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Monday, October 31, 2016

General Health: Eating Disorders - Bulimia nervosa - The Antioxidants

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                               Eating disorders

Eating Disorders are defined as a group of abnormal eating habits associated to a person preoccupation weight, involving either insufficient or excessive food intake.

                                Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is defined as a medical condition of consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time or one setting (binge eating), followed by self induced vomiting, taking a laxative or diuretic and/or excessive exercise, etc. to compensate for the binge. Bulimia nervosa also effects almost 90% of female. Unlike anorexia nervosa, people suffering from bulimia nervosa are usually normal or slightly over weight.

                    The  Antioxidants 

Please read Antioxidant to prevent anorexia nervosa
http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/2013/12/anorexia-nervosa-antioxidants.html

Friday, October 28, 2016

General Health: Eating Disorders - Bulimia nervosa - The Diet and nutritional supplements

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                               Eating disorders

Eating Disorders are defined as a group of abnormal eating habits associated to a person preoccupation weight, involving either insufficient or excessive food intake.

                                Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is defined as a medical condition of consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time or one setting (binge eating), followed by self induced vomiting, taking a laxative or diuretic and/or excessive exercise, etc. to compensate for the binge. Bulimia nervosa also effects almost 90% of female. Unlike anorexia nervosa, people suffering from bulimia nervosa are usually normal or slightly over weight.

                    The Diet and nutritional supplements

The aim of the diet and nutritional supplements is to provide enough nutrients as for people with anorexia nervosa are more likely to have vitamin and mineral deficiencies which can lead to certain symptoms of the diseases.
1. Caffeine
Caffeine intake increased over time between ages 9 and 19 years across all groups and this trend was not moderated by diagnostic status. For anorexia nervosa, relative to the non-eating disorder group, the proportional intake ofcaffeine from soda increased significantly before onset to onset to after onset and ingestion of chocolate-containing foods decreased sharply over time(42).

2. Alcohol
While the rate of anorexia was not elevated in alcoholics after controlling for other disorders, bulimia did occur at a greater than expected rate. However, both eating disorders were relatively rare, and much of the association with alcoholism occurred in the context of additional preexisting or secondary psychiatric disorders(43).

3. Tobacco
Although malnutrition may be expected to reduce DNA methylation through its effects on one-carbon metabolism, our negative results are in line with several in vitro and clinical studies that did not show a direct relation between gene-specific DNA methylation and folate levels. In contrast, smoking has been repeatedly reported to alter DNA methylation of specific genes and should be controlled for in future epigenetic studies(44)
.
4. Drink 6 - 8 glasses of filtered water daily as water can decrease the risk of dehydration.
Caffeine, water, and aspartame consumption can be variable in patients with AN and the consumption of these substances seems to be only modestly related to purging behavior(45).

5. Promote healthy diet for maximum nutrients absorption.
6. The important of nutritional supplements
Some researchers suggested that conservation mechanisms resulting from starvation and/or self-prescribed nutrient supplements can result in laboratory values that appear within normal limits. These artificially inflated values drop to dangerous levels in some patients once rehydration and refeeding begin. Electrolyte status must be closely monitored during this time to prevent complications. Other micronutrient deficiencies can be corrected with adequatedietary intake, but patients with eating disorders are unlikely to consume such an adequate diet immediately upon entering treatment, so they may benefit from supplementation. Depleted nutrient stores require longer supplementation than acute inadequacies in nutrient intake. This review compiles the findings reported to date regarding micronutrient deficiencies and supplementation for patients withanorexia and bulimia. Because of the widely varying eating practices from patient to patient and the current lack of data controlling for nutrient self-supplementation, nutrition assessment performed by a nutrition professional via food intake history may be more practical than laboratory tests and more accurate than current food intake for determining potential micronutrient deficiencies(46).
a.. In the study of 20 female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in 10 lean and 10 normal weight, healthy, female control subjects. Patients with AN hadhigher activities of L-gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and a higher concentration of prealbumin in serum and lower leucocyte and lymphocyte counts in blood. For the other routine clinical chemical parameters no significant differences between the groups were observed. AN patients had higher serum vitamin B12 and retinol levels. No significant differences were found for the status parameters of thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folate, vitamin E and vitamin D. Contradictory results were obtained for the riboflavin status: AN patients had a lower level of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in blood and a lower stimulation ratio of the glutathione reductase activity in erythrocytes (alpha-EGR). Patients with AN had higher serum ferritin concentration and lower total iron binding capacity (TIBC). However, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht) and iron saturation were not significantly different. No significant difference was found in the concentration of zinc in plasma. In spite of the poor intake of nutrients and energy, the results obtained did not indicate an inadequate status of vitamins, iron and zinc in patients with AN(47).

b. Other study of trace metals, vitamins, and other biochemical parameters in 30 female patients hospitalized for anorexia nervosa, showed that Anorexia nervosapatients showed hypogeusia, with the bitter and sour taste most severely affected, however plasma zinc levels did not correlate with taste recognition scores. Patients showed hypercarotenemia (214 +/- 129 microgram/100 ml; P < 0.01) with normal plasma vitamin A and retinol-binding protein levels. Total iron binding capacity was depressed (261 +/- 62 microgram/100 ml; P < 0.001) in contrast to plasma iron, ceruloplasmin and folic acid, which were normal. In nine patients, who were retested before discharge, taste function improved; plasma zinc, copper, and total iron binding capacity levels increased whereas plasma carotene and cholesterol decreased to normal levels. It is concluded that the observed zinc, copper, and iron binding protein deficiencies, and hypogeusia, reflect the self-imposed nutritional restriction of anorexia nervosa patients. Zinc and other micronutrients released from catabolized tissue along with vitamin intake may mitigate against more severe deficiency states in anorexia nervosa(48).
A daily multivitamin is an essential, as it contain numbers of vitamins and trace minerals such as vitamins A, C, E, the B-vitamins, magnesium, calcium, zinc, phosphorus, copper, and selenium which are essential for the body needed. Other supplement include Omega-3 fatty acids, Coenzyme Q10, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), Creatine, Probiotic supplement, etc.

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Sources
(42) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22133028
(43) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20512042
(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20441789
(45) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15101068
(46) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20515207
(47) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19501787
(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21198236

General Health: Eating Disorders - Bulimia nervosa - The Do's and Do not's list

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                               Eating disorders

Eating Disorders are defined as a group of abnormal eating habits associated to a person preoccupation weight, involving either insufficient or excessive food intake.

                                Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is defined as a medical condition of consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time or one setting (binge eating), followed by self induced vomiting, taking a laxative or diuretic and/or excessive exercise, etc. to compensate for the binge. Bulimia nervosa also effects almost 90% of female. Unlike anorexia nervosa, people suffering from bulimia nervosa are usually normal or slightly over weight.

                     The Do's and Do not's list

A.1. Primary prevention
Dt. Michael Sidiropoulos in the article of Anorexia Nervosa: The physiological consequences of starvation and the need for primary prevention efforts indicated that there are numerous actions that the physician, along with the family, allied health care workers and/or through a broader public health initiative can accomplish in this particular case that will have longstanding implications on the patient's future development and growth and will increase the likelihood of healthy outcomes through primary
prevention(37).
1. Minimizing social pressures
In the study to evaluation the Sociological factors in the development of eating disorders, Dr Nagel KL, andand Dr. Jones KH. at the University of Georgia indicated that professionals in the educational and physical and mental health care fields need to be aware of the influence of social pressures on teenagers' perceptions of body image and appearance. This article reviews the sociocultural, socioeconomic, and sex-related factors which contribute to the development of eating disorders. It is recommended that professionals help adolescents resist societal pressure to conform to unrealistic standards of appearance, and provide guidance on nutrition, realistic body ideals, and achievement of self-esteem, self-efficacy, interpersonal relations and coping skills(38).

2. Minimizing family issues
Dr. Yager J. in the study of the family issues in the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa, suggested that factors residing in family systems have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa. In this paper I critically review literature that bears on this issue: the transmission of anorexia nervosa in families; familystress patterns, personality and psychopathological characteristics of parents, parent-child interactions, and whole family systems. Much additional research is needed to accurately determine the precise nature of such factors and the extent to which they actually contribute to the appearance of this syndrome(39).

3. Reducing individual factors
In the study to examine which unique factors (genetic and environmental) increase the risk for developing anorexia nervosa by using a case-control design of discordant sister pairs, Dr. Karwautz A, and the research team at University of London, suggested that he sisters with anorexia nervosa differed from their healthy sisters in terms of personal vulnerability traits and exposure to high parental expectations and sexual abuse. Factors within the dieting risk domain did not differ. However, there was evidence of poor feeding in childhood. No difference in the distribution of genotypes or alleles of the DRD4, COMT, the 5HT2A and 5HT2C receptor genes was detected. These results are preliminary because our calculations indicate that there is insufficient power to detect the expected effect on risk with this sample size(40).

A.2. Secondary prevention
Secondary prevention focuses early detection and intervention as early detection is often difficult as individuals with eating problems often attempt to conceal their behavior. People such as Parents, peers and siblings, teacher and family doctor are in good position to detect changing attitudes around food,weight, and shape for detecting eating disorder early for effective treatment(41).

Thursday, October 27, 2016

General Health: Eating Disorders - Bulimia nervosa - The Diagnosis

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                               Eating disorders

Eating Disorders are defined as a group of abnormal eating habits associated to a person preoccupation weight, involving either insufficient or excessive food intake.

                                Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is defined as a medical condition of consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time or one setting (binge eating), followed by self induced vomiting, taking a laxative or diuretic and/or excessive exercise, etc. to compensate for the binge. Bulimia nervosa also effects almost 90% of female. Unlike anorexia nervosa, people suffering from bulimia nervosa are usually normal or slightly over weight.

                    The Diagnosis



Diagnosis of bulimia nervosa is difficult, as people with Bulimia vervosa are very good in hiding the health problems and related symptoms, but certain signs of a person can be helpful.
A. Criteria
Based on the results of the clinical follow-up study of 41 female patients, diagnostic criteria of bulimia nervosa that should be used in clinical studies are suggested as follows:
(1) presence of anorexia nervosa or transitory amenorrhea in the premorbid period;
(2) eating attacks with losing of the control over food consumption not less than twice a week during 3 months;
(3) compensatory behavior in the form of spontaneous vomiting, abuse of purgative and diuretic medications etc;
(4) fear of obesity;
(5) cycloid affective changes with higher impulsivity, reduction of the control over primitive drives and/or expressed anxiety disorders; inclination to alcohol and drug abuse and nicotine dependence;
(6) changes of the body mass index;
(7) absence of amenorrhea. The disease dynamics is characterized by formation of the pathological cycle "diet--overeating--compensatory behavior" on the background of cyclothymic affective disorders. Two types of bulimia nervosa--with and without other drive disorders--have been singled out(25).

Others suggested that A diagnosis of bulimia nervosa is made when a person has recurrent episodes of binge eating, a feeling of lack of control over behavior during binges, regular use of self-induced vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, strict dieting, or vigorous exercise to prevent weight gain, a minimum of 2 binge episodes a week for at least 3 months, and persistent overconcern with body shape and weight. Patients with eating disorders are usually secretive and often come to the attention of physicians only at the insistence of others(25a).

B. Blood, urine tests and X ray
After taking the complex physical exam, including detail of absence of period and the examination the symptoms of Bulimia nervosa, Blood and urine tests may be ordered
a. Blood tests
The aim of the Blood tests are to check for signs of malnutrition, including levels of potassium levels and electrolyte imbalances.
b. Urine steroids
The increased level of the stress marker allo-tetrahydrocorticosterone refers to the involvement of stress in these diseases, but the relevance of hormone alteration to the pathophysiology of eating disorders remains to be elucidated(26)
c. X ray
The aim of the X ray to check for broken bones, pneumonia. In some cases, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry may be necessary to test for the presented osteopenia and osteoporosis(27)
d. Etc.

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Sources
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16841479
(25a)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1475950
(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15560936
(27) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22137016


Wednesday, October 26, 2016

General Health: Eating Disorders - Bulimia nervosa - The Affects and Consequences

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                               Eating disorders

Eating Disorders are defined as a group of abnormal eating habits associated to a person preoccupation weight, involving either insufficient or excessive food intake.

                                Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is defined as a medical condition of consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time or one setting (binge eating), followed by self induced vomiting, taking a laxative or diuretic and/or excessive exercise, etc. to compensate for the binge. Bulimia nervosa also effects almost 90% of female. Unlike anorexia nervosa, people suffering from bulimia nervosa are usually normal or slightly over weight.

                    The Affects and Consequences

A. Psychological effects
1. Mood disorders and suicidality
Onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) typically occurs in adolescence and is frequently accompanied by medical and psychiatric sequelae that may have detrimental effects on adolescent development. Potentially serious medical consequences and high comorbid rates of mood disorders and suicidality underscore the need for early recognition and effective treatments(14)

2. Substance abuse
In the study to examine the significance of a past history of substance abuse on treatment outcome for bulimia nervosa, showed that Although patients with a history of substance abuse reported higher levels of anxiety and depression at presentation for treatment than patients without such histories, the two groups reported a similar age of onset of their bulimia nervosa and similar severity of eating pathology with regards to binge and vomit frequencies and measures of concern about body shape and weight. On all outcome measures, the improvement of the substance abuse group was equal to or greater than that in the group without a history of substance abuse(15).

3. Etc.

A.2. Physical consequences
1. Acute gastric dilation
There are a report of a case of a young woman with bulimia nervosa who developed acute gastric dilation that was diagnosed by computerized tomography. The patient had no history of factors associated with delayed gastric emptying. The treatment course is reviewed, as is the pathophysiology of acute gastric dilation(16).


2. Electrolyte imbalances
Dr. Olson AF., in the study of Outpatient management of electrolyte imbalancesassociated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, said "Bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are eating disorders with significant morbidity that often go undetected. Nurses and primary care providers are encouraged to recognize the early signs and symptoms of these disorders and to intervene appropriately. Several case reports in this article describe patients with these disorders and various related electrolyte abnormalities. Understanding electrolyte imbalancesassociated with both disorders may lead to earlier effective intervention and overall improved health outcomes"(17).

2. Arrhythmias
In the examination of signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG). on 48 female ED patients [21 with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 27 with bulimia nervosa (BN)] and on 20 healthy women. An LP was judged positive if two or more of the following criteria were fulfilled: QRS duration >120 ms, root-mean-square voltage <20 microV, and a high-frequency, low-amplitude duration >38 ms. that indicated BN patients with a history of AN had significantly more SAECG abnormalities(18).


3. Oesophageal and gastric motor activity
In the study of esophageal and gastric motor activity in patients with bulimia nervosa, found that (i) bulimic behaviour can obscure symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders and (ii) gastric emptying is frequently delayed in bulimia nervosa(19).

4. Pancreatitis
There is a report of a 19-year-old woman with bulimia nervosa who died of acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis. The symptoms of both conditions are very similar, the pre-existence of an eating disorder should not distract physicians from the possibility that potentially lethal acute pancreatitis may coexist(20).

5. Absence of period
Some researchers suggested that amenorrhea is one of diagnostic criteria ofbulimia nervosa(21)

6. Visceral fat and increased adrenal gland volumes (AGV)
BN patients had significantly more visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (HC, 1589.3 +/- 967.6 ml versus 927.2 +/- 428.4 ml, p < .05) and an increased relative AGV (0.068% of body volume versus 0.048% of body volume, p < .05) compared with HC, although waist circumference and BMI did not differ. Although the VAT part in the upper abdomen was increased, especially the VAT of lower abdomen along with the pelvis or any subcutaneous fat compartment was not increased(22).

7. Sleep disturbance
Sleep disturbances are highly associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), buLimia nervosa (BN) and non-specified eating disorders (ED-NOS)(23)

8. Other physical effects
Dt, Mitchell JE and Crow S. at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and the Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, in the study of Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, showed that the frequently cited risk of premature death in those with anorexia nervosa. A plethora of dermatologic changes have been described, some signaling serious underlyingpathophysiology, such as purpura, which indicates a bleeding diathesis. Much of the literature continues to delineate the fact that diabetic patients with eating disorders are at high risk of developing diabetic complications.Gastrointestinal complications can be serious, including gastric dilatation andsevere liver dysfunction. Acrocyanosis is common, and patients with anorexianervosa are at risk of various arrhythmias. Low-weight patients are at high risk forosteopenia/osteoporosis. Nutritional abnormalities are also common, includingsodium depletion and hypovolemia, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia. Resting energy expenditure, although very low in low-weight patients, increases dramatically early in refeeding(24).

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Sources
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614677
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1502972
(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17950174
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15785332
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16380317
(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2323585
(20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15282695
(21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16841479
(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19124623
(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19630364
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16721178

Tuesday, October 25, 2016

General Health: Eating Disorders - Bulimia nervosa - The Causes and risk factors

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                               Eating disorders

Eating Disorders are defined as a group of abnormal eating habits associated to a person preoccupation weight, involving either insufficient or excessive food intake.

                                Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is defined as a medical condition of consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time or one setting (binge eating), followed by self induced vomiting, taking a laxative or diuretic and/or excessive exercise, etc. to compensate for the binge. Bulimia nervosa also effects almost 90% of female. Unlike anorexia nervosa, people suffering from bulimia nervosa are usually normal or slightly over weight.

                    The Causes and risk factors

A. Causes
The causes of bulimia vervosa is unknown but in the study to examine the beliefs of women concerning causes and risk factors for eating-disordered behaviour, showed that having low self-esteem' was considered very likely to be a cause of BN by 75.0% of respondents, and the most likely cause by 40.5% of respondents. Other factors perceived as significant were 'problems from childhood', 'portrayal of women in the media', 'being overweight as a child or adolescent' and 'day-to-day problems', while genetic factors and pre-existing psychological problems were perceived to be of minor significance. Most respondents believed that women aged under 25 years were at greatest risk of having or developing BN(9).

B. Risk factors
1. Gender
It you are female, you are at 90% higher risk to develop bulimia nervosa.
2. Age
In both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, age at onset showed a significant decrease according to year of birth(10)
3. Social pressure
The fear of become fat due to wrongly influent in the western society where attractiveness is equal to thinness
4. Family history
If one the member of your direct family has bulimia nervosa, you are at increased risk to have that disease as well.
5. Migraine
Dr. D'Andrea G, and the research team at the Biochemistry Laboratory for the Study of Primary Headaches and Neurological Diseases, Research and Innovation S.p.A suggest that migraine may constitute a risk factor for the occurrence of ED in young females. This hypothesis is supported by the onset of migraine attacks that initiated, in the majority of the patients, before the occurrence of EDsymptoms, in the study of Is migraine a risk factor for the occurrence of eating disorders? Prevalence and biochemical evidences(11).

6. Obstetric complications
Researchers found that several complications, such as maternal anemia (P = .03), diabetes mellitus (P = .04), preeclampsia (P = .02), placental infarction (P = .001), neonatal cardiac problems (P = .007), and hyporeactivity (P = .03), were significant independent predictors of the development of anorexia nervosa. Therisk of developing anorexia nervosa increased with the total number of obstetric complications, the obstetric complications significantly associated withbulimia nervosa were the following: placental infarction (P = .10), neonatal hyporeactivity (P = .005), early eating difficulties (P = .02), and a low birth weight for gestational age (P = .009). Being shorter for gestational age significantly differentiated subjects with bulimia nervosa from both those with anorexia nervosa (P = .04) and control subjects (P = .05)(12).

7. DRD4 gene
Although there is no evidence of the direct association between DRD4 gene andbulimia nervosa, researchers suggested that its variants are associated with a history of childhood ADHD in BN probands. This may have relevance for the understanding, prevention, and treatment of BN that evolves in the context of childhood ADHD(12a).

8. Other risk factors includes
Low self-esteem', 'problems from childhood', 'portrayal of women in the media', 'being overweight as a child or adolescent' and 'day-to-day problems', while genetic factors and pre-existing psychological problems(13)

9. Etc.

Pregnancy Miracle
Reverse Infertility And Get Pregnant Naturally
Using Holistic Ancient Chinese Medicine

Sources
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15209840
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20141711
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22644175
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16389201
(12a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22271608
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15209840

Sunday, October 23, 2016

General Health: Eating Disorders - Bulimia nervosa - The Symptoms and Signs

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                               Eating disorders

Eating Disorders are defined as a group of abnormal eating habits associated to a person preoccupation weight, involving either insufficient or excessive food intake.

                                Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is defined as a medical condition of consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time or one setting (binge eating), followed by self induced vomiting, taking a laxative or diuretic and/or excessive exercise, etc. to compensate for the binge. Bulimia nervosa also effects almost 90% of female. Unlike anorexia nervosa, people suffering from bulimia nervosa are usually normal or slightly over weight.

                    Symptoms and Signs



A. Symptoms
A.1. Binge Eating Symptoms
1. Eating and impulsive behavioral symptoms
In the study of the implications of impulsivity in its relationship with binge-eating or purging behaviors, with all participants (n=180) asked to complete a series of self-reported inventories of impulsive behaviors and other psychological measures. Dr. Tseng MC and Hu FC. at National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine showed that three latent classes of bulimic women were identified. These were women who exhibited relatively higher rates of purging,symptoms of impulsive behavior, and multiple purging methods (17.8%), women who used no more than one purging method with a low occurrence of impulsive behavior (41.7%), and women who showed higher rates of purging behaviors and the use of multiple purging methods with a low rate of impulsive behavior (41.7%). The impulsive sub-group had comparable severity of eating-related measures, frequency of binge-eating, and higher levels of general psychopathology than that of the other two sub-groups(1).

2. Greater fat consumption
In the study to investigate the association of fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption to binge eating symptoms in African American (AA) and Hispanic or Latina (HL) women. AA and HL women in the Health Is Power (HIP) study (N=283) reported fruit and vegetable intake, fat intake, and binge eating symptoms. Women were middle aged (M=45.8 years, SD=9.2) and obese (M BMI=34.5 kg/m(2), SD=7.5).Greater fat consumption was correlated with lower fruit and vegetable consumption (r(s)=-0.159, p<0.01). Higher BMI (r(s)=0.209, p<0.01), and greater fat consumption (r(s)=0.227, p<0.05) were correlated with increasedbinge eating symptoms. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that for HL women (β=0.130, p=0.024), higher BMI (β=0.148, p=0.012), and greater fat consumption (β=0.196, p=0.001) were associated with increased binge eatingsymptoms (R(2)=0.086, F(3,278)=8.715, p<0.001). Findings suggest there may be a relationship between fat consumption and binge eating symptoms, warranting further study to determine whether improving dietary habits may serve as a treatment for BED in AA and HL women(2).

3. Depression and/ or anxiety and eating preocuoation
Binge eating is often triggered by stress, depression, or other negative emotions.Compared with the normal-eater group, the BS(either BN or normal weight EatingDisorder NOS with regular binge eating or purging) women demonstrated significantly less dexamethasone suppression test (DST) suppression. Among BS women, DST non-suppression was associated with more severe depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. BS women to show less DST suppression compared to normal eater women, and results link extent of non-suppression, in BS individuals, to severity of depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations(3).




4. Other symptoms include
In the study of among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating, whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observed, with women significantly more likely than men to report bodychecking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes("Number Needed to Treat") were small to moderate(4). Other studies indicated that increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people and have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disorderedeating or a frank eating disorder(5).

5. Etc.

A.2. Purging Symptoms
Women who develop the Bulimia vervosa may consider purging as a method of regaining control of themselves after binge eating of that can lead to
1. Damage to teeth and gum as a result of self induced vomitting causes of acid exposure
2. Dehydration due to self induced vomiting
3. Fatigue due to nutrients deficiency
4. Irregular heart beat as a result of dehydration cause of low levels of potassium due to self induced vomiting.
5. Colon damage as a result of laxative abuse
6. Gastrointestinal symptoms
In bulimic patients, the most commonly reported gastrointestinal symptoms werebloating (74.4%), flatulence (74.4%), constipation (62.8%), decreased appetite(51.2%), abdominal pain (48.8%), borborygmi (48.8%), and nausea (46.5%). The average symptom score (sum of severity ratings) on the gastrointestinal symptoms questionnaire decreased from 20.6 +/- 10.8 (mean +/- SD) on admission to 13.46 +/- 10.5 (t(27) = 3.31, p < 0.01) on discharge but remained significantly higher than that of the control group (4.4 +/- 6.2, t(43) = 4.02, p < 0.001). However, the severity of reported gastrointestinal symptoms was correlated with the severity of depression (r = 0.43, p < 0.05), and when the possible mediating effects of depression on gastrointestinal symptoms were controlled statistically (analysis of covariance), the effects of treatment on gastrointestinal symptoms were not statistically significant. Dr. Chami TN, and the research team at Florida Medical Clinic indicated(6).

A.3. Psychological symptoms
In the review of symptoms of Bulimia vervosa, most of reviews have focused on reductions of binge eating and purging; however, the cognitive model of BN that underlies the CBT approach identifies three additional symptoms as central to the disorder: restrictive eating, concerns with shape and weight, and self-esteem(7).
Other suggested that Binge eating is often triggered by stress, depression, or other negative emotions. Compared with the normal-eater group, the BS(either BN or normal weight Eating Disorder NOS with regular binge eating or purging) women demonstrated significantly less dexamethasone suppression test (DST) suppression. Among BS women, DST non-suppression was associated with moresevere depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. BS women to show less DST suppression compared to normal eater women, and results link extent of non-suppression, in BS individuals, to severity of depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations(8).

A.4. Non Purging technique
Although many bulimics use purging technique, others may engage in excessive exercise and fasting to prevent weight gain.

B. Signs
People with Bulimia vervosa are very good in hiding the health problems and related symptoms, but some possible signs of a person may have bulimia nervosa include:
1. Eats in isolation
2. Frequent sore throats from vomiting
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms
5. Feelings of withdrawal
6. Frequently spending time alone and wanting privacy
7. Obsession with food, dieting and exercise
9. Mood swings and irritability
10. Perfectionism
11. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22200525
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22365808
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22575215
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19107833
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227390
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7801956
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11584518
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2257521

Saturday, October 22, 2016

Hormones: Catecholamines - Caffeine on the levels of brain serotonin and catecholamine

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.                     

                      Catecholamines

Catecholamines, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, produced by the adrenal glands, which are found on top of the kidneys. are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine. The hormone are released into the blood during times of physical or emotional stress.

          Caffeine on the levels of brain serotonin and catecholamine

Caffeine, a stimulant, which can prompt lipolysis, has been applied on the therapy of obesity. In the study to measure The brain neurotransmitters levels and body fat content At 12-week of age, obese mice and their lean counterparts (+/?) were administered with caffeine (4 mg/d) in water for 4 weeks, showed that the obese mice without caffeine treatment had lower brain norepinephrine and epinephrine levels than the lean controls. And there had no difference between obese and lean mice in brain levels of serotonin, tryptophan, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Caffeine treatment showed no effect on the food intake, but decreased the body fat content significantly in obese mice(3).
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Sources
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8039038

Friday, October 21, 2016

Chinese Herbal Therapy – She Gan (Rhizoma Belamcandae Chinensis)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                 
          She Gan (Rhizoma Belamcandae Chinensis)



She Gan is also known as blackberry lily rhizome. The cold, bitter and slightly toxic herb has been used in TCM to treat sore throat, cough, tuberculosis, carbuncles, boils, etc., as it clears Heat, expels toxins, eliminates Phlegm, etc. by enhancing the function of lung channels.

Ingredients
1. Neomangiferin
2. Nangiferin
3. Tectoridin
4. Iristectorin B
5. Iristectorin A
6. Iridin
7. Tectorigenin
8. Iristectorigenin A
9. Irigenin
10. Irisflorentin
11. Irilone
12. Dichtomitin
13. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antitumor Activities
In the study of an activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antitumor compounds from the roots of Belamcanda chinensis, showed that Hoechst 33258 staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, which indicated the growth inhibition of MGC-803 cells via the induction of tumor cell apoptosis(1).
2. Antimutagenic and anti-oxidant activities
In the study of the direct mutagenesis induced by N-nitroquinoline, and indirect mutation induction caused by metabolically activated 2-AF. found that the isoflavonoid fractions have the capability to scavenge free radicals, to reduce transition-metal ions and to protect polyunsaturated fatty acids from peroxidation. The analysis of the fractions obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array and mass-spectrometric detection revealed several potentially bioactive isoflavones, either as glycosides or aglycones, depending on the polarity of the solvents used for fractionation. The main compounds were tectoridin and iridin in the glycoside fractions and the aglycones irigenin, tectorigenin, and 5,6,7,3′-tetrahydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone. The activities reported here can be regarded to be of additional value when using this plant as a phyto-estrogenic and chemopreventive agent(2).
3. Etc.

Side Effects
1. The herb may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, such as diarrhea
2. Do not use the herb in case of spleen deficiency
3. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without first consulting with the related field specialist.
4. Etc.



Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22627971
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20096370


Chinese Herbal Therapy – She Chuang Zi (Fructus Cnidii Monnieri)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                 
          She Chuang Zi (Fructus Cnidii Monnieri) 



She Chuang Zi is also known as Cnidium Fruit. The acrid, bitter and warm herb has been used in TCM as anti-histamine, anti-allergenic, anti arrhythmia, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and sedative agent and to improve immune system, bone strength, etc., as it warms the Kidneys,strengthens the Yang, disperses Cold, expels Wind, dries Dampness, expels worms and parasites, etc. by enhancing the functions of kidney, triple warmer channels.

Ingredients
1. L-Pinene
2. Bornyl isovalarate
3. Osthol
4. Columbianadin
5. Berapten
6. Cnidiadin
7. Isopimpinellin
8. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti-tumor activities
In recent years, rather active investigations of its anti-tumor were performed at home and abroad. C. monnieri possesses multi-aspect and comprehensive anti-tumor functions, involving directly tumor-inhibitory activity, anti-mutagenicity, reversing multi-drug tolerance of tumor, as well as improving immune functions and so on. In this review, chemical constituents, anti-tumor activities and relevant investigations of Fructus Cnidii were summarized recent decade(1).
2. Anti-allergic effects
In the study to investigate the anti-allergic effects (types I and IV) of the 70% ethanol extract (CM-ext) obtained from Cnidii Monnieri Fructus (dried fruits of Cnidium monnieri),on 48 h homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), showed that Cnidii Monnieri Fructus might be useful as an agent for allergic diseases and that its anti-allergic effect was partially attributable to a coumarin derivative, osthol(2).
3. Cytotoxic activity
In the investigation of five coumarins: osthol, imperatorin, bergapten, isopimpinellin, and xanthotoxin of the CmF(fruits of Cnidium monnieri) extract, among these compounds, osthol showed the strongest cytotoxic activity on tumor cell lines, imperatorin showed the highest sensitivity to HL-60 cells and the least cytotoxicity to normal PBMCs. Osthol and imperatorin both caused apoptotic bodies, DNA fragmentation, and enhanced PARP degradation in HL-60 cells by biochemical analysis. These results indicate that osthol and imperatorin can induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells(3).
4. Antifibrotic activity
In the investigation of activity-guided fractionation of the CHCl(3) fraction of C. monnieri led to the isolation of ten coumarins: osthol (1), meranzin (2), auraptenol (3), meranzin hydrate (4), 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy coumarin (5), imperatorin (6), xanthotoxol (7), xanthotoxin (8), bergapten (9) and isopimpinellin (10), showed that of these, compounds 1 and 6 significantly inhibited proliferation of HSCs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, compounds 1 and 6 significantly reduced collagen content in HSC-T6 cells(4).
5. Antiosteoporotic activity
In the study to evaluate the Bioactivity-guided fractionation has led to the successful isolation of antiosteoporotic components, i. e., osthole, imperatorin and bergapten from an ethanolic extract of the fruits of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, showed that among them, osthole was determined as the major compound possessing antiosteoporotic activity. Further study showed that osthole not only promoted the proliferation and activity of alkaline phosphatase of osteoblasts in neonatal calvaria cultures, but also inhibited the bone resorption by decreasing the formation, differentiation and TRAP activity of osteoclasts derived from rat marrow cells(5).
6. Antipruritic effect
In the study of the Antipruritic effects of 70% ethanol extract (CM-ext) of Cnidii Monnieri Fructus (dried fruits of Cnidium monnieri CUSSON, Umberifferae), found that in mice, an oral administration of CM-ext (200 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior without influence on spontaneous locomotion. Isopimpinellin (3) and osthol (1), coumarin derivatives isolated from CM-ext, showed an inhibitory effect on compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior(6).
7. Osteoporosis
In the study to compare the total coumarins from dried fruits of Cnidium monnieri (TCCM) and nilestriol (Nil) against osteoporosis, found that Ova reduced markedly the trabecular bone mass due to bone resorption excessed bone formation (% Tb. Ar -59%). Treatment with TCCM 67 mg.kg-1 partly suppressed bone turnover, but did not inhibit bone loss in Ova rats (% Tb.Ar -43%). Treatment with TCCM 200 mg.kg-1 and Nil 1 mg.kg-1 increased the trabecular area (% Tb. Ar +100% and +274%)(7).
8. Inhibition of itch-scratch response
In the study to screen the anti-itching activities of 33 herbal medicines in substance P (SP)-induced itching model mice, suggest that The chloroform-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of of fruits of Cnidium monnieri (Cnidii Fructus) markedly inhibited SP-induced scratching. Among 10 subfractions of the chloroform-soluble fraction, the CS-3 fraction had the most potent inhibitory effect on scratching(8).
9. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do not use the herb in case of kidney Yin deficiency or liver fire ascending
2. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without first consulting with the related field specialist.
3. Etc.




Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323535
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12081154
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14750023
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21082271
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17315308
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11853179
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10072954
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11558560


Thursday, October 20, 2016

Chinese Herbal Therapy – Shen Jin Cao (Herba Lycopodii)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                 
         Shen Jin Cao (Herba Lycopodii)



Herba Lycopodii is also known as common club moss. The bitter, acrid and warm herb has been used in TCM as Anti-inflammatory, hypotensive agent and to inhibit Candida Albicans, treat rheumatism, numbness in the skin, edema, etc., by enhancing the function of liverm spleen and kidney channels.


Ingredients
1. Lycopodine
2. Clavatine
3. Clavolonine
4. Fawcettiine
5. Lycodoline
6. Lucidoline
7. Phlegmariurine
8. Obscurine
9. Clavatoxine
10. Nicotine
11. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities
In the study to evaluate the alkaloid extracts of acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities medicinal and therapeutic potentials of two Lycopodiaceae species,Lycopodium clavatum (L.) and Lycopodium thyoides (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd), both used in South American folk medicine for central nervous system conditions, showed that the biological properties of the folk medicinal plants Lycopodium clavatum and Lycopodium thyoides include AChE inhibitory activity and antioxidant effects, two possible mechanisms of action in Alzheimer’s related processes(1).
2. Anti-inflammatory, anticholinesterase, antioxidant and phytochemical properties
In the study to evaluate of extracts of seven South African medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of pain-related ailments, showed that the screening assay concentration (0.25 microg/microl), 13 extracts showed good COX-1 inhibitory activity (>50%), while good activity was observed in 15 extracts against COX-2 enzyme. All the extracts of Crinum moorei (bulbs) showed good inhibition against both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Though not significantly different (P=0.05), the highest COX-1 percentage inhibition (100%) was shown by Aloe ferox leaf PE and Colocasia antiquorum tuber DCM extracts, while Colocasia antiquorum tuber PE extract exhibited the highest (92.7%) percentage inhibition against COX-2. Crinum moorei bulb DCM extract showed the lowest EC(50) value (2.9 microg/ml) in the AChE assay. In addition, good to moderate bioactivities were observed in some extracts of Aloe ferox (leaves), Crinum moorei (bulbs) and Pycnostachys reticulata (leaves) in all the assays. The presence and/or amounts of phenolic compounds varied with plant species(2).
3. Antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects
Hepeel is a homeopathic remedy commonly used to treat primary and secondary functional disorders of the liver. It consists of highly diluted extracts from the following plants: Chelidonium from Chelidonium majus, L., Carduus marianus from Silybum marianum, L., Veratrum from Veratrum album L., Colocynthis from Citrullus colocynthis L., Lycopodium from Lycopodium clavatum L., Nux moschata from Myristica fragans, Houtt, and China from Cinchona pubescens, Vahl. The antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells of serial dilutions of these plant tinctures were tested, showed that the complete combination (COMB) realised in the homeopathic remedy and its constituents exert specific antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects on HepG2 cells which all point to a potential hepatoprotective and tumouristatic action(3).
4. Etc.

Side Effects
1. No not use in case of excessive bleeding
2. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without first consulting with the related field specialist
3. Etc.





Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108682
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932161
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14732962


Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Chinese Herbal Therapy – She Xiang (Secretio Moschus)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                 
          She Xiang (Secretio Moschus)




She Xiang is also known as Musk secretion. The acrid, warm, aromatic and bitter herb has been used in TCM to treat angina, tumors and carbuncles, seizures, etc., as it opens Heart orifices, restores consciousness. moves Blood, disperses nodules, calms pain, promotes delivery, etc. by enhancing teh functions of heart, liver and spleen channels.

Ingredients
1. Methyl palmitic acid
2. Methyl oleic acid
3. 5β – androstane - 3α – 17β – diol
4. 5β – androstane - 3α – 17α – diol
5. 5α-androstane-3,17-dione
6. 5β – androstane – 3,17 – dione
7. Muscopyridine
8. Glycine
9. Sserine
10 Glutamate
11. Valine
12. Aspartic acid
13. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Topical medicaments
In the study to investigate the incidence of contact sensitivity to the components of CTM in patients with contact dermatitis from CTM. A screening series of 27 crude drugs most commonly used in CTM as well as a modified European standard series was patch tested in 30 patients, found that reducing the concentration and simplifying the compositions of these components, as well as replacement with those of low allergenicity in CTM, such as Rhizoma Arisaematis (see text), Herba Lycopodii (see text), Radix Cyathulae Officinalis (see text), Rhizoma Pinelliae (see text), Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (see text), Herba Dendrobii (see text), Secretio Moschus (see text), and Stigmata Croci (see text), may be advocated(1).
2. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without first consulting with the related field specialist.
2. Do not use the herb in case of Yin deficiency without heat
3. Etc.




Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Secretio%20Moschus

Monday, October 17, 2016

Chinese Herbal Therapy – Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni Officinalis)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                 
          Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni Officinalis) 

Shan Zhu Yu is also known as Cornus fruit. The sour, acrid, slightly warm, not toxic herb has been used in TCM to treat impotence, spermatorrhea, instant sweating, sore or week knees, chronic lower back pain, frequent urination, incontinence, excessive bleeding during menstrual period, etc., as it tonifies the Liver and the Kidneys, benefits the Liver and the Kidneys, strengthens, etc. by enhancing the functions of liver and kidney channels.

Ingredients
1. Morroniside
2. Loganin
3. Sweroside
4. Iridoid glycosides
5. Tannins
6. Isoterchebin
7. Tellimagrandin
8. 1.2.6-Tri-O-galloy-β-D-glueoside
9. Cornusiin
10. Urosolie acid
11.Tartarie acid
12. Cornuside
13. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Allergic asthma
In the study to investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of CF and their underlying mechanism, by examining the influence of CF on the development of pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma, showed that the therapeutic effects of CF in asthma are mediated by reduced production of Th2 cytokines (IL-5), eotaxin, and OVA-specific IgE and reduced eosinophil infiltration(1).
2. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
In the study of isolated 12 compounds from Corni fructus including three flavonoids, two iridoid glycosides, three phenolic compounds, and two triterpenoids, together with cornuside (11) and 2-butoxybutanedioic acid (12). Chemical structures were identified by (1)H, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectral analyses, indicated that the glucose uptake efficiency, messenger (m)RNA expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and prevention of cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity in the presence of test agents were evaluated. While CH and CB significantly increased glucose uptake from muscle, compounds 3 and 8, each at 50 μM, significantly suppressed PEPCK mRNA expression. Finally, compound 5, at 50 and 100 μM, effectively attenuated β-cell death. In conclusion, those compounds could contribute to the antihyperglycemic and β-cell-protective actions of Corni fructus against diabetes mellitus(2).
3. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects
In the investigation of the analgesic effect of corni fructus in mice, showed that the extract suppressed the acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. The aqueous extract of corni fructus exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects by suppressing COX-2 and iNOS expression through the down-regulation of NF-kappaB binding activity(3).
4. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Not to use the herb in cases liver yang ascending or difficulty in urination due to damp-heat
2. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without first consulting with the related field specialist.
3. Etc.

Chinese herbal Medicine Therapy: Shan Zha (Fructus Crataegi)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                 
          Shan Zha (Fructus Crataegi)


Shan Zha is also known as hawthorn fruit. The sour, sweet, and slightly warm has been used in TCM to treat indigestion, flatulence, diarrhea, amenorrhea, postpartum blood stasis, acute pain in chest and abdomen area, pain in hernia, high lipids, etc. as it promotes digestion, transforms food retention, invigorates Blood, eliminates accumulation, etc. by enhancing the functions of spleen, liver and stomach channels.

Ingredients
1. Malic acid
2. Caffeic acid
3. Oleanolic acid
4. Crataegolic acid
5. Epicatechin
6. Quercetin
7. Hyperoside
8. Chlorogenic acid、
9. Citric acid
10. Citric acid symmetrical monomethyl ester.
11. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antiatherogenic effect
In the study to investigate the antiatherogenic effect and possible mechanisms of the extracts of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM) or Fructus Crataegi (FC), as well as their interaction, showed that RSM and FC could inhibit the atherogenesis formation and development, which might be due to regulating the lipid metabolism, enhancing the antioxidation, and reducing the release of inflammatory factors(1).
2. Strengthen blood circulation
In the study to evaluate Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN), composed of four Chinese herbs, i.e., Fleeceflower Root, Fructus Crataegi, Folium Nelumbinis and Semen Cassiae used to strengthen blood circulation of coronary artery, arrhythmia and hyperlipidemia, showed that Extract and effective fraction of JZN significantly reduced contents of Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), CRI and AI in hyperlipidemic rats as well as significantly increased contents of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), in the rats. Moreover, they significantly enhanced the activity of NOS and increased contents of NO(2).
3. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibition
In the study to investigate MAO-B kinetic constants, K(i), K(m) and IC₅₀ based on quantitative of the substrate peak area compared with the reference electropherogram obtained from without the inhibitor.
Showed that the screening of 16 natural extracts was performed, and 2 natural extracts from Fructus crataegi and Radix polygoni multiflori were identified to be positive for MAO-B inhibition(3).
4. Diuretic effect
In the study to determine the effects of mixtures of selected medicinal plants on some physiological renal functions, i.e. excretion of urine and electrolytes and changes in the quantity of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and kallikrein-kinins in rat blood plasma after water and salt load, found that the greatest diuretic effect was found in a mixture composed of birch leaves (Betulae folium), hawthorn berries (Crataegi fructus), strawberry leaves (Fragariae folium), corn silk (Maydis stigmata), chamomile flowers (Matricariae flos), and horsetail herb (Equiseti herba)(4).
5. Sexual activity and erectile function
In the study to investigate SA1 (Korean red ginseng, fermented soybean, Tribulus terrestris, Fructus Rubi, Fructus Lycii, Semen Cuscutae, Dioscorea Rhizome, Fructus Corni and Fructus Crataegi)using both in vitro and in vivo experiments on laboratory animals in order to determine its effect on the sexual behavior and penile erection, indicated that there was an overall increase in the copulatory behavior parameters in the SA1-treated rats, which was reflected by a decrease in the mount and intromission latencies and an increase in the ejaculation latency and mount frequency. SA1 significantly increased the ratio of the intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure. In vitro, SA1 significantly enhanced the relaxation responses to acetylcholine. These results suggest that SA1 improves the sexual activity and erectile function(5).
5. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do not use the herb in case of spleen deficiency without digestion or abundance of stomach acid or peptic ulcers
2. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without first consulting with the related field specialist.
3. Etc.


Back to Kyle J. Norton Home page http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca
Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21710751
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21316437
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20980208
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17619305
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16819173


Saturday, October 15, 2016

Chinese herbal Medicine Therapy: Shao Yao or Bai Shao Yao, Chi Shao Yao (Radix Peoniae Lactiflorae)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                 
          Bai Shao Yao, Chi Shao Yao (Radix Peoniae Lactiflorae)




Bai Shao Yao, Chi Shao Yao also known as white dahlia root or red dahlia respectively. The bitter, sour and cool herb has been used in TCM as anti-spastic, anticonvulsant, analgesic, sedative antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic agnet and to lower blood pressure, dilate peripheral blood vessels, treat menstrual dysfunction, vagina yeast infection, uterine bleeding, etc., as it nourishes Blood, preserves the Yin. nourishes the Liver, calms and Liver-Yang, etc. by enhancing the functions of liver and spleen channels.

Ingredients
1. paeoniflorin
2. Paeonol
3. Paeonin,
4.AQlbiflorin
6. Sistosterol7. Oxypaeoniflorin
8. Benzoylpaeoniflorin
9. Benzoic acid
10. β sitosterol
11. Gallotannin
12. Pedunculagin
13. 1-O-Galloylpedunculagin
14. Eugeniin
15. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti-angiogenesis effect
In the study to investiagte the anti-angiogenesis effect of total glucosides of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., showed that TGP (12.5, 62.5, and 312.5 microg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the proliferation of endothelial cells. This inhibition effect began 6h after treatment and lasted at least 24h. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis data showed an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, which exhibited apoptotic features indicative of cell death. The migration properties and tube forming abilities of endothelial cells were dramatically inhibited by the TGP extract(1).
2. Antioxidative and neuroprotective effects
In the study to examine the antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of Paeonia lactiflora pall (PLE), showed that Total phenolic content of PLE was 89.65 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of PLE. IC(50) values for reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were 297.57, 3.33, and 32.74 microg, respectively. The protective effect of PLE against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage to PC12 cells was investigated by an 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. After 2 h of cell exposure to 0.5 mM H(2)O(2), a marked reduction in cell survival was observed. However, this reduction was significantly prevented by 10-100 microg/ml of PLE. H(2)O(2) also induced severe apoptosis of the PC12 cells, which was indicated by a flow cytometric analysis. Interestingly, the H(2)O(2)-stressed PC12 cells that had been incubated with PLE had greatly suppressed apoptosis(2).
3. Liver fibrosis
Paeoniae Radix, the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, was investigated for PDGF-BB-induced HSC chemotaxis. Rat HSCs and LX-2, a human HSC cell line, were used for the in vitro experiments. Cell migration was analyzed by wound-healing and transwell assays, Paeoniae Radix extracts and its active components, paeonol and 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl- β-D-glucose (PGG), inhibited PDGF-BB-induced HSC migration and α-SMA and collagen expressions in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with downregulation of PDGF receptor- α, ERK, p38, and JNK activation. Both paeonol and PGG participate in HSC migration, but via differential mechanisms(3).
4. Anti cancers
PHY906, a decoction of a mixture of the four herbs Scutellaria baicalensis Geori, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, Paeonia lactiflora Pall, was investigated for the therapeutic indices of a broad spectrum of anticancer agents showed that over a ten-year period, the multiplex technology “PhytomicsQC” has been used to show batch-to-batch consistency of PHY906 production. Advanced clinical trials are ongoing to demonstrate the effectiveness of PHY906 as adjuvant therapy for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy(4).
5. Anti-depressant
In the study to to provide scientific evidence to support further research on peony as a potential anti-depressant drug, showed that the peony extract is active in the mouse forced swim test and tail suspension test, and it produces anti-depressant effects in chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression model in mice and rats. The anti-depressant mechanisms of peony are likely mediated by the inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity, neuro-protection, modulation of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, inhibition of oxidative stress, and the up-regulation of neurotrophins(5).
6. Systemic lupus erythematosus
In the study of the therapeutic efficacy and adverse reaction of total glucosides of paeony (TGP, extracted from Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), found that GP had definite therapeutic efficacy in treatment of patients with SLE. It could reduce the average daily dose of prednisone and the total CTX dose, lower the recurrent cases and episodes of infection, especially for the medication of more than five years(6).
7. Bladder cancer
In the study to evaluate the anticancer effect of RPA in urinary bladder carcinoma in vitro and in vivo, showed that RPA inhibits growth of bladder cancer via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Treatment of TSGH-8301 cells with RPA resulted in G2-M phase arrest that was associated with a marked decline in protein levels of cdc2, cyclin B1, cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B) and Cdc25C. We also reported that RPA-mediated growth inhibition of TSGH-8301 cells was correlated with activation of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2). Herein, we further evaluated urinary bladder cancer using a model of bladder cancer induced by OH-BBN. Analysis of tumors from RPA-treated rats showed significant decrease in the expression of Bcl2, cyclin D1, and PCNA, and increase in the expression of p-Chk2 (Thr-68), Bax, and Cip1/p21(7).
8. Vascular dementia
Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, is clinically used for the treatment of vascular dementia (VD), Researchers at the China Pharmaceutical University in the study of Comparative pharmacokinetics of paeoniflorin in plasma of vascular dementia and normal rats orally administrated with Danggui-Shaoyao-San or pure paeoniflorin, found that he absorptions of paeoniflorin in both VD and normal group of rats were better when orally administrated with DSS than that with pure paeoniflorin, which justified the combined use as formula DSS. Moreover, a better absorption of paeoniflorin in rats of the VD than in normal group was observed, which is helpful for the treatment of VD(8).
9. Anti-inflammatory effect
Paeoniflorin, found in Paeonia lactiflora Pall, inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB expression in chronic hypoperfusion rat and has anti-inflammatory properties(9).
10. Etc.




Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19914370
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18460804
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22399273
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22326673
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22196583
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21608216
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21396995
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185921
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20128044