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Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua) treatments of Dementia Caused by Spleen Qi Deficiency

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                     Diseases of Central Nervous system

                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)
C.3. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine with function in absorbing nutrients and transport them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in  maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).

3. Safflower (Hong Hua)
Safflower, is a acrid, warm herb in nature, used in tradition Chinese medicine as anti-bacterial(1070), anti viral(1068)(1069), analgesic(1071), diabetic(1072)(1073), immune stimulant(1074), anti-inflammatory(1071), anti-spasmodic(1075) agent. As  a blood tonic in Chinese medicine, the herb is effective in treating dysmenorrhea(1075), amenorrhea(1075), by breaking up blood stagnation|(1077)(11078), improve blood flow(15) through warm-pungent-liver efficiency network(1079) and regulation of female reproductive hormone(1080) via liver, heart channels(1076).

Phytochemicals
1. Neocarthamin
2. Carthamin
3. Carthamone
4. Carthamidin
5. Saffloryellow
6. Saffloryellow-A
7. Apalmitic acid
8. Myristic acid
9. Lauric acid
10. Etc.

Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua) used in the treatment of symptoms of degenerative diseases(1091) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals, including major constituent Hydroxy-safflor yellow A(1081)baicalin, baicalein, wogonin(1088), in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1082)(1083), through anti oxidative stress(1086), anti inflammatory(1084))(1085) activities, against β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation(1081) induced neurotoxicity causes of  Alzheimer's disease.(1087)(1089) and neurodegeneration(1090).

1. In Alzheimer's disease
Neuroinflammation has shown to be a major contribution to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1092). Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA), isolated from safflower, inhibited Aβ 1-43₁ induced inflammation(1096) through anti microglia-mediated neurotoxicity activity(1094). In PC12 cells induced by β-amyloid neurotoxicity, the phytochemical also inhibited cell viability, glutathione level, through ameliorated enzymes found extensively in body tissues, formation of DNA fragmentation, and levels of reactive oxygen species(1095) and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators(1097).


2. In Neuroprotective effects(1098)
In Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA) at the molecular level, the chemical showed to inhibited energy metabolism disruption, excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress caused by impaired metabolism in rats with ischemia, through suppressing proinflammatory and upregulating an anti-inflammatory mechanism(1099). It also exerted its neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a major protein component of senile plaques induced neurotoxicity via decrease production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species(1101), and ROS marker, malondialdehyde,  and increased the level of glutathione, stabilized mitochondrial membrane(1100) and protected against excitotoxic neuronal death(1102).

3. In memory dysfunction
Intake of safflower oil has shown to improve learning and memory ability in n-3 fatty acid deficient male mice(1103) and in an age-related neuro deteriorative mouse model(1106), probably through modulated physiological properties of entorhinal cortex neurons(1104) and the balance of ratio of brain phospholipid(1107), respectively. Nicotiflorin, a natural flavonoid extracted from safflower, in cerebral multi-infarct dementia in rats model, showed to enhance spatial memory through reducd ROS production(1105).


Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton  

Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(1068) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23061633
(1069) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23990301
(1070) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712651
(1071) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24333963
(1072) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22098918
(1073) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22180326
(1074) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315002
(1075) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24212075
(1077) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Red+Sage+Root+and+uterus
(1078) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16181539
(11079) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25276956
(1080) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960183
(1076) http://alternativehealing.org/carthamus_tinctorius.htm
(1081) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24412680
(1082) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17448528
(1083) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23420419
(1084) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24412680
(1085) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23333598
(1086) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23684718
(1087) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16101743
(1088) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=safflower+Parkinson's+disease+PD
(1089) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25672970
(1090) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12360580
(1091) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070681
(1092) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25674199
(1093) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25404051
(1094) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24412680
(1095) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23420419
(1096) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23333598
(1097) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690200
(1098) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373810 
(1099) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3654365/
(1100) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22042506
(1101) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867942
(1102) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20526740
(1103) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19763040
(1104) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22551210
(1105) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Safflower+dementia+symptoms
(1106) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7712178
(1107) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10024623

Tuesday, February 17, 2015

Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Herbal Chai Hu (Bupleurum) in treatments of Dementia Caused by Spleen Qi Deficiency

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                     Diseases of Central Nervous system


                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)
C.3. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine with function in absorbing nutrients and transport them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in  maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).

Herbal medicine for Spleen Qi deficiency
2. Bupleurum
Chai Hu  the bitter, slightly cold herb is also known as bupleurum root, used in TCM as antitrypanosomal, antimicrobial and antiviral, such as cold and influenza, alternated chill and fever, malaria(1047), cytotoxic(1045)  and anti-cancer agent(1046) and to treat irregular menses, prolapse of uterus and rectum(1048), etc., as it regulates and clears heat, improve liver function, raises Yang(1048) resolves depression and stagnation, etc. by enhancing the functions of liver, gall bladder, pericardium, triple burner channels.

Phytochemicals
 1. β-terpinene
2. imonene
3. β-fenchene

4. ulegone
5. Isoborneol
6. β-terpineol
7. α-copaene
8. Humulene
9. A-farnesene
10. Aromadendrene
11. Cis-caryophyllene
12. β-elemene,13. Gamma-muurolene
14. Patchoulane
15. Pootkatone
16. Ledol
17. Etc.

Herbal chai hu used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(1049)(1050) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1051) through its cytoprotection of neuron, and the neuroprotective mechanisms (1052), against apoptosis of neurons(1051) due Aβ oligomer-induced neuronal damage(1060) in concentration of corticosterone on hippocampal neurons(1059) in a dose-dependent manner.

Yokukansan, a popular herbal combination in Japan and China, containing chai hu,  may be the next potential herbal formula used for treatment, Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD)(1064)(1065)(1066).

2.1. In dementia symptoms
In dementia, Yokukansan, also known as TJ-54, is composed of sev Angelica acutiloba, Atractylodes lancea, Bupleurum falcatum, Poria cocos, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Cnidium officinale and Uncaria rhynchophylla,(1052)showed to ameliorated the memory disturbance, anxiety-like behavior, the increase in aggressive behaviors,  the decrease in social behaviors, ameliorates learning deficits and non-cognitive defects(1055) through improvement of neuronal and astroglial cells, via inhibit glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity(1053)(1054). According to 1Keimei Memorial Hospital in Japan, the formula also showed to improve behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) together with donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1056).

2.2. In Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies
In Alzheimer's disease, Yokukansan improved psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)(1058), such as  hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, irritability or abnormal behavior(1057)  in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1056). In patients with dementia with Lewy bodies Kampo medicine, yokukansan (YKS), including chai hu, also improved behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), through neuropsychiatric Inventory scores(1061).

2.3. In Parkinson's disease
In neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease, yokukansan, containing Chai hu, using the Unified PD Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III) and Hoehn and Yahr scale, showed effectively in ameliorated symptoms of delusions, agitation, depression, euphoria, disinhibition with aberrant motor activity tended to improve but irritability showed no change with oral administration of (7.5 g/day) for 12 weeks(1062). In behavioral and psychological symptoms, the herbal formula, also exhibited improvements of these symptoms, without worsening cognitive function, ability to perform activities of daily living, or parkinsonism, after 4 weeks(1063). Yokukansankachimpihange, another formula containing chai hu, showed to exhibit anti hallucinate effects, through its major phytochemical atractylenolide III and β-eudesmol, through its antagonistic activity against serotonin receptors induced non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease and various forms of dementias(1067).

According to traditional Chinese medicine, the effectiveness of a herbal formula, is not results of single ingredient or single herb, but the combination of all ingredients of all herbs in the formula, even some of herbs in  the formula may show an significant efficacy in Western studies and clinical trials.

Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton  

References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(845) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20451955
(846) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855622
(1045) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24438177
(1046) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21143894
(1047) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20796273
(1048) http://alternativehealing.org/chai_hu.htm
(1049) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20812276
(1050) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19801831
(1051) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23694845
(1052) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Bupleurum+Alzheimer's+disease
(1053) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19801831
(1054) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409210
(1055) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19146938
(1056) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20170698
(1057) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20184936
(1058) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19538824
(1059) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25022209
(1060) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23838475
(1061) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23279145
(1062) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24169925
(1063) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948198
(1064) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055705
(1065) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19079814
(1066) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246794
(1067) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25237752

Monday, February 16, 2015

Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Herbal Peony (Chi Shao) treatments of Dementia Caused by Spleen Qi Deficiency

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.



                     Diseases of Central Nervous system


                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)
C.3. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine with function in absoring nutrients and transport them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in  maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).
Herbal medicine for Spleen Qi deficiency
1. Peony (Chi Shao)
Chi Shao or Chi Shao Yao with bitter, sour taste and cool in nature is also known as Peony Root, used in TCM as antispasmodic(1000)(1001), anti-inflammatory(1002)(1003), anti allergic(1004)  antibiotic(1005), anticonvulsant(1006), analgesic(1007), anxiolytic(1008) agent and to lower blood pressure(1009), dilate peripheral blood vessels, coronary arteries against heart attack(1010), treat viral hepatitis(1011), chronic constipation(1012), asthma(1013), whooping cough(1014), diabetes(1015)(1016), etc., as it clears heat, cools blood, eliminates blood accumulation, calms paindilates, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver and spleen channels(1017).

Phytochemicals
1. Essential oil
2. Resin
3. Paeoniflorin
4. Paeonol
5. Paeonin
6. Albiflorin
7. Triterpenoids
8. Sistosterol
9. Oxypaeoniflorin
10. Benzoylpaeoniflorin
11. Benzoic acid
12. β sitosterol
13. Gallotannin
14. Pedunculagin
15. 1-O-Galloylpedunculagin
16. Eugeniin
17. Tannin acid
18. Etc.

Herbal shao yao used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(1018)(1019) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals, including major constituent paeoniflorin, in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1020)(1021) through anti oxidative stress(1022), anti inflammatory(1023), improving neural synapse plasticity(1024) mechanisms, against β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation(1025) induced  senile dementia and aging-induced cognitive dysfunction(1026).

1.1. Parkinson's disease PD
Strong evidences suggested that peony, possesses wide pharmacological effects in nervous system(1027)(1028). Paeoniflorin, a phytochemical isolated from peony, in PC12 cells induced by 6-OHDA found in patient with Parkinson's disease(1030),showed to suppress mitochondria apoptosis, through its antioxidant capability in increasing glutathione (GSH)(1032). by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS)(1031). In Parkinson's disease (PD) progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons involved movement and mitochondrial dysfunction, in mouse model, peony significantly inhibited mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, via the regulation of expression of immunity, inhibition of cytochrome C associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.release and caspase-3, a protein encoded by in CASP3 gene, activation(1031). According to University of Miami, polyphenols, included baicalin, baicalein, wogonin (in scutellaria), and paeonol, paeonoside, paeoniflori, found in peony, exerted neuroprotective efficacy, probably through improving cerebral blood circulation, involved alleviation of the symptoms of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)(1033).

1.2. In Alzheimer's disease AD
Abeta42 deposition in hippocampus has shown to induce the brain inflammation causes of early onset of Alzheimer's disease AD(1034)(1035). Paeonol(2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone;1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethan-1-one), found in peony, not only protect the nervous system against accumulation of amyloid peptide, Aβ1-42, through its anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties, but also slowed down in regulated  the pathogenic processes associated with AD, through morphological, biochemical and behavioral activities(1036). Aqueous extract of the dry root of Peony in Abeta((1-42))-induced rats, also inhibited Abeta-induced neurotoxicity, through ameliorated cognitive deficit,  cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manner(1037).

1.3. In cognitive impairment
Cognitive impairment is common in patients with the neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD, Paeoniflorin, isolated from the aqueous extract of peony, in rat model, not only showed to promote the cognitive ability, exhibited anti-depressant-like effect and reduced toxicity, but also attenuated the oxidative stress induced Aβ(1-42) by regulating choline acetyltrasferase and the activity of acetylcholine esterase in the hippocampus of Aβ(1-42)(1038)(1039). In Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, associated with the cognitive deficits of AD, the phytochemical also attenuated cognitive deficit and brain damage through ameliorated astrocytes(star-shaped glial cells in CNS) and microglias(glial cell in CNS) in hippocampus(1040). According to Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, on cerebral infarction induced neurological symptoms, paeoniflorin (PF) significantly reduced the infarct volume causes of cognitive impairment(1041).

1.4. In learning and memory
Supplementation of paeonol extractedfrom peony, in d-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice, significantly improved the learning and memory ability through reduction of oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity, according to China Pharmaceutical University(1042). Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), an herbal formula,  containing peony and 5 other herbs, used to treat gynecological disorders and neural dysfunctions, in the same model study, showed effectively in improved cognitive ability, through ameliorating oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis in the brain(1043). Paeoniflorin, a major constituent of peony, also exhibited its beneficial effect on learning and memory impairment in rodents, by reversed the suppressible effects of adenosine as shown on passive avoidance test and inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP)(1044).

Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton  

Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(1000) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19050990
(1001) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Peony+spastic
(1002) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22921747
(1003) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19003727
(1004) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18449501
(1005) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22891951
(1006) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18448067
(1007) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24467538
(1008) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15970315
(1009) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15015358
(1010) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21112198
(1011) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25479726
(1012) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Peony+constipation
(1013) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25289045
(1014) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Peony+coughs
(1015) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9703625
(1016) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045390
(1017) http://alternativehealing.org/bai_shao.htm
(1018) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185921
(1019) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19457098
(1020) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16086036
(1021) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23695964
(1022) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446358
(1023) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25165413
(1024) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23667997
(1025) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21377451
(1026) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7816876 
(1027) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980368
(1028) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23667997
(1028) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16086036
(1029) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9120425
(1030) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446358
(1031) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24389454
(1032) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023341
(1033) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070681
(1035) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9197277
(1036) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9798591
(1037) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268972 
(1038) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715794
(1039) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268972
(1040) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16678139
(1041) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16137717
(1042) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19007942
(1043) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22414474
(1044) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11379768

Sunday, February 15, 2015

Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments of Dementia In Traditional Chinese Medicine

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Diseases of Central Nervous system

                           Dementia


About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(1)
In the study to evaluate the effect of TCM in dementia at the Unilever R&D Shanghai, and Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, Dr. and the team of researchers indicated that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action. And according to Ancient Records on TCM for Cognitive Decline. The scientists wrote that dementia is as a result of
1. Deficiency of Energy, mainly from the kidney, heart, and spleen, especially from the kidney.
Deficiency of energy is similar to “Qi” deficiency in TCM. According TCM lore Qi is the essential substance that makes up the body and maintains various physiological activities, similar to flow of energy in the body. The energy is mainly from the kidney, heart, and spleen, especially from the kidney.  In TCM, the energy from the kidney is called kidney essence which can produce marrow including cerebral marrow, spinal cord, and bone marrow. The cerebral marrow can nourish the brain and maintain the physiological functions of the brain. If the kidney essence is insufficient, the production of cerebral marrow will be reduced, leading to various symptoms, such as headache, dizziness, amnesia, and retard response.

2.  Blood Stasis
Normally the blood is pumped by the heart to flow in the vessels. If blood circulation is stagnated or slowed down by certain factors such as cold, emotional disorder, aging, consumptive disease, and overstrain, it will result in retention of blood flow in the vessels or organs, a pathological condition named blood stasis. The cognitive function will decline, due to long-term global hypo-perfusion in cerebral blood flow or acute focal stroke in memory-related cerebral parenchyma.

3.  Toxins
As the function of internal organs in the elderly decline, the balance between host defense and external toxins in the body is disrupted. Pathological or physiological products occur and form toxin including waste of “water” and “endogenous fire”, which result from the poor digestion, accumulates into phlegm and retention of fluid, and caused by mental disorder, attack from pathological factors, and imbalance within the body, respectively. If such toxins can not be eliminated quickly the blood circulation and mental acuity will be affected, eventually contributing to the onset of dementia.

Finally, the authors summarized "in TCM philosophy, AD is assumed to be induced by kidney essence vacuity and toxin (turbid phlegm).  The amnestic mild cognitive impairment in elderly population has been disclosed in a clinical investigation to correlate with kidney essence vacuity and turbid phlegm blocking upper orifices. The whole cognitive function may worsen because of the aggravation of kidney essence vacuity, deficiency of blood and qi, phlegm and heat toxin and may eventually lead to multiple cognitive domains impairment, even dementia"

Further to the article, the authors also indicated that Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside, isolated from the fresh Radix rehmanniae and existed broadly in many plants all over the world has many biological functions such as anti-inflammation, promoting of sex hormones production, protection of liver damage, and reduction of elevated blood sugar.
Recently, catalpol has been identified as a vital active with robust cognitive potential (Figure 4). Behaviour studies exhibited that catalpol reversed brain damage and memory deficits in mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactose and in gerbils by cerebral ischemia. The nootropic and neuroprotective efficacy of catalpol probably resulted from a variety of underlying molecular mechanisms (Table 7).
(i)Antioxidant activity: catalpol promoted endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities,  superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and antioxidant glutathione (GSH), cut down malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in PC12 cells and astrocytes primary cultures, exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation  or H2O2, and in senescent mice induced by D-galactose [79–81, 86, 89, 91, 92].

(ii)Anti-inflammatory activity: catalpol significantly reduced the release of ROS, TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression after Aβ (1–42)-induced microglial activation in primary cortical neuron-glia cultures, and LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in mice [78, 87].

(iii)Neurogenetic activity: catalpol can enhance axonal growth of cortical neurons cultured in vitro from 24 h newly born rat, at 1–5 mg/mL and ameliorate age-related presynaptic proteins decline (synaptophysin and GAP-43), and neuroplasticity loss in the hippocampus of the aged rats, by upregulating protein kinase C (PKC) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) [85, 88].

 (iv)Antiapoptotic activity: catalpol not only suppressed the downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytosol, but also attenuated caspase-3 activation, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and eventually protected against H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and in the ischemic dorsal hippocampus of gerbils subject to CCAO [82–84, 90]. (v)In addition, the function to stimulate the production of adrenal cortical hormones, which increases the production of sex hormones, is likely implicated into the cognitive benefit of catalpol in menopausal women [92]. 


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Sources
(1) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/

Saturday, February 14, 2015

(Preview)Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Dan shen treatments of Dementia Caused by Heart Qi Deficiency

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                     Diseases of Central Nervous system


                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (810)
C.2. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to 
C.2.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart  Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842).
Herbal medicine for Heart Qi deficiency
1. Dan shen
Dan Shen is also known as Red Sage Root with taste of   the bitter and slightly cold in nature, used in TCM as antithrombotic(845), antihypertonic (lowering blood pressure)(846), antimicrobial(847), anti-inflammatory(848)(849), agent and to treat coronary and cerebrovascular disease, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis, restlessness, insomnia, irritability,(850) etc., by enhancing the functions of heart and liver channels.

Phytochemicals
1. Cryptotanshinone
2. Hydroxytanshinone,
3. Methyltanshinonate
4. Methylene tanshiquinone
5. Przewatanshinquinone A
6. Przewatanshinquinone B
7. Miltirone
8. Dihydrotanshinone I
9. Tanshinol A
10. Tanshinol B
11. Tanshinol C,
12. Nortanshinone
13. 1, 2, 15, 16-tetrahydrotanshiquinone
14. Danshensuan A, B, C
15. Protocatechuic acid,
16. Protocatechuic aldehyde
17. Etc.


1.1. Dementia 
According to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, dan shen in the pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, showed to exert its neuroprotective activity through antiparkinsonian, relaxant, analgesic and  memory enhancing(850). In PC12 cells, combination application of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, effectively inhibited the formation of amyloid fibrils and protected PC12 cells(855) from beta-AP25-35-induced cytotoxicity and ROS accumulation(854).

1.2. Alzheimer's disease (AD)
Simple poly hydroxycinnamic acids and diterpenoid quinone, showed to improve cognitive deficits in mice model, through protection of neuronal cells, prevention of amyloid fibril formation and preformed amyloid fibril disaggregation related to Alzheimer's disease(851). Salvianolic acid B (Sal B)isolated from dan shen, in animal model, not only prevented Abeta-induced cytotoxicity(857) but also improved cognitive deficits and protection of neuronal cells(852), through its effects on suppressing the production of ROS, calcium flux, and apoptosis(853) and promoted amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism toward the non-amyloidogenic products pathway in cortical neuronal cell(856) and multifunctional machenisms(857). Compound Danshen Tablets (CDST), in rat model, exhibited spatial cognitive protection through decreased beta-APP expression in the cortex and hippocampus, detected via immunohistochemistry(859).

1.3.  In learning and memory impairment
In diabetic rats model, dan shen injection improved the learning and memory decline, through upregulation of expression of MKP-1 in reduced inflammation(861) under hyperglycemia(860). HX106N, a Chimese herbal formula, containing dan shen, in Aβ25-35 peptide mice, enhanced on memory impairment and oxidative stress through increased levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)(862). In a joint study of renowned institutions, in mouse model, myelophil, a combination of extracts taken from Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, significantly exhibited its anti-amnesic properties in  memory impairment, through the modulation of cholinergic activity(863). Tanshinones, a group of diterpenoids found in dan shen, improved learning and memory impairments, through its inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase(864)

1.4. In neuroprotective effects
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), one of the major active constituents of dan shen exerted its neuroprotective effects, by inhibiting transcription and translation of genes involved AD development(858). In neurotoxicity of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) contributed Alzheimer's disease (AD), dan shen extract suppressed the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, through deduction of decreased the protein expression involved in the development of neurodegenerative disease, including ADs(865). According to Eur J Pharmacol and University of Sydney, salvianolic acid B (SalB), in mouse model, exhibited neuroprotective effects in an amyloid β (Aβ) peptide-induced Alzheimer's disease, through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects(866) and ameliorated cholinergic dysfunction- or Aβ(25-35)-induced memory impairment(867), respectively.
Back to General health http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/p/general-health.html

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Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Medicine by Kyle J. Norton 


References
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(845) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20451955
(846) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855622
(847) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272827
(848) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23469598
(849) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25525444
(850) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16619340
(851) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24393583
(852) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17964692
(853) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16890202
(854) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17039773
(855) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22314911
(856) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19154776
(857) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23703159
(858) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859152
(859) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22594104
(860) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25187809
(861) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22320295
(862) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24694662
(863) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690775
(864) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17714702
(865) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24932696
(866) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23461850
(867) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903108 

Friday, February 13, 2015

(4th edited )Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Sang Shen (Mulberry Fruit) treatments of Dementia Caused by Heart Qi Deficiency

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.



                     Diseases of Central Nervous system


                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (810)
C.2. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to 
C.2.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart  Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842).
Herbal medicine for Heart Qi deficiency  
4. Sang shen also known as Mulberry or Morus Fruit, the sweet, sour and cold herb has been used in TCM as antioxidant(968)(969), antiinflammatory(969), anti ageing(991) and neuroprotective(968)(970) agent and to treat vertigo, tinnitus, insomnia, atherosclerosis(971)(973), vascular smooth muscle cells(972), lipid accumulation(974), weak digestion, premature white hair, thirst(967), diabetes(967), diarrhea, etc., as it nourishes Yin, and Blood, promotes generation of Body Fluid, moistens the Intestines, etc. by enhancing the functions of heart, liver and kidney channels(975).

Phytochemicals
1. Resveratrol
2. Anthocyanosides
3. Carotene
4. Thiamine
5. Ribflavin
6. Vtamin C
7. Vannin
8. Linoleic acid
9. Stearic acid
10. Etc.

Herbal sang shen used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(977) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(968)(970) through anti oxidative stress(968)(969), anti inflammatory(969) and anti excitotoxic (involved Alzheimer's disease) mechanisms(978) against cell membrane damage and mitochondrial function induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and glutamate-induced cell death(977).

1. In aging Alzheimer's disease(ADs)
Decreased the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase caused by oxidative stress(979), alanine aminotransferase(980), triglyceride(981) and total cholesterol(982) due to ageing have shown to involve in the development of Alzheimer's disease. In in ageing animals, mulberry extracts (ME), rich in phenolics and anthocyanins, significantly demonstrated  less amyloid beta protein and improved learning and memory ability through its antioxidant enzymes and reduction of oxidative damage(983).
Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) fraction extracted from sang shen effectively protected primary cortical neurons in 7 days, against glutamate-induced cell death cause of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease(ADs(978) in rat model(984).

2. In Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD), is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders with result of dopaminergic deafferentation of the basal ganglia)(985) and involvement of oxidative stress(986)(987).
According to Kyung Hee University, 70 % ethanol extract of mulberry fruit (ME), in dose-dependent manner, in vitro and in vivo PD models showed to prevent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage(999), through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, regulating reactive oxygen species and NO generation(988).
 
3. Neuroprotective effects
Cyanidin-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (C3G) found abundantly in the mulberry fruits exerted significantly its cytoprotective effect on PC12 cells(derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla) under oxidative stress induced neuro-degenerative diseases(983)(989). In neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, caused by cerebral ischemia, mulberry leaves (ML) exhibited neuroprotective actions in reduced the cytotoxicity in the PC12 cells against oxygen glucose deprivation with enhanced accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(990).

4. In memory improvement
In in mice model, mulberry fruits extract, significantly increased pre- and post-synapse formation(992), acetylcholine synthesisation(993), neuronal cell differentiation(994), neurite outgrowth(995) and neuronal cell proliferation(996) in the hippocampus, against loss of memory through its antioxidant in protecting or enhancing neuronal functions mediated by neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF)(991). According to National Chung Hsing University, in memory deterioration in ageing animals, phenolics and anthocyanins, from mulberry fruits, inhibited amyloid beta protein(998) and improved learning and memory ability through induced  higher antioxidant enzyme activity and less lipid oxidation in both the brain and liver(997).


References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(967) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23936259
(968) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25580148
(969) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23957352
(970) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23424869
(971) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24833292
(972) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25614977
(973) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21619919
(974) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24143244
(975) http://alternativehealing.org/sang_shen.htm
(976) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22952555
(977) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22359473
(978) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23481689
(979) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18416873
(980) http://www.researchgate.net/publication/13595646_Increased_aspartate_aminotransferase_activity_in_cerebrospinal_fluid_and_Alzheimer%27s
_disease
(981) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25076901
(982) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12742802
(983) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Morus+Fruit+aging+dementia
(984) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22359473
(985) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181806/
(986) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24252804
(987) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12666096
(988) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187987
(989) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16181734
(990) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16462030
(991) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23182412
(992) http://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&ved=0CFIQFjAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fpii%2FS0896627304001825&ei=_zLWVK3lKM6GyASJuoGoDQ&usg=AFQjCNEyc3lFHKLgR23BgeVDvLJlA88EPw&sig2=X0709mxdzLje7Wm8hEa0Cg&bvm=bv.85464276,d.aWw
(993) http://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCQQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnewsroom.ucla.edu%2Freleases%2Flost-memories-might-be-able-to-be-restored-new-ucla-study-indicates&ei=UTPWVL2RB4r5yATevoCYDg&usg=AFQjCNGgIpa9vkpNArifuMS8d5CLtiNfaA&sig2=Afv4YqTenwLVNXkc0Cr6Cw&bvm=bv.85464276,d.aWw
(994) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17978032
(995) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15010693
(996) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22403568
(997) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19443193
(998) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23451158
(999) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22403568

Thursday, February 12, 2015

(4 edited)Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM treatments of Dementia Caused by Kidney Qi Deficiency

Weight Loss the Easy Ways
Andrea Albright Featured on Health and Fitness Jan. 2015
will Personally Coach You How to Get There The Easy Way

If You Are Looking For a SoulMate
Celebrity Patti Stanger Will Coach You To Get Him/Her
and Keep Him/Her for Good,The Simple Way

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.



                     Diseases of Central Nervous system


                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (810)
C.2. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.2.1. Kidney Qi deficiency
Kidney Qi  deficiency is a condition of the inability of kidney in expelling extra fluid in the body through urinary secretion via bladder, cause of fluid retention. If the fluid accumulation(a) or hydration(b) occurs in the brain(a) in a prolong period of time, these possibilities can induce abnormal function of neurons in information transmitting or gradual death of brain's neurons(c), leading cognitive impairment, including dementia. In elders, kidney Qi deficiency may also be related to gradual depletion of kidney essences(Jing) due to aging, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
Chinese herbs used to treat kidney Qi  deficiency include
1. Lu rong
Lu rong is also known as deer antler, deer antler velvet,  used in traditional Chinese medicine to reduce the blockage of the meridian liver and kidney for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(811), osteoarthritis(812), sexual function(813)(814), and sporting performance enhancement(810)(815) by enhancing the yang energy(815). Since qi deficiency is also related to  blood deficiency(816), improving the body yang by strengthening the liver's function in blood formation(816) and kidney's function in fluid distribution(817), showed to reduce the yang deficiency in the body. In neuroprotective effect, deer antler extract  prevented glutamate-induced oxidative stress of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation causes of neurodegenerative disorders(832).

2. Du Zhong
Du Zhong, also known ecommia bark, is one the most used herb to enhance the function of meridian kidney-liver by promoting the qi and blood formation. The liver is a organ in charge of blood storing and blood formation(818) and kidney is in charge of fluid regulation(817), administration of the du zhong promotes kidney yang  through action of harmony in increasing blood flow(819) and reducing fluid accumulated(820) in the body (821).  In learning and memory deficits mice caused by oxidative stress, du zhong significantly improved the impairment of short-term or working memory and reversed learning and memory deficits(833), through inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in a dose-dependent manner (834) and oxidative stress causes of neuronal cell death(835)

3. Ba Ji Tian
Ba ji tian, is also known as Chinese morinda root with sweet and warm in nature. used in TCM to strengthen the liver(823) and kidney qi(822) and blood yang(824) in enhancing the liver in blood formation and kidney in urinary secretion, According to Academy of Military Medical Sciences, ba ji tian showed a strong anti antidepressant activities through its phytochemicals succinic acid, nystose, 1F-fructofuranosylnystose, inulin-type hexasaccharide and heptasaccharide(836)(837).

4. Rou Chong Rong
Rou Chong Rong is also known as Herba Cistanche used in traditional Chinese medicine for reducing the blockage of kidney-large intestine meridian(825), by increasing the kidney function in fluid regulation through improved blood circulation(826) assisted urinary secretion and digestive system in moving waste. In  mouse model with learning and memory deficit, rou chong rong extract increased neuronal cell differentiation, neurite length, and synapse formation in  hippocampus, through nerve growth factor (NGF) biological activities, such as preventing neuronal death(838), memory loss, and increases long-term potentiation and learning task(839).

5. Bu Gu Zhi
Bu gu zhi is also known as psoralea fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine in treating blockage of meridian kidney-Spleen(827) by tonifying the yang(828) and increasing the kidney function(829) in assisting the function of lung qi(830) and the function of spleen in qi distribution(831). In stem neoronal study, phytochemicals psoralen, oleanolic acid, and stilbene glucoside found in psoralea fruit exerted it anti cognitive protective effect through promoting self-renewal of neural stem cells NSCs and neuron-like differentiation(840). In rat with Huntington's disease (HD) using 3-NP induced  mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured (PC12) cells, psoralea corylifolia Linn seed extracts, showed significant protective effect against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced cytotoxicity(841).

Back to General health http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/p/general-health.html

Back to Kyle J. Norton Home page http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca

Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Medicine by Kyle J. Norton 

References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ (a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18479516
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24517977
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18479516
(810) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23321886
(811) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12003439
(812) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21750784
(813) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15949530
(814) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23475732
(815) http://www.chineseherbshealing.com/deer-antler-velvet/
(816) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24187879
(817) http://tcmbasics.com/zangfu_5zang_kidney.htm
(818) http://www.innerbody.com/image_digeov/card10-new2.html
(819) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244772
(820) http://www.dallasacu.com/articles/chinese-herb-pictures/eucommia-bark/
(821) http://fourflowerswellness.com/EAM/du-zhong/
(822) http://www.tcmwiki.com/wiki/ba-ji-tian
(823) http://www.americandragon.com/Individualherbsupdate/BaJiTian.html(824http://www.yinyanghouse.com/theory/herbalmedicine/ba_ji_tian_tcm_herbal_database
(824) http://cm-cure.com/Rou-Cong-Rong-Chinese-herbs
(825) http://herbprime.com/Cistanche%20Capsules%20(Rou%20Cong%20Rong%20)(NONE%20CITES)
(826) http://menstruationdisorders-51.blogspot.com.au/2009/11/overcome-infertility-how-to-treat.html
(827) http://www.tcmwiki.com/wiki/bu-gu-zhi
(828) http://qiherbs.com/bu-gu-zhi.html
(829) http://plantcures.com/buguzhi.html
(830) http://www.yinyanghouse.com/theory/herbalmedicine/bu_gu_zhi_tcm_herbal_database
(831) http://fourflowerswellness.com/EAM/bu-gu-zhi/
(832) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24460377
(833) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24404337
(834) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20974223
(835) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24440915
(836) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7626209
(837) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305701007304
(838) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20849880
(839) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19788912
(840) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25509270
(841) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25277760

Wednesday, February 11, 2015

(4 edited))Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Dan shen treatments of Dementia Caused by Heart Qi Deficiency

Weight Loss the Easy Ways
Andrea Albright Featured on Health and Fitness Jan. 2015
will Personally Coach You How to Get There The Easy Way

If You Are Looking For a SoulMate
Celebrity Patti Stanger Will Coach You To Get Him/Her
and Keep Him/Her for Good,The Simple Way

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                     Diseases of Central Nervous system


                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (810)
C.2. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to 
C.2.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart  Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842).
Herbal medicine for Heart Qi deficiency
1. Dan shen
Dan Shen is also known as Red Sage Root with taste of   the bitter and slightly cold in nature, used in TCM as antithrombotic(845), antihypertonic (lowering blood pressure)(846), antimicrobial(847), anti-inflammatory(848)(849), agent and to treat coronary and cerebrovascular disease, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis, restlessness, insomnia, irritability,(850) etc., by enhancing the functions of heart and liver channels.

Phytochemicals
1. Cryptotanshinone
2. Hydroxytanshinone,
3. Methyltanshinonate
4. Methylene tanshiquinone
5. Przewatanshinquinone A
6. Przewatanshinquinone B
7. Miltirone
8. Dihydrotanshinone I
9. Tanshinol A
10. Tanshinol B
11. Tanshinol C,
12. Nortanshinone
13. 1, 2, 15, 16-tetrahydrotanshiquinone
14. Danshensuan A, B, C
15. Protocatechuic acid,
16. Protocatechuic aldehyde
17. Etc.


1.1. Dementia 
According to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, dan shen in the pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, showed to exert its neuroprotective activity through antiparkinsonian, relaxant, analgesic and  memory enhancing(850). In PC12 cells, combination application of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, effectively inhibited the formation of amyloid fibrils and protected PC12 cells(855) from beta-AP25-35-induced cytotoxicity and ROS accumulation(854).

1.2. Alzheimer's disease (AD)
Simple poly hydroxycinnamic acids and diterpenoid quinone, showed to improve cognitive deficits in mice model, through protection of neuronal cells, prevention of amyloid fibril formation and preformed amyloid fibril disaggregation related to Alzheimer's disease(851). Salvianolic acid B (Sal B)isolated from dan shen, in animal model, not only prevented Abeta-induced cytotoxicity(857) but also improved cognitive deficits and protection of neuronal cells(852), through its effects on suppressing the production of ROS, calcium flux, and apoptosis(853) and promoted amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism toward the non-amyloidogenic products pathway in cortical neuronal cell(856) and multifunctional machenisms(857). Compound Danshen Tablets (CDST), in rat model, exhibited spatial cognitive protection through decreased beta-APP expression in the cortex and hippocampus, detected via immunohistochemistry(859).

1.3.  In learning and memory impairment
In diabetic rats model, dan shen injection improved the learning and memory decline, through upregulation of expression of MKP-1 in reduced inflammation(861) under hyperglycemia(860). HX106N, a Chimese herbal formula, containing dan shen, in Aβ25-35 peptide mice, enhanced on memory impairment and oxidative stress through increased levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)(862). In a joint study of renowned institutions, in mouse model, myelophil, a combination of extracts taken from Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, significantly exhibited its anti-amnesic properties in  memory impairment, through the modulation of cholinergic activity(863). Tanshinones, a group of diterpenoids found in dan shen, improved learning and memory impairments, through its inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase(864)

1.4. In neuroprotective effects
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), one of the major active constituents of dan shen exerted its neuroprotective effects, by inhibiting transcription and translation of genes involved AD development(858). In neurotoxicity of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) contributed Alzheimer's disease (AD), dan shen extract suppressed the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, through deduction of decreased the protein expression involved in the development of neurodegenerative disease, including ADs(865). According to Eur J Pharmacol and University of Sydney, salvianolic acid B (SalB), in mouse model, exhibited neuroprotective effects in an amyloid β (Aβ) peptide-induced Alzheimer's disease, through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects(866) and ameliorated cholinergic dysfunction- or Aβ(25-35)-induced memory impairment(867), respectively.
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Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Medicine by Kyle J. Norton 


References
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(845) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20451955
(846) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855622
(847) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272827
(848) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23469598
(849) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25525444
(850) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16619340
(851) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24393583
(852) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17964692
(853) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16890202
(854) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17039773
(855) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22314911
(856) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19154776
(857) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23703159
(858) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859152
(859) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22594104
(860) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25187809
(861) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22320295
(862) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24694662
(863) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690775
(864) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17714702
(865) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24932696
(866) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23461850
(867) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903108 

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

(4th edited )Most common diseases of 50 plus - Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): TCM Ren shen (Ginseng) treatments of Dementia Caused by Heart Qi Deficiency

Weight Loss the Easy Ways
Andrea Albright Featured on Health and Fitness Jan. 2015
will Personally Coach You How to Get There The Easy Way

If You Are Looking For a SoulMate
Celebrity Patti Stanger Will Coach You To Get Him/Her
and Keep Him/Her for Good,The Simple Way

By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                     Diseases of Central Nervous system


                             Dementia

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.

V. Treatments
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (810)
C.2. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to 
C.2.2. Heart (Yang) Qi deficiency
Heart  Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the heart in transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain through blood circulation. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal function of brain's cells in information transmitting  or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns(843)(842).
Herbal medicine for Heart Qi deficiency 2. Ren shen (Ginseng)
Ren Shen is a smells aromatic, tastes sweet and slightly warm herbs, also known as Gingshen, used in TCM as improved immune system(868)(869), Anti Cancer(870)(871), Anti aging(872)(873), Anti stress(874)(875), anti Erectile dysfunction(876)(877), etc. agent and to generates fluids and reduce thirst and symptoms of diabetes(878)(879), for xinqixu (heart qi deficient) related coronary heart disease (CHD)(880)(881), anxiety(882)(883), insomnia(884)(885), depression(886)(887), neurodegenertive disorders(888)(889)(890), bleeding in the vagina not during period(891), seizures(892)(893), chronic fatigue(894)(895), etc. as it strongly tonifies Original Qi, the Spleen and the Lungs, promotes generation of Body Fluids, calms thirst and the Mind,(896) etc. by enhancing the functions of spleen and lung channels(897).

Ingredients
1. Saponins
2. Panaxynol
3. Ginsenyne
4. Alpha pansinsene
5. Beta pansinsene
6. Beta farnesene
7. Bicyclogermacrene
8. Beta elemene
9. Gama elemene
10. Alpha neodovene
11. Beta neodovene
12. Alpha humulene
13. Beta humulene
14. Ccaryophyllene
15. Beta gurjunene
16. Alpha gurjunene
17. Alpha selinene
18. Beta selinene
19. Gama selinene
20. Selin-4, alpha guaiene
21. Gama cubebene
22. Beta patchoulene
23. Hepatadecanol-1
24. Etc.

Herbal ren shen used in the treatment and prevention of dementia(898) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals in ameliorated amyloid pathology(899)(900) and related cognitive deficits(901). In aging related dementia, based on the history of use, and pharmacological investigation, ren shen showed a strong evidence in cognitive improvement, through cholinesterase inhibitory activity and cholinergic function(902). According to Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, combination extract of Renshen (Panax Ginseng), Yinyanghuo (Herba Epimedii Brevicornus), Yuanzhi (Radix Palygalae) and Jianghuang (Rhizoma Curcumae Longae) (GEPT) exhibited neuroprotecting mechanism in preventing and treating of AD(903).

2.1. In Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder named after German physician Alois Alzheimer. The disease destroys brain cells involved inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction or oxidative stress(904), causing problems with memory, thinking and behavior severe(904) enough to affect language communication(905), memory(906), lifelong hobbies or social life(907).
Ginseng extracts, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients showed significantly in attenuated amyloid plaque deposition as well as short- and long-term memory impairment. through its phytochemical gintonin effect via the mediation in promotion of non-amyloidogenic processing(908). In amyloid β peptide induced AD cell model, ginsenoside Rg1, the main chemical constituent of ginseng, improved the memory impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), through suppressing the signaling transduction pathways and decreasing the inflammation factors(909)(910); increasing cell viability, reducing oxidative damage (including apoptosis), restoring mitochondrial membrane potential(911). According to the join 17-months old male APP/PS1 mice study by University of Michigan and Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, total saponin in leaves of Panax notoginseng (LPNS) attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death in brain cells through activation of Nrf2 (nuclear translocation) and upregulation of downstream antioxidant systems(912).
 Unfortunately, according to the review over 20 databases from the inception to January 2009 and included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, the use of ginseng for treatments of Alzheimer's disease is scarce and inconclusive(913).

2.2. In Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases
Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system, affecting movement of muscles(917)(918), speech(919), poster, balance, auto functioning(920), etc. The disease's symptoms worsen over time. According to a multicenter study, phosphorylated forms, pS129 is associated to the severity and progression of  Parkinson diseases(914). NFE2L2 gene, an important regulator of the cellular protection against oxidative stress, if defects can contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease(915)(916). In the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), Ginsenoside Rb, effectively inhibited or reversed the aggregation process may represent a viable therapeutic strategy against PD and related disorders, through anti-amyloidogenic and antineurotoxical effects(921). Its water extract in induced cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, also exhibited significant protective effects possibly through the suppression of ROS generation(922). According to Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, use of ginseng and other herbs, such as eleutherococcus, Rhodiola rosea, etc.,  in a complex therapy for Parkinson's disease, may be due to theirs normalized immune, antioxidant, and hormonal parameters(923).
In Huntington's disease, Ginsenosides, the main chemical constituents of ginseng, showed to exert its neuroprotective effect against neurons from glutamate-induced apoptosis in vitro(924).


2.3. In cognitive impairment
Klotho Gene Deficiency has been found to associated to oxidative stress related cognitive impairment(925). In aging mice model, ginseng exhibited anti oxidative stress in ameliorated lipid peroxidation and restores antioxidant capacity(926), and reduced accumulation of intercellular messenger, nitric oxide (NO)(927) may be a potential treatment of herbal medicine for cognitive impairment(927). Ginsenoside Rb1, a major chemical constituent found in ginseng, showed to inhibit cognitive impairment caused by diabetes, through GSK3β, a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis)-mediated endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress due to physiological and pathological insults, in high glucose-treated hippocampal neurons(928).

2.4. In neuroprotective effects
In high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons, Ginsenoside Rb1  exerted a wide variety of neuroprotective effects by inhibiting CHOP signaling pathway involved in apoptosis signal in ER stress- and CHOP-mediated apoptosis(940), oxidative stress(926),  mitochondrial dysfunction(929)(941) and neuroinflammation(941). According to University Complutense of Madrid, Ginseng and its major constituents as potential neuroprotective agents against progression of Parkinson's disease(943), may be due to its effectiveness in inhibition of oxidative stress(926) and neuroinflammation(941), decrease of toxins-induced apoptosis(944) and regulation of channels and receptors activity(945)(942).


Back to General health http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/p/general-health.html

Back to Kyle J. Norton Home page http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca

Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton  

References
(*) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/692621/ 
(842) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313575
(843) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224039
(844) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391905
(868) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15035888
(869) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18635912
(870) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25625815
(871) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19277659
(872) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24979747
(873) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23548988
(874) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14737017
(875) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15215639
(876) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25442300
(877) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24824453
(878) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23147499
(879) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19277974
(880) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19960983
(881) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18198636
(882) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12435210
(883) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17089329
(884) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063041
(885) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804838
(886) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21273053
(887) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19632285
(888) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25349145
(889) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24316034
(890) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23717136
(891) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6834589
(892) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15660764
(893) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782310
(894) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23301896
(895) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25032018
(896) http://www.tcmassistant.com/herbs/ren-shen.html
(897) http://alternativehealing.org/ren_shen.htm
(898) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18083315
(899) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854439
(900) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16511867
(901) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503167
(902) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23717087
(903) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23789219
(904) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19519302
(905) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8485510
(906) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25632113
(907) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25568286
(908) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22543851
(909) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25340298
(910) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214447
(911) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24975829
(912) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24916704
(913) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19584437 
(914) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25637461
(915) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25496089
(916) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20196834
(917) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25467144
(918) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24933489
(919) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25627959
(920) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25573070
(921) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449909 
(922) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21349320
(923) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21165417
(924) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19185022 
(925) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23084645
(926) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25550330
(927) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24132508
(928) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24535619
(929) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24223941
(940) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24535619
(941) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24132508
(942) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25349145
(943) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24316034
(944) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14637121
(945) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678300