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Saturday, October 31, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Rheumatoid Arthritis- The Causes

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints. A shoulder disorderwas found in 27% of subjects, rheumatoid arthritis in 1% and osteoarthritis(OA) of the hand, hip, and knee in five, seven, and 18% of subjects, respectively. Disability was frequent: a walking distance of < 500 m was found in 60% and ADL dependency in 40% of the group. Factors related to one or both of these disability measures included female gender, hip and knee OA, impaired vision, cognitive impairment and neurological disease(1).

Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than in men and generally occurs after the ages of 40 and diminishes the quality of life of many elders.

The probable causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis may include the following
1. Abnormal autoimmune response
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovitis that progresses to destruction of cartilage and bone. Scientists in the study of Abnormal networks of immune response-related molecules in bone marrow cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis as revealed by DNA microarray analysis, indicated that abnormal regulatory networks in the immune response and cell cycle categories were identified in BM mononuclear cells from RA patients, indicating that the BM is pathologically involved in RA(10).
2. Abnormal lipid profile
In the study to observe the association between inflammation status/autoimmune antibodies and plasma lipid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), found that (1) There were 12.9%, 10.2% and 14.2% patients with elevated TC, LDL-C and TC respectively, patients with reduced HDL-C accounted for 43.6%. (2) C(3) was higher in elevated TC group than normal TC group (P < 0.05). ESR and CRP were significantly higher in decreased HDL-C group than in normal HDL-C group (P < 0.05). CRP, C(3) and C(4) were significantly higher in elevated LDL-C group than in normal LDL-C group (P < 0.05). (3) Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that C(3) was positively correlated with TC (R(2) = 0.067, P < 0.05). Both ESR and CRP were negative correlated with HDL-C (R(2) = 0.202, P < 0.05). CRP and anti-CCP were positively correlated with LDL-C (R(2) = 0.129, P < 0.05). ESR and C(4) were positively correlated with AIP (R(2) = 0.046, P < 0.05)(11).
3. Genetic susceptibility
In exploring the overlap between T1D, CeD and RA, there is strong evidence that variation within the TAGAP gene is associated with all three autoimmune diseases. Interestingly a number of loci appear to be specific to one of the three diseases currently studied suggesting that they may play a role in determining the particular autoimmune phenotype at presentation(12). Others suggest that this CCR5 promoter polymorphism seems to play an important role in determining different clinical courses in both forms of rheumatoid arthritis(13).
4. Inflammatory and infectious connections
Chronic inflammation of the joint can result of thickens the synovium, of that affect the cartilage and bone within the joint.Some researchers suggested that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a associated with the T helper 17 cells (Th17) as major effector cells in several chronic inflammatory states(14). Others indicated that Periodontal infection (P. gingivalis) carries a unique risk for development of autoimmune antibodies associated with RA. Patients with RA have either lost many teeth or usually have severe periodontitis. Additional research, both in regards to basic mechanisms as well as clinical studies, are necessary before it can be said that there are causative links between RA and periodontitis(15).
5. Etc.

Friday, October 30, 2015

Popular #Herbs - Bromelain

By Kyle J. Norton

Bromelain, a proteolytic enzymes found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

Health Benefit
1. Neutrophil migration
Bromelain has shown the property of effectively decreasing of the neutrophil migration to sites of acute inflammation and support the specific removal of the CD128 chemokine receptor, according to the study of "Bromelain treatment decreases neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation", by Fitzhugh DJ, Shan S, Dewhirst MW, Hale LP., posted in PubMed(1)

2. Asthma
Bromelain, the extract of pineapple have found effectively in treating an Ovalbumin-induced Murine Model of Asthma female mice by decreased methacholine sensitivity (P Oral Bromelain Attenuates Inflammation in an Ovalbumin-induced Murine Model of Asthma" by Secor ER, Carson WF, Singh A, Pensa M, Guernsey LA, Schramm CM, Thrall RS., posted in PubMed(2)

3. Brain and spiral Tumor

Bromelain is an aqueous extract from pineapple stem has demonstrated that bromelain significantly and reversibly reduced glioma cell adhesion, migration, and invasion without affecting cell viability, even after treatment periods extending over several months, according to the study of "Bromelain reversibly inhibits invasive properties of glioma cells" by Tysnes BB, Maurer HR, Porwol T, Probst B, Bjerkvig R, Hoover F., posted in PubMed(3)

4. Digestive system and Diabetes
Bromelain (BR), a cysteine protease has shown the inhibitory effects on intestinal secretion and inflammation, such function throught the induction of the antispasmodic effect. In vivo, BR preferentially inhibited motility in pathophysiologic states in a PAR-2-antagonist-sensitive manner as the result researchers suggested that bromelain could be a lead compound for the development of new drugs, able to normalize the intestinal motility ininflammation and diabetes according to the study of "Inhibitory effects ofbromelain, a cysteine protease derived from pineapple stem (Ananas comosus), on intestinal motility in mice" by Borrelli F, Capasso R, Severino B, Fiorino F, Aviello G, De Rosa G, Mazzella M, Romano B, Capasso F, Fasolino I, Izzo AA., posted in PubMed(4)

5. Anti-inflammatory activityIn rat study, bromelain inhibits plasma exudation through inhibiting the generation of bradykinin at the inflammatory site via depletion of the plasma kallikrein system, according to the study of "Effect of bromelain on kaolin-induced inflammation in rats" by Kumakura S, Yamashita M, Tsurufuji S., posted in PubMed(5)

6. Bromelain in cardiovascular diseases
In the review out of Out of 223 papers retrieved, 6 papers met the inclusion criteria(Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), human studies, animal studies and experimental studies related to bromelain for CVDs. Data extraction and analysis: The quality assessment of all the selected studies was conducted by the authors. Data from 3 animal trials and 3 human trials were included in the review. Data collected included: type of trial, drug dosage, duration, outcome measures, characteristics of bromelain used, significance of results and conclusion), bromelain could be used for treating acute thrombophlebitis, as it decreases aggregation of blood platelets, has a cardio-protective effect, ameliorates rejection-induced arterial wall remodelling, prevents thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation as well as reduces thrombus formation, according to the study of "A review of the use of bromelain incardiovascular diseases" by Ley CM, Tsiami A, Ni Q, Robinson N., posted in PubMed(6)

(7) Bromelain and Skin diseases
Bromelain has shown significantly inhibited Cox-2 and inactivated NF-kappaB by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IkappaBalpha. In addition, bromelain treatment attenuated DMBA-TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt, according to the study of "Regulation of p53, nuclear factor kappaB and cyclooxygenase-2 expression bybromelain through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse skin" by Kalra N, Bhui K, Roy P, Srivastava S, George J, Prasad S, Shukla Y., posted in PubMed(7)

8. Bromelain and Burn and wound healing
Bromelain-derived enzymatic preparation has shown the result of rapid and selective debridement of human and animal burns, according to the study of "The effects of rapid enzymatic debridement of deep partial-thicknessburns with Debrase on wound reepithelialization in swine" by Singer AJ, Taira BR, Anderson R, McClain SA, Rosenberg L., posted in PubMed(8)

9. Bromelaine and acute sinusitis
Proteolytic enzyme bromelaine obtained from pineapple (Bromelain-POS, Ursapharm GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany) was evaluated in children under the age of 11 years diagnosed with acute sinusitis has shown a statistically significant faster recovery from symptoms (p = 0.005) compared to the other treatment groups, according to the study of "Therapeutic use, efficiency and safety of the proteolytic pineapple enzyme Bromelain-POS in children with acute sinusitis in Germany" by Braun JM, Schneider B, Beuth HJ., posted in PubMed(9)

10. Bromelain and asthma and hypersensitivity
Bromelain, a clinically used pineapple extract and natural product, has reported anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities in treatingasthma and hypersensitivity disorders, according ton the study of "Bromelain exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease" by Secor ER Jr, Carson WF 4th, Cloutier MM, Guernsey LA, Schramm CM, Wu CA, Thrall RS., posted in PubMed(10)

11. Anti cancer
Some studies have shown that bromelain has the capacity to modulate key pathways that support malignancy. It is now possible to suggest that the anti-cancer activity of bromelain consists in the direct impact on cancer cells and their micro-environment, as well as in the modulation of immune, inflammatory and haemostatic systems, according to the study of "Bromelain's activity and potential as an anti-cancer agent: Current evidence and perspectives" by Chobotova K, Vernallis AB, Majid FA., posted in PubMed(11)

12. Dyspepsia
Bromelain has exerted the property in treating upset stomach or pain or discomfort in the upper belly by stimulating enzymatic activity, according to the study of "Benefit of dietary integrators for treating functional dyspepsia: a prospective pilot study.[Article in English, Italian]" by Pellicano R, Strona S, Simondi D, Reggiani S, Pallavicino F, Sguazzini C, Bonagura AG, Rizzetto M, Astegiano M., posted in PubMed(12)

13. Renal diseases and tubulointerstitial fibrosis
Bromelain proteolytic enzymes has improved proteinuria and urinary TGF-beta 1 excretion, as well as the severity of tubulointerstitial fibrosis without signs of toxicity, according to the study of "The effect of oral protease administration in the rat remnant kidney model" Sebeková K, Dämmrich J, Krivosíková Z, Heidland A." by posted in PubMed(13)

14. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Bromelain supplements may have side effects or interact with medications
2. It may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and excessive menstrual bleeding if over dose or as a result of allergic effect
3. Bromelain may increase bleeding during and after surgery.
4. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18482869
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18317550
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11774029
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21689210
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3046953
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21749819
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17889918
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661148
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15796206
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16337164
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19700238
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19829282
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10639701

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Rheumatoid Arthritis- Signs and Symptoms

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints. A shoulder disorderwas found in 27% of subjects, rheumatoid arthritis in 1% and osteoarthritis(OA) of the hand, hip, and knee in five, seven, and 18% of subjects, respectively. Disability was frequent: a walking distance of < 500 m was found in 60% and ADL dependency in 40% of the group. Factors related to one or both of these disability measures included female gender, hip and knee OA, impaired vision, cognitive impairment and neurological disease(1).

Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than in men and generally occurs after the ages of 40 and diminishes the quality of life of many elders.
A. Signs and Symptoms
1. The feet
In the study to investigate the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with foot complaints to address the associations between clinical signs and symptoms, radiographic changes, and function in connection with disease duration, showed that pain and swelling of the ankle were correlated weakly but statistically significantly with limitation and disability (0.273 to 0.293) as measured on the 5-Foot Function Index (FFI). The clinical signs of theforefoot joints did not influence any of the functional outcome measures. Radiographic scores for both forefeet (SvdH) and hindfeet (Larsen) were correlated with the total Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ DI) and the 5-FFI limitation subscale. Pain and disease duration, more than radiographic damage, influence the total HAQ DI significantly. With the progression of time, structural damage and function of the rheumatic foot worsen in RA patients. Pain and swelling of the ankle contribute more to disability than radiographic damage of the foot and ankle(2).
2. The Joints
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, pain and range of movements of joints have the greatest impact on individual subdimensions of the HAQ. Extent of radiographic damage in peripheral joints and the number ofswollen and tender joints are of lesser importance for function(3).
3. The Muscle strength
Dr. Häkkinen A and the research team at Jyväskylä Central Hospital, in the assessment to study the extent to which muscle strength and performance, pain, and disease activity are associated with the total Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index and its subdimensions in male and female patients with rheumatoid arthritis, indicated that women reported greater disability than men both in the total HAQ and in the majority of its eight subdimensions. In addition to disease activity and pain, muscle strength has a major impact on disability especially in female rheumatoid patients(4).
4. Rheumatoid nodules
Rheumatoid nodules affect the joints of patients with rheumatoid nodules and are a lesion commonly found under the skin as a result of microchimerism(5).
5. Conjunctival nodule
Although is rare in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. There is a 49-year-old woman with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, who was being treated only with oral steroids and hydroxychloroquine, developed diffuse anterior scleritis in the right eye. In addition, examination showed a focal raised yellow/tan conjunctival nodule. The nodule was within the bulbar conjunctiva with no attachments to the underlying tissue, which is different from nodular scleritis(6).
6. Morning stiffness
Morning stiffness is a very common symptoms of patients in early rheumatoid arthritis. Some researchers suggested that the degree of morning stiffness appears to reflect functional disability and pain more than traditional markers of inflammation such as joint counts and ESR in patients with early RA. Inclusion of morning stiffness as a marker of inflammatory activity in classification criteria for RA, inclusion criteria for most clinical trials in RA, and RA remission criteria, may be open to reassessment(7).
7. Quality of life
7.1. Physical disability
In the study to 1) investigate the degrees of correlations between different disease activity scores (DASs) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and 2) determine if DASs correlate with either physical or mental HRQoL, showed that SF-36 total score showed a significant inverse correlation with the DAS4-ESR, DAS-3 ESR, DAS4-CRP, DAS3-CRP, DAS4-28 ESR, DAS3-28 ESR, DAS4-28 CRP, and DAS3-28 CRP, with correlation coefficients of -0.320, -0.314, -0.330, -0.323, -0.327, -0.318, -0.360 and -0.348, respectively (P < 0.01 for all). The correlation coefficients between different DAS indices and the HRQoL score were not significantly different. In addition, all DASs showed significant correlations with physical HRQoL, but not with mental HRQoL(8).
7.2. Concurrent psychiatric disorders
Dr. Mok C, and the scientists at the Tuen Mun Hospital in the study to investigate the effect of concurrent psychiatric disorders on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), indicated that in forty-seven (23.5%) patients diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder,depressive disorders in 29 patients and anxiety disorders in 26 patients. Patients with either condition had significantly higher fatigue scores (26 ± 8.8 vs. 16 ± 6.9, p < 0.001) and were more likely to be unemployed (p = 0.02) and dependent on government subsidy for living (p < 0.001) than those without. The scores of the eight domains and the physical and mental components of the SF-36 were significantly lower in RA patients withpsychiatric disorders (p < 0.001 in all). In a linear regression model, the presence of either depressive or anxiety disorders (β = -0.23, p < 0.001),older age (β = -0.16, p = 0.006), self-perceived pain (β = -0.25, p < 0.001) and fatigue (β = -0.42, p < 0.001) were independently and inversely associated with the total SF-36 score after adjustment for disease activity and other sociodemographic variables. Conclusions: Concomitant depressive or anxiety disorders in RA patients are associated with significantly poorer HRQOL. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in RA patients are warranted(9).
8. Etc.

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Thursday, October 29, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoarthritis Treatments In Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.

Treatment
C. In traditional Chinese medicine perspective
According to the article of Osteoporosis & Osteoarthritis in TCM Therapy by Chun Yi, Lu O.M.D., LAc.(70), Osteoarthritis is caused by blood stagnation and blood stasis.
C. 1. Shu Jing Huo Xue Tang (Clematis and Stephania Combination) used to activate the blood and dispels blood stasis, induce downward movement of the blood, and strengthen the tendons and bones, reduce pain and inflammation and swollen of the joint lining and improve joint function. Depending to the patients’ situations, the following modifications are recommended
1. For pain in the arm or upper body, add Gui Zhi (Cinnamomum cassia).
2. For foot pain or pain in the lower body, add Mu Gua (Chaenomeles speciosa) or Yi Yi Ren (SemenCoix).
3. For qi deficiency, add Ren Shen (Radix Ginseng) or
Ci Wu Jia (Siberian Ginseng)
C.2. Shen Tong Zhu Yu Tang (Cnidium and Chiang Huo Combination)
1. Shen Tong Zhu Yu Tang (Cnidium and Chiang Huo Combination) used to activate the blood, dispel blood stasis and wind-dampness, alleviate pain, unblock the meridians, promote the flow of qi, etc.
2. The ingredients of this formula included the following herbs:
2.1.ao Ren (Semen Prunus persica),
2.2. Hong Hua (Flos Carthamus tinctorius),
2.3.Wu Ling Zhi (Excrementum Trogopteri seu Pteromi),
2.4. Niu Xi (Radix Achyranthes bidentata) and
2.5. Dang Gui (Radix Angelica sinensis)
Depending to on the patients’ situations, the following modifications are recommended:
a. For slight fever, add Cang Zhu (Atractylodes lancea)
or Hunag Bo (Cortex Phellodendron amurense).
b. For Weakness, add Huang Qi (Radix astragalus).
C.3. Yi Yi Ren Tang (Coix Combination)
1. The formula is affliction of wind-cold-dampness marked by painful joints and accompanied by numbness also difficulty in stretching and swelling in the joints. it typically works in about eight weeks, and reduces pain at least 50 %, but often leaves patients pain free.
2. Ingredients of the fomula include
2.1 Ma Huang (Herba Ephedra sinica),
2.2. Yi Yi Ren (Semen Coix lacryma-jobi),
2.3. Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnarmomum Cassia),
2.4. Cang Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodes lance),
2.5. Dang Gui (Radix Angelica sinensis),
2.6. Shao Yao (Radix Paeonia lactiflora) and
2.7. Zhi Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhiza uralaensis preparata)
Depending to the patients’ situations, the following modifications
are recommended:
a. For upper joints pain, add Ge Gen (Radix Puerariae lonatae)
b. For lower joints pain, add Chuan Niu Xi (Radix Cyathulae)
c. For serious whole joints pain, add Yan Hu Suo (Rhizome Corydalis)
If you want to read the complete article, please follow the link of (70)

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Sources
(69) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8535059
(70)http://www.suntenglobal.com/news/img/SUNTEN_QuarterlyNewsletter_Winter2007.pdf

Wednesday, October 28, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoarthritis Treatments In Herbal Medicine Perspective

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.

Treatment
B. In herbal medicine perspective
1. Stinging nettle
In the study of Stinging nettle cream for osteoarthritis by Keith Rayburn, MD; Eric Fleischbein, PharmD; Jessica Song, PharmD; Blaine Allen, RN; Mary Kundert, PharmD; Charles Leiter, PharmD; Thomas Bush, MD, showed that Stinging nettle could prove beneficial to patients with osteoarthritis in 2 general ways: (1) pain relief and (2) disease process modification. The intact leaf hair’s sting could provide a counterirritation that decreases pain by depleting substance P, similar to the effect of capsaicin(66).
2. Ginger
In a report of a study to explicate the phenomenon of ginger compresses for people with osteoarthritis, showed that Seven themes were identified in the data: (1) Meditative-like stillness and relaxation of thoughts; (2) Constant penetrating warmth throughout the body; (3) Positive change in outlook; (4) Increased energy and interest in the world; (5) Deeply relaxed state that progressed to a gradual shift in pain and increased interest in others; (6) Increased suppleness within the body and (7) More comfortable, flexible joint mobility. The essential experience of ginger compresses exposed the unique qualities of heat, stimulation, anti-inflammation and analgesia(67).
3. Devil’s claw
Glucosamine, Harpagophytum procumbens(Devil’s claw), and acupuncture are among the most commonly used complementary and alternative medicine approaches utilized by patients suffering from osteoarthritis(68).
4. Hot Chilli (Capsaicin)
“Topical capsaicin is not associated with any severe systemic adverse effects. However, stinging and burning, particularly during the first week of therapy, is reported by many patients. Topical capsaicin merits consideration as adjuvant therapy in conditions such as post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and osteoarthritis, where the pain can be chronic and difficult to treat|”, said Dr Rains C, and Bryson HM(69).
5. Etc.

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Sources
(66)nhttp://www.encognitive.com/files/STINGING%20NETTLE%20CREAM%20FOR%20OSTEOARTHRITIS.pdf
(67) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20626491
(68) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951024
(69) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8535059

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoarthritis Treatments In Conventional Medicine Perspective

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.

Treatment


A. In conventional medicine perspective
A.1. Bisphosphonates
1. Including Alendronate (Fosamax), Risedronate (Actonel, Atelvia), Ibandronate (Boniva), Zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa), etc..Bisphosphonates are antiresorptive medications widely prescribed for treating osteoporosis. In placebo-controlled clinical trials they have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures(36).
Others suggested that Because bisphosphonate accumulate in bone and provide some residual antifracture reduction when treatment is stopped, we recommend a drug holiday after 5-10 yr of bisphosphonate treatment. The duration of treatment and length of the holiday are based on fracture risk and pharmacokinetics of the bisphosphonate used. Patients at mild risk might stop treatment after 5 yr and remain off as long as bone mineral density is stable and no fractures occur. Higher risk patients should be treated for 10 yr, have a holiday of no more than a year or two, and perhaps be on a nonbisphosphonate treatment during that time(37).
2. Side effects
a. Nausea
b. Abdominal pain
c. Difficulty swallowing
d. Rrisk of an inflamed esophagus or esophageal ulcers(38)
e. Risk of scleritis and a variety of ocular side effects(39)
f. Etc.
2. Hormone-related therapy
Hormone replacement therapy can help to maintain bone density for menopause women, but it increases
a, The risk of breast cancer and heart disease(40)
b. The risk for venous thromboembolism(41)
c. The risk of (Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers) NMSC.(42)
d. The risk of stroke(43)
e. etc.

Monday, October 26, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoarthritis Prevention: The Phytochemicals

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.

Prevention


D. The Phytochemicals  
1. Epigallocatechin, including catechins, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, St John wort, black Tea, carob flour, Fuji apples, etc.
a. Inflammatory effects
In the determination of the up-regulated expressions of IL-8 or PGE(2) in Streptococci or PAMP-stimulated HDPF were inhibited by catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). In TLR2 ligand-stimulated HDPF, found that catechins might be useful therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory modulator of dental pulpal inflammation, according to “Tea catechins reduce inflammatory reactions via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in toll-like receptor 2 ligand-stimulated dental pulp cells” by Hirao K, Yumoto H, Nakanishi T, Mukai K, Takahashi K, Takegawa D, Matsuo T.(47)
b. Antiviral activities
In the observation of Catechin derivatives including (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and green tea extract (GTE) and theirs inhibition of the activities of cloned human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT), duck hepatitis B virus replication complexes reverse transcriptase (DHBV RCs RT), herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase (HSV-1 DNAP) and cow thymus DNA polymerase alpha (CT DNAP alpha, found that GCG exerts a mixed inhibition with respect to external template inducer poly (rA).oligo (dT) 12-18 and a noncompetitive inhibition with respect to substrate dTTP for HIV-1 RT. Bovine serum albumin significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of catechin analogues and GTE on HIV-1 RT. In tissue culture GTE inhibited the cytopathic effect of coxsackie B3 virus, but did not inhibit the cytopathic effects of HSV-1, HSV-2, influenza A or influenza B viruses, according to “[The inhibitory effects of catechin derivatives on the activities of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerases].[Article in Chinese]” by Tao P.(48)
c. Antioxidants
In the evaluation of the effects of the main polyphenolic components extracted from green tea leaves, i.e. (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gallic acid (GA), against free radical initiated peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL), found that The antioxidative action of the green tea polyphenols includes trapping the initiating and/or propagating peroxyl radicals with the activity sequence EC>EGCG>ECG>EGC>GA for the AAPH initiated peroxidation, and reducing the alpha-tocopheroxyl radical to regenerate alpha-tocopherol with the activity sequence of ECG>EC>EGCG>EGC>GA and ECG>EGCG>GA>EC>EGC for the AAPH-initiated and BP-photosensitized peroxidations respectively, according to “Antioxidative effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated and photosensitized peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein” by Liu Z, Ma LP, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu ZL.(49).

2. Catechin is phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, etc.
a. Body-weight regulation
Green tea has been proposed as a tool for obesity management as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, as researchers found that a green tea-caffeine mixture improves weight maintenance, through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, and sparing fat free mass. The sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may play an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general, according to “Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation” byWesterterp-Plantenga MS.(50)
b. Antioxidant activity
In the research on polyphenolic compounds (included catechins) in the berries of edible honeysuckle and their biological effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed found that These berries seem to be prospective sources of health-supporting phytochemicals that exhibit beneficial anti-adherence and chemo-protective activities, thus they may provide protection against a number of chronic conditions, e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumour growth or cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, according to “Phenolic profile of edible honeysuckle berries (genus lonicera) and their biological effects” by Jurikova T, Rop O, Mlcek J, Sochor J, Balla S, Szekeres L, Hegedusova A, Hubalek J, Adam V, Kizek R.(51)
c. Anti-inflammatory effect
In the preparation of the gel of Chinese medicine catechu, and to observe the release mechanism in vitro and anti-inflammatory activity in rats, found that the optimum condition of extraction from catechu was as follows, the concentration of ethanol, ratio of raw material to solvent, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature were 50% , 1: 12, 35 min and 60 degrees C, respectively. The formulation of catechu gel was carbomer-9 400.5 g, glycerol 5.0 g, the extracts of catechu 50.0 mL, and triethanomine 0.5 mL The gel was semitransparent and stable. The drugs released quickly. The catechu gel reduced the paw edema considerably in dose-dependent manner compared to carrageenan-induced rat, according to “[Preparation and pharmacodynamics studies on anti-inflammatory effect of catechu gel].[Article in Chinese]” by Zheng X, Zheng C.(52).

3. Theaflavin-3,3′-digallate, a theaflavin derivative, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly in black tea.
a. Antioxidant capacities
In the comparison of TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF(1)), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF(2)A), theaflavin-3′-gallate (TF(2)B), and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF(3))) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, indicated that positive antioxidant capacities of TF(2)B on singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found, according to “Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses” by Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY.(53)
b. Antimicrobial activities
In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of seven green tea catechins and four black tea theaflavins, found that (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-catechin-3-gallate, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3, 3′-digallate, theaflavin-3′-gallate, and theaflavin-3-gallate showed antimicrobial activities at nanomolar levels; (ii) most compounds were more active than were medicinal antibiotics, such as tetracycline or vancomycin, at comparable concentrations; (iii) the bactericidal activities of the teas could be accounted for by the levels of catechins and theaflavins as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography; (iv) freshly prepared tea infusions were more active than day-old teas; and (v) tea catechins without gallate side chains, gallic acid and the alkaloids caffeine and theobromine also present in teas, and herbal (chamomile and peppermint) teas that contain no flavonoids are all inactive, according to “Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus” byFriedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N.(54)
c. anti inflammation
found that a single topical application of equimolar of black tea constituents (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3′-gallate, and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate) strongly inhibited TPA-induced edema of mouse ears. Application of TFs mixture to mouse ears 20 min prior to each TPA application once a day for 4 days inhibited TPA-induced persistent inflammation, as well as TPA-induced increase in IL-1beta and IL-6 protein levels. TFs also inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism via both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase pathways, according to “Inhibitory effects of black tea theaflavin derivatives on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and arachidonic acid metabolism in mouse ears” byHuang MT, Liu Y, Ramji D, Lo CY, Ghai G, Dushenkov S, Ho CT.(55).

4. Myricetin is a flavonol, belong to the flavonoid in Flavonoids (polyphenols), found in many grapes, berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, as well as other plants. It has been used as antioxidant to lower cholesterol, treat certain types of cancer, etc.
a. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity
In the evaluation of extracted from plants containing phenolic compound, including flavonoid-galloyl glycoside [myricetin 3-O-(2',3'4'-tri-O-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside] and theirs antioxidant and cytotoxic effect found that the methanol extract exhibited high antioxidant activity (SC(50) = 3.94 µg/ml), which is correlated with its phenolic content. The extract also showed cytotoxic activity against Hep G2 (IC(50) value 1.41 µg/ml) confirming its anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma, according to the study of “Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of polyphenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of Leucenia leucocephala” by Haggag EG, Kamal AM, Abdelhady MI, El-Sayed MM, El-Wakil EA, Abd-El-Hamed SS.(56)
b. Antitumour and anti-inflammatory activities
In the observation of of flavonoids isolated from Byrsonima crass and its effect on mammary tumour cells LM2, found that almost all the samples showed inhibitory activity to the release of NO but not of TNF-alpha. Of all substances tested, flavonoids 2 (quercetin) and 6 (myricetin) may show promising activity in the treatment of murine breast cancer by immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities, according to “Isolated flavonoids against mammary tumour cells LM2″ by Carli CB, de Matos DC, Lopes FC, Maia DC, Dias MB, Sannomiya M, Rodrigues CM, Andreo MA, Vilegas W, Colombo LL, Carlos IZ.(57).

5. Cyanidin is an anthocyanins (flavonals), in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in red apple and pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, etc.
a. Antioxidants
In the verification of the chemical properties included composition of anthocyanins and other polyphenols, antioxidant activity and profiles of antioxidants by HPLC post-column derivatization or TLC of Polish cultivars of blue-berried honeysuckles (Lonicera caerulea L.), wild and bog bilberr, found that The antioxidant activity of different blue-berried honeysuckle cultivars was similar to that of wild growing bilberries (range from 170 to 417 μmol TE/g dm in ABTS and from 93-166 μmol TE/g dm in DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu tests). The major anthocyanin in the blue-berried honeysuckle was cyanidin-3-glucoside that constituted 84-92% of the total anthocyanins. The TLC and HPLC post-column antioxidant profiles indicated that anthocyanins are the major antioxidants in all berries studied, according to “Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Polish Blue-Berried Honeysuckle Genotypes by HPLC-DAD-MS, HPLC Post-Column Derivatization with ABTS or FC, and TLC with DPPH Visualization” by Kusznierewicz B, Piekarska A, Mrugalska B, Konieczka P, Namiesnik J, Bartoszek A (58)
b. Anti-inflammatory Effects
In the investigation of the cartilage-protecting and anti-inflammatory effects of a polyphenolic-enriched red raspberry extract (RRE; standardized to total polyphenol, anthocyanin, and ellagitannin contents), found that On treatment with RRE (50 μg/mL), there was a decrease in the rate of degradation of both proteoglycan and type II collagen. In the in vivo antigen-induced arthritis rat model, animals were gavaged daily with RRE (at doses of 30 and 120 mg/kg, respectively) for 30 days after adjuvant injection (750 μg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspension in squalene). At the higher dose, animals treated with RRE had a lower incidence and severity of arthritis compared to control animals, according to “Anti-inflammatory Effects of Polyphenolic-Enriched Red Raspberry Extract in an Antigen-Induced Arthritis Rat Model” by Jean-Gilles D, Li L, Ma H, Yuan T, Chichester CO, Seeram NP.(59)
c. Obesity
In the demonstration of Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g)-rich foods have been reported to inhibit the onset of obesity, found that Cy-3-g improves obesity and triglyceride metabolism in KK-Ay mice. The underlying mechanism is found to be partly related to the activation of LPL in plasma and skeletal muscle, and inhibition of LPL in adipose tissue following the activation of pAMPK, according to “Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside improves obesity and triglyceride metabolism in KK-Ay mice by regulating lipoprotein lipase activity” by Wei X, Wang D, Yang Y, Xia M, Li D, Li G, Zhu Y, Xiao Y, Ling W.(60)
6. Etc.

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Sources
(47) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20176036
(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1284389
(49) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10878235
(50) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20156466
(51) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269864
(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22256752
(53) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887850
(54) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496576
(55) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16404705
(56) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21595573
(57) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19323263
(58) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22264130
(59) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22111586
(60) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21360538

Saturday, October 24, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoarthritis Prevention: The Antioxidants

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.

Prevention
C. The Antioxidants
1. Immune system and functioning (Free radical scavengers)
Free Radicals play an important role in the function of the Immune System. The immune systen produces free radicals to kill foreign microbes, but the production of free radical sometime can be excessive, leading to formation of a large number of free radicals. The domino effects have shown to induce many chronic illness.
a. Vitamin A
vitamin A plays an essential roles in enhancing a broad range of immune processes, including white blood cells activation and proliferation, T-helper-cell differentiation, the production of specific antibody in regulation of the immune response(46a).
b. Vitamin C
Researchers found that vitamin C raised the concentration in the blood of total immunoglobulin(46b) in promotion of the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens(46c).
c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E not only increased both cell-dividing and IL-producing capacities of naive T cells but also enhanced the immune functions in association with significant improvement in resistance to influenza infection.
d. Zinc
Zinc, as a antioxidant is essential mineral improved immune system by enhancing the proper function of T cells which belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, in fighting against damaging free radicals.

2. Antioxidants and osteoarthritis
a. Vitamin E and fish oil
Diet included fish oil plus vitamin E significantly reduce the levels of inflammation by analyzing the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the blood serum.
b. Glucosamine
Glucosamine, a compound of the simple sugar glucose and the amino acid glutamine, is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, a major component of joint cartilage. Supplemental glucosamine showed to prevent cartilage degeneration and treat arthritis, according to study.
c. DLPA (dl- phenylalanine)
DLPA, a mixture of D-Phenylalanine and L-Phenylalanine, is a nutritional supplement amino acid. showed effectively reduces arthritis pain and joint inflammation in many patients.
d. Glucosamine and Methylsulfonylmethane
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with osteoarthritis of the knee were given a combination of glucosamine and MSM, or placebo. After 12 weeks, Combination of MSM and glucosamine may improve arthritis symptoms, according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
3. Etc.

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7864688
(46) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158208
(46a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25269669
(46b)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22366311
(46c)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18147027

Friday, October 23, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoarthritis: Treatment In conventional medicine perspective

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.

Treatments
A. In conventional medicine perspective

A.1. Bisphosphonates
1. Including Alendronate (Fosamax), Risedronate (Actonel, Atelvia), Ibandronate (Boniva), Zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa), etc..Bisphosphonates are antiresorptive medications widely prescribed for treatment of osteoporosis. The drugs have shown to significantly reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures(36). Higher risk patients should be treated bynonbisphosphonatefor 10 yr, have a holiday of no more than a year or two(37).

2. Side effects
a. Nausea
b. Abdominal pain
c. Difficulty swallowing
d. Rrisk of an inflamed esophagus or esophageal ulcers(38)
e. Risk of scleritis and a variety of ocular side effects(39)
f. Etc.

2. Hormone-related therapy
Hormone replacement therapy can help to maintain bone density for menopause women, but it increases
a, The risk of breast cancer and heart disease(40)
b. The risk for venous thromboembolism(41)
c. The risk of (Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers) NMSC.(42)
d. The risk of stroke(43)
e. etc.

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Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoarthritis: The Diagnosis and Complications

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.


Diagnosis

According to the Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Scientific Advisory Board, Osteoporosis Society of Canada, Screening and diagnostic methods: risk-factor assessment, clinical evaluation, measurement of bone mineral density, laboratory investigations.

If you are experience certain symptom of osteoporosis, the tests which your doctor order include
1. Blood and urinary tests
The aim of the tests is to check for the bone metabolism and the progression of bone (loss) diseases.

2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is one most common test to measure the total bone density of including spine, hip, wrist etc. with accurate result.

3. Quantitative Ultrasound and computed tomography (QCT)
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a portable and accurate technology used to evaluate bone density at the lumbar spine and hip without the use of ionizing radiation.
Computed Tomography (CT) scanner.a technology for measuring properties of bone at peripheral skeletal sites(23).
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), which are now the standard methods for assessing osteoporosis severity and treatment efficacy(24), but in cross-sectional study of males with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), High-resolution quantitative computed tomography (HRQCT)-based were more superior to DXA in discriminating between patients of differing prevalent vertebral fracture status(25).

4. Etc.

Complications associated with Osteoporosis
Pain, Fractures, Vertebral, Wrist, Rib fractures are associated with Osteoporosis, according to the study of New advances in imaging osteoporosis and its complications(26)
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References

(23) http://www.iscd.org/visitors/pdfs/10-QuantitativeUltrasoundintheMgmtofOsteo.pdf
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23154276
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23149277
(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22618377

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoarthritis: The Diet

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.

The Diet
1. Green tea
Black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TFDG) and green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) are found to be a lead compounds for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, through inhibition of the formation and differentiation of osteoclasts, according to study.

2. Organic soy
Ingestion soy isoflavone extracts (not soy protein or foods containing isoflavones) supplements increased lumbar spine BMD in menopausal women, but not femoral neck, hip total, and trochanter BMD, according to study.

3. Milk thistle seeds
Silibin found abundantly in Milk thistle seeds has shown to promote bone-forming osteoblastogenesis and encumber osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro cell systems of murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

4. Skin and seed of grape
Resveratrol, a phytohemical of skin and seed of grape promoted spontaneous osteogenesis(bone formation) but prevented adipogenesis(adipocytes instorage of fat) in human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal progenitors, according to study.

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoarthritis: The Causes of Risk Factors

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.
Causes of Risk Factors
A. Causes

1. Process of wear and repair
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread degenerative disease of skeletal joints and is often associated with senescence in vertebrates. OA commonly results from excessive or abnormal mechanical loading of weight-bearing joints (‘wear-and-tear’), arising from heavy long-term use or specific injuries; yet, in the absence of injury, the aetiology of OA remains obscure(6)
Improper repair process of injure of joints can result of symptoms of Osteoarthritis (OA) in old age, according to TCM.
2. Nutrient deficiency
Poor nutritional conditions experienced by moose (Alces alces) early in life are linked to greater prevalence of OA during senescence as well as reduced life expectancy(7).
3. Cartilage
Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue which cushions the ends of bones in your joints and allows the joints to move smoothly. If the cartilage becomes rough or wears down due to aging or damage, it can causes pain as a result of bone in the joint rubbing against another bone.
The above causes of Osteoarthritis (OA) are the result of injure, overuse, Rheumatoid Arthritis, etc.
4. Etc.
B. Risk factors
Aging changes in the musculoskeletal system contribute to the development of OA by making the joint more susceptible to the effects of other OA risk factors that include abnormal biomechanics, joint injury, genetics, and obesity. Age-related sarcopenia and increased bone turnover may also contribute to the development of OA(8). Other suggested that Osteoarthritis development in the injured joints is caused by intra-articular pathogenic processes initiated at the time of injury, combined with long-term changes in dynamic joint loading. Variation in outcome is reinforced by additional variables associated with the individual such as age, sex, genetics, obesity, muscle strength, activity, and reinjury(8a).
1. Age and age related sarcopenis
Older adult are at increased risk of developing osteoarthritis as a result of muscular atrophy that occurs due aging. Normal aging in humans is associated with declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength and increased muscle fatigability (sarcopenia). These changes, together with the age-associated decline in whole-body exercise tolerance (VO2max), can substantially reduce the amount and intensity of physical activities performed by elderly (>60 y) men and women (Evans 1995)(9).
2. Gender and race
Women and Male Asian are at higher risk to develop osteoarthritis than men and male Caucasians, accordingly. The total prevalence of knee ROA was 24.3 % (CI 23.4-25.2 %). The whole prevalence in male patients was 24.3 % (CI 23.4-25.2 %); I2 = 59.4 (p = 0.002) and in female patients 32.6 % (CI 31.8-33.4 %); I2 = 49,1 (p < 0.001). Younger male patients (age 50-) had a prevalence of 5.6 (CI 4.5-6.8). In older patients (80+) the male prevalence was 44.5 % (CI 39.6-49.5 %). In this age group female patients had a prevalence of 71.6 % (CI 67.6-75.3 %). The higher prevalence of knee ROA in female patients was significant (OR = 1.8 [1.7-1.9]; I2 = 46.0 [p < 0.001]). The prevalence of knee ROA was higher in male Asians compared with male Asians compared with male Caucasians(OR = 1.1, CI 0.9-1.2; p = 0.080) in tendency. This difference was significant in female patients (OR = 2.2; CI 2.0-2.4; p < 0.001). Furthermore another trend was evaluated. Female patients (70-79 years) from the birth-year cohort 1920- had a prevalence of 37.8 % (CI 35.9-39.7)%. In contrast female patients from the birth-year cohort 1920 had a prevalence of 62.8 % (CI 60.8-64.8 %) at 70-79 years. This difference was significant (OR = 2.8; CI 2.5-3.1; p < 0.001), according to research of Praxisklinik für Unfallchirurgie und Orthopädie(10)
3. Deformation of bone
People who were born with defective joints or cartilage are at increased risk of developing osteoarthritis.
4. Activity
People who involve in activity such as sport are at higher risk to develop osteoarthritis.
5. Obesity
Researchers at the McMaster University in the study of Obesity and knee osteoarthritis showed that the potential mechanisms to link obesity and knee osteoarthritis, as both a biomechanical and metabolic condition are strongly linked. It has been established that weight loss for obese patients with knee osteoarthritis is clinically beneficial, for pain reduction, and for improved function. The exact mechanism linking obesity and osteoarthritis is complex; however, it is our opinion that further evidence supporting the link between the two diseases will be useful in providing clinicians and researchers with targets for physical therapy and pharmacological management of obese patients with knee osteoarthritis(11).
6. Occupations
Certain occupation are associated to the increased risk of osteoarthritis, especially to workers involving repetitive movements that stress on a particular joint. OA is potentially aetiologically linked to occupation in a sizeable segment of the population and that OA can no longer be considered an inevitable disease of ageing(12).
7. Genetics
Genetic studies have identified polymorphisms associated with osteoarthritis and related end-points. These include genes in signaling cascades involved in joint and bone biology, as well as genes in inflammatory pathways and a cluster of five genes in perfect linkage disequilibrium in the 7q22 region(13).
8. Deficiency in DNA repair
In the study of Analysis of osteoarthritis in a mouse model of the progeroid human DNA repair syndrome trichothiodystrophy, suggested that in premature aging TTD mice age-related changes in cartilage were not more severe compared to WT mice, in striking contrast with bone and many other tissues. This segmental aging character may be explained by a difference in vasculature and thereby oxygen load in cartilage and bone(14).
9. Other diseases and conditions may have a higher risk of developing the condition.
a. Gout
Gout is defined as a type of arthritis as a result of uric acid builds up in blood that leads to joint inflammation. Acute attacks of gout at individual joint sites are associated with the presence of clinically assessed OA. In a study of A total of 4249 completed questionnaires were returned (32%). From 359 attendees, 164 cases of gout were clinically confirmed. A highly significant association existed between the site of acute attacks of gout and the presence of OA (aOR 7.94; 95% CI 6.27, 10.05). Analysis at individual joint sites revealed a significant association at the first metatarsophalangeal joint (aOR 2.06; 95% CI 1.28, 3.30), mid-foot (aOR 2.85; 95% CI 1.34, 6.03), knee (aOR 3.07; 95% CI 1.05, 8.96) and distal interphalangeal joints (aOR 12.67; 95% CI 1.46, 109.91)(15)
b. Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is defined as a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease that leads to the attack of flexible (synovial) joints, inflammation of the surrounding tissues and many tissues and organs. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cam cause progression of osteoarthritis in aging population.
c. Paget’s disease of the bone
Paget’s disease of bone is defined as a condition a chronic disorder that can lead to enlarged and misshapen bones resulting in excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue causing pain, misshapen bones, fractures, and arthritis in the joints near the affected bones(16). Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by excessive and abnormal bone remodeling. It may be localized to one or several skeletal segments. The disease seldom appears before the age of 40 years, but its prevalence tends to double each decade from the age of 50 onwards, reaching about 10% after ninth decade. PDB may virtually affect every bone in the skeleton. Affected bones are involved right away with no new involvement during the evolution. The basic symptom of the disease is bone pain, while complications depend on skeletal sites involved and range from secondary osteoarthritis to malignant degeneration(17).
d. Septic arthritis
Septic arthritis is a condition of inflammation of a joint as a result of bacterial or fungal infection of that it can lead to osteoarthritis. Others researchers suggest that joint sepsis should be considered if a patient with osteoarthritis develops new symptoms from a single joint with associated systemic features(18).
e. Etc.
9. Etc.
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Sources
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20618843
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20699160
(8a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761605
(9) http://jn.nutrition.org/content/128/2/351S.full
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21243591
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237485
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14573720
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20090528
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20820927
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284542
(16) . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paget%27s_disease_of_bone
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18592244
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1958098

Monday, October 19, 2015

Most common diseases of 50 plus: Musculo-Skeletal Disorders – Osteoarthritis - The Symptoms

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.

Symptoms
Symptoms of osteoarthritis is aching pain, stiffness, or difficulty moving the joint may develop in one or more joints. The pain usually gets worse in change of weather at night and in the advanced of the diseases the pain can occur even at rest.
1. Pain in joints of the hand
Most commonly affected joints of the hand in osteoarthritis include thecarpometacarpal joint of the thumb (CMC 1) and the distal (DIP) andproximal (PIP) interphalangeal joints. Ageing, female gender, genotype, heavy work causing pressure on the hands, and injuries predispose to osteoarthritis in the hand. The pain is likely to be due to secondary synovitis caused by molecules released from the joint cartilage(3).
2. Knee and Hip
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip is among the most frequent and debilitating arthritic conditionsosteoarthritis. Key features of the pathological joint changes in OA include: cartilage destruction by pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases and prostaglandins, which promote a catabolic environment; subchondral bone remodelling and resorption; hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes; neovascularisation of synovial tissue; and focal calcification of joint cartilage(4).
3. Spine
Vertebral deformity, in particular wedging, of the thoracic spine is not exclusively characteristic for osteoporosis and that certain vertebral deformities develop by mechanisms other than fracture. Osteoporotic fracture of the thoracic spine is characterized by an exaggerated reduction of the midheight to posterior height in addition to reduction of the anterior to posterior height. Osteoarthritis affecting the low back can lead to chronic low back pain (lumbago) and degenerative disc disease (spondylosis).
Other researchers indicated that Postmenopausal women with lumbar spine disc degeneration are characterized by increased CII degradation. The contribution of lumbar spine disc space narrowing (DSN) to type II collagen (CII) degradation was similar to, and independent of, the contribution of radiologic knee OA or clinical hand OA. Lumbar spine disc degeneration in elderly patients should be assessed when analyzing levels of C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of CII (CTX-II) in studies of knee, hip, and hand OA(5).

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References
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7864688
(2) http://health.yahoo.net/channel/musculoskeletal-disorders.html
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448556
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471357
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15476251

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoporosis Treatments In Traditional Chinese Medicine perspective

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoporosis is condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time.


V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese medicine perspective
Osteoporosis in elder is defined as one of the conditions of the drop of Kidney Jing to certain level. As we age, our kidney doesn’t have the energy to nourish the bones, and they become weak and brittle, leading to the symptoms of earaches, ringing in the ears, hearing loss, hair loss, teeth problems, knee pain and lower back pain, loss of sex drive, including osteoporosis.
1. Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang and Du Zhong (Cortex Eucommiae)
Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang and Du Zhong (Cortex Eucommiae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for the treatment of osteoporosis, according to the study by the
Department for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital(47)
2. Zuogui Pill
In the study to reveal the mechanism of Zuogui Pill (see text) in treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis from the angle of the Wnt signal transduction pathway and to provide further experimental evidence for expounding the scientific connotation of “the kidney dominating the bones” in TCM, found that Zuogui Pill can prevent and treat glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats by up-regulating the expression of the key signal molecules Wnt1, LRP-5 and beta-catenin in Wnt signal transduction pathway(48).
3. Embedding thread at Shenshu (BL 23)
In the study to observe the clinical effect of embedding thread at Shenshu (BL 23) for preventing and treating primary osteoporosis, found that BMDs of hip and lumbar vertebrae were both increased in the embedding thread group, and the BMDs of femoral neck and femoral trochanter in this group were significantly higher than those in the medication group (both P < 0.05). The rate of bone fracture during 5 years after treatment was 2.1% (1/48) in the embedding thread group, which was significantly lower than 18.2% (4/22) in the medication group (P < 0 05)(49).
4. Shaoyang Meridians
In the review to explore the theory of “Shaoyang Meridians being in charge of the bone” in Huangdi’s Internal Classic, which has been buried for long time, indicated that the theory of “Shaoyang Meridians being in charge of the bone” possibly first in the world recognizes osteoporosis being a general bony disease, and articulates that the Foot-Shaoyang Meradians can modulate bony strength under physiological and pathological conditions, and treat osteoporosis which mainly manifests as ostealgia and easy fracture(50).
5. Kidney-replenishing herbs (KRH)
In the study to investigate the effect of Kidney-replenishing herbs (KRH) on ovarian function of experimental rats with dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis (OP), showed that KRH could elevate the level of GH, LH, FSH, E2 and P, increase the weight and improve the histomorphologic features of ovary and uterus in OP rats(51).
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Sunday, October 18, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoporosis Treatments In Herbal medicine perspective

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoporosis is condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time.

V. Treatments
B. In herbal medicine perspective
1. Red clover
In the study to test the combined effect of a quality-controlled red clover extract (RCE) standardized to contain 40% isoflavones by weight (genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin present as hydrolyzed aglycones) together with a modified alkaline supplementation on bone metabolic and biomechanical parameters in an experimental model of surgically-induced menopause, showed that red clover preparation in dosages amenable to clinical practice do improve OVX-induced osteoporosis while a mild metabolic alkalosis might further synergize some therapeutic aspects(44).

2. Soy
In the study to to examine whether soybean protein isolate prevents bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency, researchers at the Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, indicated that despite the higher rate of bone turnover in the soybean-fed animals, the vertebral and femoral bone densities of these rats were significantly greater than those of rats in the ovx group, suggesting that formation exceeded resorption(45).

3. Soybeans, clover and alfalfa sprouts, and oilseeds (such as flaxseed)
Studies in humans, animals, and cell culture systems suggest that dietary phytoestrogens found in Soybeans, clover and alfalfa sprouts, and oilseeds (such as flaxseed) play an important role in prevention of menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, cancer, and heart disease(46). 

Saturday, October 17, 2015

Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) - Osteoporosis Treatments In conventional medicine perspective

By Kyle J. Norton(Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Osteoporosis is condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of the loss of bone density over a long period of time.

V. Treatments
A. In conventional medicine perspective
A.1. Bisphosphonates
1. Including Alendronate (Fosamax), Risedronate (Actonel, Atelvia), Ibandronate (Boniva), Zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa), etc..Bisphosphonates are antiresorptive medications widely prescribed for treating osteoporosis. In placebo-controlled clinical trials they have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures(36).
Others suggested that Because bisphosphonate accumulate in bone and provide some residual antifracture reduction when treatment is stopped, we recommend a drug holiday after 5-10 yr of bisphosphonate treatment. The duration of treatment and length of the holiday are based on fracture risk and pharmacokinetics of the bisphosphonate used. Patients at mild risk might stop treatment after 5 yr and remain off as long as bone mineral density is stable and no fractures occur. Higher risk patients should be treated for 10 yr, have a holiday of no more than a year or two, and perhaps be on a nonbisphosphonate treatment during that time(37).

2. Side effects
a. Nausea
b. Abdominal pain
c. Difficulty swallowing
d. Rrisk of an inflamed esophagus or esophageal ulcers(38)
e. Risk of scleritis and a variety of ocular side effects(39)
f. Etc.
2. Hormone-related therapy
Hormone replacement therapy can help to maintain bone density for menopause women, but it increases
a, The risk of breast cancer and heart disease(40)
b. The risk for venous thromboembolism(41)
c. The risk of (Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers) NMSC.(42)
d. The risk of stroke(43)
e. etc.
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