as a dietary supplement for weight loss by Pendleton M1, Brown S, Thomas C, Odle B.(PubMed)
(8) Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial by Hackman RM1, Havel PJ, Schwartz HJ, Rutledge JC, Watnik MR, Noceti EM, Stohs SJ, Stern JS, Keen CL.(PubMed)
(9) The association of vitamin D status with cardiometabolic risk factors, obesity and puberty in children by Aypak C1, Türedi O, Yüce A.(PubMed)
(10) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) in obese adolescents by Garanty-Bogacka B1, Syrenicz M, Goral J, Krupa B, Syrenicz J, Walczak M, Syrenicz A.(PubMed)
(11) Prevalence and Correlates of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese American Children by Malespin M1, Sleesman B, Lau A, Wong SS, Cotler SJ.(PubMed)
(12) Vitamin D deficiency & childhood obesity: a tale of two epidemics by Peterson CA, Belenchia AM.(PubMed)
(13) Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial by Belenchia AM1, Tosh AK, Hillman LS, Peterson CA.(PubMed)
(14) Vitamin D deficiency is the cause of common obesity by Foss YJ.(PubMed)
(15) Cardiometabolic risk factors related to vitamin d and adiponectin in obese children and adolescents by Kardas F1, Kendirci M, Kurtoglu S.(PubMed)
(16) Pediatric obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a proteomic approach identifies multimeric adiponectin as a key link between these conditions by Walker GE1, Ricotti R2, Roccio M1, Moia S1, Bellone S2, Prodam F2, Bona G2.(PubMed)
(17) Differences in insulin sensitivity, pancreatic beta cell function and circulating adiponectin across glucose tolerance status in Thai obese and non-obese women by Chailurkit LO1, Chanprasertyothin S, Jongjaroenprasert W, Ongphiphadhanakul B.(PubMed)
(18) Differential effects of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on MCP-1 and adiponectin production in human white adipocytes by Lorente-Cebrián S1, Eriksson A, Dunlop T, Mejhert N, Dahlman I, Aström G, Sjölin E, Wåhlén K, Carlberg C, Laurencikiene J, Hedén P, Arner P, Rydén M.(PubMed)

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

The Science of Soy - The East Viewpoints: Part A4 Soy and Obeisty in Japanese

 By Kyle J. Norton (Draft Article)

Soy foods, including tofu have been in traditional Chinese diet over thousands of year, according to Chinese literature. The reduced risk of chronic disease, including metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes and lesser menopause symptoms in advanced age, may be aided by eating a lot of soy food accompanied with large portion of vegetables and fruits. Indeed, according to the study, only 10% of women in the East are experience symptoms of menopause in advanced age compared to over 70% of their Western counterparts.
According to Dr. Mark Messina, Ph.D., Soy foods contributed from 6.5%8  to 12.8%7  of total protein intake in older adult in Japan.(b)

The approval of cardiovascular benefit of soy by FDA in 1999 accompanied with the discovery of health benefits in clinical studies over past decade, prompted the promotion and advertisement of soy's health benefits in every aspect in Western society. Evidences could be seen by walking through the supermarkets and drug  stores.  Soy supplements and products such as tofu, soy milk, soy-based infant formula, and meatless “texturized vegetable protein” burgers were widely available. According to the United Soybean Board’s 2004–2005, 25% of Americans consume soy foods or beverages at least once per week, and 74% view soy products as healthy.

Today, the promotion of soy are no longer existed, it may be results of discovery of adverse effect in single ingredient and animal studies, as intake of soy is associated to induce risk certain mammary cancers and infertility. The publication of the result have drawn many criticisms. According to Thomas Badger, director and senior investigator at the Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Center in Little Rock, these effects are seen only under certain experimental conditions that are not likely to occur in humans—and therein lies the crux of the debate(a). Equol (4',7-isoflavandiol), an isoflavandiol metabolized from daidzein may be the causes, as 90% of Eastern population are equol producers but only 30% in the West.
The explanation of the positive effect of soy isoflavones in reduced risk of mammary cancers by  University of Goettingen may be interesting, as researchers said" Most importantly, there is dispute as to whether isoflavones derived from soy or red clover have negative, positive or any effect at all on the mammary gland or endometrium. It is beyond any doubt that soy products may have cancer preventing properties in a variety of organs including the mammary gland. However, these properties may only be exerted if the developing organ was under the influence of isoflavones during childhood and puberty.

Soybean is the genus Glycine, belonging to the family Fabaceae, one of the legumes that contains twice as much protein per acre as any other major vegetable or grain crop, native to Southeast Asia. Now, it is grown worldwide with suitable climate for commercial profits.
Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Essential amino acid
6. Vitamin A
7. Vitamin B6
8. Vitamin B12
9. Vitamin C
10. Vitamin K
11. Calcium
12. Iron
13. Magnesium
14. Phosphorus
15. Potassium
16. Sodium
17. Zinc
18. Etc.
Phytochemicals
1. Isoflavones
2. Genistein
3. Saponins
4. Beta-sitosterol
5. Daidzein

I. Soy in Eastern population
A. The Japanese population
Japan, an island nation in the Pacific Ocean, lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south(1). According to Moriyama, Japanese women and men live longer and healthier than everyone else on Earth, it may be result of  healthier Japanese diet and lifestyle. According to the World Health Organization, the Japanese have an average of 75 years healthy living with disability-free, it may be due to average soy intake 10 to 70 times higher than in Western people(1a)(1b).

A4. Soy and Obesity in Japanese 
Soy foods intake is well known for it estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity, but effects induced risk of obesity are inconclusive in the West(1)(2)(3).
It may be results of most Westerner are non equol producers(4)(5). Some researchers suggested that the prevalence of obesity in the West may be result of typical American diet with high in saturated and trans-fat and less in fruits and vegetables. Other blamed the epidemic obesity is a result of economic environment which make healthy foods more expensive than junk and suggested of taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier(8).  According to a report on NBC by Melissa Dhal, just 10.8 percent of Asians in America are considered obese, a slim percentage when compared with the 33 percent of whites, 42 percent of Hispanics and 48 percent of blacks with a BMI of 30 or higher(7).
In fact, the traditional Japanese diet with high amount of soy products are associated to a lower BMI in adulthood(9).

According to the Dr. Ma J and the research team,  the early exposure to a high-fat diet diminished the abundance of non-pathogenic Campylobacter in the juvenile gut of that may enhance the risk of obesity(10). In fact, DR. Sakata T. said that a very-low-calorie conventional Japanese diet of 370 kcal/day has been shown to be useful for weight reduction and its long-term maintenance(11). and dietary content and food patterns used in management among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes are quite close to those reported as suitable for prevention of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and total mortality in Europe and America, according to the study of 1,516 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40-70 years from outpatient clinics in 59 university and general hospitals(12).

In fact, comparison of diet habit of the West and  Japanese working women, the proportion of eating problems is low in comparison with Western adult populations(15).

Study of Occupational Class Differences in Body Mass Index and Weight Gain in Japan and Finland may provide us with interesting result "BMI was higher at baseline and BMI gain was more rapid in Finland than in Japan, it may be results of clear socioeconomic gradients in obesity in Finland compared to Japanese environment is less obesogenic than the Finnish environment, or factors such as easy access to fast-food restaurants and limited possibilities for physical exercise are suggested characteristics of an obesogenic environment or due to the Japanese diet has traditionally been very healthy, with high consumption of vegetables, soy protein, and fish, with the general nutritional status of the Japanese population is still healthier than that in many Western countries" (13).

Unfortunately, Due to influence of the West, many Japanese have abandoned the traditional Japanese diet but opted for quick, high fat diet with a lots of junk foods. According to the Kagawa Nutrition University, Japanese traditional and Western, were all independently and significantly related to the risk of obesity even among a relatively lean young Japanese female population(14).
Other study suggested that adapting maternal Western-style diet consumption  may lead to increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the offspring(16), and Western diet increased risk for atherosclerosis and promoted the progression of preclinical atherosclerosis, in correspondence with the extent of westernization(17). As undergoing rapid "Westernization," , change in Japanese dietary patterns continued, with high intake of butter & margarine, cheese, bread and ham & sausage, etc.(18), the Westernized chronic illness may rise to a level currently found in the "Western" countries in the coming few decades, including diverticular disease, mammary cancers(19)(20).

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References
(1) Genistein exposure during the early postnatal period favors the development of obesity in female, but not male rats by Strakovsky RS1, Lezmi S, Flaws JA, Schantz SL, Pan YX, Helferich WG.(PubMed)
(2) Arginine, soy isoflavone and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose have protective effects against obesity in broiler breeder hens fed on high-energy diets by Khalaji S1, Zaghari M, Ganjkhanloo M, Ghaziani F.(PubMed)
(3) Effects of voluntary running and soy supplementation on diet-induced metabolic disturbance and inflammation in mice by Yan L1, Graef GL, Claycombe KJ, Johnson LK.(PubMed)
(4) Effects of natural S-equol supplements on overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome in the Japanese, based on sex and equol status by Usui T1, Tochiya M, Sasaki Y, Muranaka K, Yamakage H, Himeno A, Shimatsu A, Inaguma A, Ueno T, Uchiyama S, Satoh-Asahara N.(PubMed)
(5) Obesity prevalence in relation to gut microbial environments capable of producing equol or O-desmethylangolensin from the isoflavone daidzein by Frankenfeld CL1, Atkinson C2, Wähälä K3, Lampe JW4.(PubMed)
(6) Family-focused physical activity, diet and obesity interventions in African-American girls: a systematic review by Barr-Anderson DJ1, Adams-Wynn AW, DiSantis KI, Kumanyika S.(PubMed)
(7). What's actually behind the low Asian-American obesity rate? by Melissa Dahl
(8) Obesity and economic environments by Sturm R1, An R.(PubMed)
(9) Soy intake is related to a lower body mass index in adult women by Maskarinec G1, Aylward AG, Erber E, Takata Y, Kolonel LN.(PubMed)
(10) High-fat maternal diet during pregnancy persistently alters the offspring microbiome in a primate model by Ma J1, Prince AL2, Bader D3, Hu M4, Ganu R4, Baquero K5, Blundell P5, Alan Harris R6, Frias AE5, Grove KL5, Aagaard KM(PubMed)
(11) A very-low-calorie conventional Japanese diet: its implications for prevention of obesity by Sakata T.(PubMed)
(12) Dietary intake in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: Analysis from Japan Diabetes Complications Study by Horikawa C1, Yoshimura Y2, Kamada C2, Tanaka S3, Tanaka S4, Takahashi A5, Hanyu O6, Araki A7, Ito H7, Tanaka A8, Ohashi Y5, Akanuma Y9, Yamada N10, Sone H6.(PubMed)

(13) ccupational Class Differences in Body Mass Index and Weight Gain in Japan and Finland
Karri Silventoinen,1 Takashi Tatsuse,2 Pekka Martikainen,1 Ossi Rahkonen,3 Eero Lahelma,3 Michikazu Sekine,2 and Tea Lallukka3,4by PubMed)
(14) Three major dietary patterns are all independently related to the risk of obesity among 3760 Japanese women aged 18-20 years by Okubo H1, Sasaki S, Murakami K, Kim MK, Takahashi Y, Hosoi Y, Itabashi M; Freshmen in Dietetic Courses Study II group.(PubMed)
(15) Eating problems and related weight control behaviour in adult Japanese women by Nakamura K1, Hoshino Y, Watanabe A, Honda K, Niwa S, Yamamoto M.(PubMed)
(16) Consumption of a Western-style diet during pregnancy impairs offspring islet vascularization in a Japanese Macaque model by Pound LD1, Comstock SM2, Grove KL2.(PubMed)
(17) Influence of the extent of westernization of lifestyle on the progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in Japanese subjects by Egusa G1, Watanabe H, Ohshita K, Fujikawa R, Yamane K, Okubo M, Kohno N.(PubMed)
(18) Dietary factors related to higher plasma fibrinogen levels of Japanese-americans in hawaii compared with Japanese in Japan by Miura K1, Nakagawa H, Ueshima H, Okayama A, Saitoh S, Curb JD, Rodriguez BL, Sakata K, Okuda N, Yoshita K, Stamler J; INTERMAP Research Group; INTERLIPID Research Group.(PubMed)

(19) Changes in dietary fiber intake among Japanese in the 20th century: a relationship to the prevalence of diverticular disease by Ohi G, Minowa K, Oyama T, Nagahashi M, Yamazaki N, Yamamoto S, Nagasako K, Hayakawa K, Kimura K, Mori B.(PubMed).
(20) Relationship between westernization of dietary habits and mortality from breast and ovarian cancers in Japan. Kato I, Tominaga S, Kuroishi T.(PubMed)