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Diseases of Central Nervous system
DementiaAbout 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every five years above that age. Dementia is the loss of mental ability, severe enough to interfere with people's every life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging people.
C. In traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective(*)
Based on Chinese ancient medical records. causes of dementia are the results of (*)
C.3. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine with function in absorbing nutrients and transport them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).
3. Safflower (Hong Hua)
Safflower, is a acrid, warm herb in nature, used in tradition Chinese medicine as anti-bacterial(1070), anti viral(1068)(1069), analgesic(1071), diabetic(1072)(1073), immune stimulant(1074), anti-inflammatory(1071), anti-spasmodic(1075) agent. As a blood tonic in Chinese medicine, the herb is effective in treating dysmenorrhea(1075), amenorrhea(1075), by breaking up blood stagnation|(1077)(11078), improve blood flow(15) through warm-pungent-liver efficiency network(1079) and regulation of female reproductive hormone(1080) via liver, heart channels(1076).
7. Apalmitic acid
8. Myristic acid
9. Lauric acid
Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua) used in the treatment of symptoms of degenerative diseases(1091) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals, including major constituent Hydroxy-safflor yellow A(1081)baicalin, baicalein, wogonin(1088), in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1082)(1083), through anti oxidative stress(1086), anti inflammatory(1084))(1085) activities, against β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation(1081) induced neurotoxicity causes of Alzheimer's disease.(1087)(1089) and neurodegeneration(1090).
1. In Alzheimer's disease
Neuroinflammation has shown to be a major contribution to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1092). Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA), isolated from safflower, inhibited Aβ 1-43₁ induced inflammation(1096) through anti microglia-mediated neurotoxicity activity(1094). In PC12 cells induced by β-amyloid neurotoxicity, the phytochemical also inhibited cell viability, glutathione level, through ameliorated enzymes found extensively in body tissues, formation of DNA fragmentation, and levels of reactive oxygen species(1095) and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators(1097).
2. In Neuroprotective effects(1098)
In Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA) at the molecular level, the chemical showed to inhibited energy metabolism disruption, excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress caused by impaired metabolism in rats with ischemia, through suppressing proinflammatory and upregulating an anti-inflammatory mechanism(1099). It also exerted its neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a major protein component of senile plaques induced neurotoxicity via decrease production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species(1101), and ROS marker, malondialdehyde, and increased the level of glutathione, stabilized mitochondrial membrane(1100) and protected against excitotoxic neuronal death(1102).
3. In memory dysfunction
Intake of safflower oil has shown to improve learning and memory ability in n-3 fatty acid deficient male mice(1103) and in an age-related neuro deteriorative mouse model(1106), probably through modulated physiological properties of entorhinal cortex neurons(1104) and the balance of ratio of brain phospholipid(1107), respectively. Nicotiflorin, a natural flavonoid extracted from safflower, in cerebral multi-infarct dementia in rats model, showed to enhance spatial memory through reducd ROS production(1105).
Reprinted from Norton Journal, Volume I, Most Common Diseases of Ages of 50 Plus - Chapter of Diseases of Central Nervous system(CNS): Dementia - Treatments in Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine by Kyle J. Norton
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