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Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Food Therapy - Papaya

Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belongs to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries

Nutritients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Vitamin B6
10. Vitamin C
11. Vitamin E
12. Vitamin K
13. Calcium
14. Iron
15. Magnesium
16. Phosphorus
17. Potassium
18. Sodium
19. Etc.

Chemical constituents
Alkaloids, Cardenolides, Anthraquinones, Saponins, Tannin, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, Benzyl glucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone, etc.(a)

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1. Papaya and cancers
Although with no clinical or animal cancer studies but in vitro, papaya extract may be the next potential pharmacological target to identify the ingredients for treatment of cancers(2). According to the World center fund International, in 2012, there was 14.1 million cancer cases, affecting  7.4 million in men and 6.7 million in women. This number is expected to increase to 24 million by 2035(3).

Its nutrients including Vitamin A, Thiamine (Vitamin B1), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Niacin (Vitamin B3), Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, etc. and major chemical constituent and ethanol extract including benzylisothiocyanate are said to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti hyperlipidemic, anti cellular oxidative stress, anti neural tube defect, etc. effects(1).

Papaya, a species of Carica Papaya, belonging to the family Caricaceae, native to the tropics of the Americas, has been used in traditional medicine as remedies for many various ailments, including  gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer(12). 

Aqueous extract, according to University of Tokyo, on various tumor cell lines, showed to inhibit significant growth activity, through immunomodulatory effects including, interleukin 12 (also known as natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2), IL-12p70(a heterodimer), IFN-gamma(regulation of immunologically relevant genes) and TNF-alpha(innate immune response against viral infection)(4).

Fermented papaya, a traditional dish of many Southeast Asian cultures, is said to process antioxidant and immune-modulating potentials, through influence of signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival, from epidemiological and in-vitro studies of patient with diabetes(5). In Azoxymethane (AOM) induced colon cancer in rats, papaya peel extract (PapPE), showed a significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM, through its potent anti-oxidant activities in reduction of oxidative stress (glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation)(6).

In cultured human lung cancer H69 cell, Benzyl glucosinolate (BG) found in the pulp and the seed of papaya, inhibit the cancer cell proliferation in an administration of doses of 6.5 μmol(7), probably through its effect in superoxide generation and apoptosis induction(8).
Benzylisothiocyanate (BITC) found in papaya, also mediated apoptosis of prostate and pancreases cancer cells through activation both procaspase-8 pathways(initiation of apoptosis) and cell cycle arrest(9), inhibited advanced ovarian cancer cell lines through activation of caspase-3(activation in the apoptotic cell) and -9(activation of apoptotic process), and cleavage of PARP-1(repair of DNA damage)(10) and breast cancer through generation of reactive oxygen species and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3(11)

Taken altogether, fermented papaya and it major chemical constituents such as Benzyl glucosinolate (BG) and Benzylisothiocyanate (BITC) may be effective in reduced risk and treatment for certain types of cancer, but further studies with large sample size and muti centers are necessary to identify the main ingredients in comparison of currently pharmacological medicine use to improve its validation. As always, all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying

References
(1) #Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Papaya (Carica Papaya)(Better living and living health)
(2) Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review by Nguyen TT1, Shaw PN, Parat MO, Hewavitharana AK.(PubMed)
(3) Cancer statistics Worldwide(World center fund International)
(4) Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects by Otsuki N, Dang NH, Kumagai E, Kondo A, Iwata S, Morimoto C.(PubMed)
(5) Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer by Aruoma OI, Somanah J, Bourdon E, Rondeau P, Bahorun T(PubMed)
(6) Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts by Waly MI, Al-Rawahi AS, Al Riyami M, Al-Kindi MA, Al-Issaei HK, Farooq SA, Al-Alawi A, Rahman MS.(PubMed)
(7) Content determination of benzyl glucosinolate and anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product in Carica papaya L, by Li ZY1, Wang Y, Shen WT, Zhou P.(PubMed)
(8) Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate by Nakamura Y, Yoshimoto M, Murata Y, Shimoishi Y, Asai Y, Park EY, Sato K, Nakamura Y.(PubMed)
(9) Dietary isothiocyanate mediated apoptosis of human cancer cells is associated with Bcl-xL phosphorylation by Basu A, Haldar S.(PubMed)
(10) Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in vitro by Kalkunte S, Swamy N, Dizon DS, Brard L(PubMed)
(11) Benzyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells is initiated by reactive oxygen species and regulated by Bax and Bak by Xiao D1, Vogel V, Singh SV.(PubMed)
(12) Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities by Mawa S, Husain K, Jantan I.(PubMed)


2. Carica papaya and diabetes
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.

Water extract from papaya, through inhibition of enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase linked to type 2 diabetes, in  sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro, and in a dose-dependent manner(1) and reduced oxidative stress in Fe²⁺-induced oxidative stress in rat pancreas(2). Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, according to Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT), not only exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans studies, but also help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size as well as prevented hepatocyte disruption(3), as well as controlled blood glucose levels and improved lipid profile in diabetic rats(4). In short term supplementation of a fermented papaya, showed to exhibit its effect in management of diabetes and for those at risk for cardiovascular disease, neurological disease and other conditions worsened by overt inflammation and oxidative stress(5).

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References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas by water-extractable phytochemicals from unripe pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya). by Oboh G, Olabiyi AA, Akinyemi AJ, Ademiluyi AO.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of different parts of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya) fruit on Fe²⁺-induced oxidative stress in rat pancreas in vitro by Oboh G1, Olabiyi AA, Akinyemi AJ.(PubMed)
(3) Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Juárez-Rojop IE1, Díaz-Zagoya JC, Ble-Castillo JL, Miranda-Osorio PH, Castell-Rodríguez AE, Tovilla-Zárate CA, Rodríguez-Hernández A, Aguilar-Mariscal H, Ramón-Frías T, Bermúdez-Ocaña DY.(PubMed)
(4) Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by Maniyar Y1, Bhixavatimath P(PubMed)
(5) Effects of a short term supplementation of a fermented papaya preparation on biomarkers of diabetes mellitus in a randomized Mauritian population by Somanah J1, Aruoma OI, Gunness TK, Kowelssur S, Dambala V, Murad F, Googoolye K, Daus D, Indelicato J, Bourdon E, Bahorun T.(PubMed)

3. Carica papaya and cholesterol
Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood
Ficus carica leaf extract modulates, on hyperlipidemia in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese male rats, showed to improve the lipid profile and decreased adipogenic risk factors, most likely mediated through an increase in HDL-C levels(1) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, it also exerted hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect;, through improved the lipid profile and affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas(2). Ether- and water-soluble fractions of Carica papaya ethanol extract, on the other hand, in dose-dependent manner inhibited the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level, and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level(3). Unfortunately, according to the Institute for Medical Research, C. papaya leaf extract at a dose over fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine may induce toxicity(4).


References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Ficus carica leaf extract modulates the lipid profile of rats fed with a high-fat diet through an increase of HDL-C by Joerin L1, Kauschka M, Bonnländer B, Pischel I, Benedek B, Butterweck V.(PubMed)
(2) Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Juárez-Rojop IE1, Díaz-Zagoya JC, Ble-Castillo JL, Miranda-Osorio PH, Castell-Rodríguez AE, Tovilla-Zárate CA, Rodríguez-Hernández A, Aguilar-Mariscal H, Ramón-Frías T, Bermúdez-Ocaña DY.(PubMed)
(3) Effect of ether- and water-soluble fractions of Carica papaya ethanol extract in experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rats by Iyer D1, Sharma BK, Patil UK.(PubMed)
(4) Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats by Afzan A1, Abdullah NR, Halim SZ, Rashid BA, Semail RH, Abdullah N, Jantan I, Muhammad H, Ismail Z.(PubMed)

4. Papaya and hypertension
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. High blood pressure means raising pressure in your heart.If it stays high over time it can damage the body in many ways.
Carica papaya, according to the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Universiti Putra Malaysia, in alpha-amylase inhibition assay, may consist a nutraceutical potential ofor hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with type 2 diabetes(1). Fruit juice of Carica papaya (L.) study, in the testing of Male albino Wistar rats, exhibited anti hypertensive effective through activation of alpha-adrenoceptor(2). According to University of Naples "Federico II", papaya might interact with Warfarin, the most common cardiovascular drug(3).

References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) In vitro inhibitory potential of selected Malaysian plants against key enzymes involved in hyperglycemia and hypertension by Loh SP1, Hadira O.(PubMed)
(2) Blood pressure depression by the fruit juice of Carica papaya (L.) in renal and DOCA-induced hypertension in the rat by Eno AE1, Owo OI, Itam EH, Konya RS.(PubMed)
(3) Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction by Izzo AA1, Di Carlo G, Borrelli F, Ernst E.(PubMed)


5. Papaya and Cellular oxidative stress
In Azoxymethane (AOM) induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon and oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, papaya peel extract (PapPE) and papaya epicarp extract (PEE) showed to significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects through its potent anti-oxidant activities(1)(2)as well as in reducing the neurological health diseases associated with various oxidative stress insults(3). Fermented papaya preparation (FPP), according to Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, exhibited ROS scavenging effect on blood cells in vitro or in vivo (in thalassemic patients and experimental animals), through its related antioxidant mechanism, at least in part, to iron chelation(4).

References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts by Waly MI, Al-Rawahi AS, Al Riyami M, Al-Kindi MA, Al-Issaei HK, Farooq SA, Al-Alawi A, Rahman MS1.(PubMed)
(2) Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity by Waly MI1, Guizani N, Ali A, Rahman MS.(PubMed)
(3) Papaya epicarp extract protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells by Guizani N1, Waly MI, Ali A, Al-Saidi G, Singh V, Bhatt N, Rahman MS.(PubMed)
(3) The antioxidant effect of fermented papaya preparation involves iron chelation by Prus E1, Fibach E.(PubMed)

6. Papaya and Anemia
Anemia is characterized by deficiency in the hemoglobin of the red blood cells diminishing the ability of the blood to transport oxygen to our cells and to removing carbon dioxide.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease  associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells. According to Covenant University, Methanolic extracts from S. monostachyus, C. papaya seed oil, exhibited particular antisickling properties coupled with the potential to reduce stress in sickle cell patients(1). In In beta-hemoglobinopathies, fermented papaya preparation (FPP), increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells (RBC), and decreased their reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), indicating amelioration of their oxidative status, without a significant change in the hematological parameters, probably through addition of an iron chelator(2) and alleviated symptoms associated with oxidative stress in severe forms of thalassemia(3) as well as significant reduction in the number of sickle cells(4).

References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)

(1) Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease by Afolabi IS1, Osikoya IO, Fajimi OD, Usoro PI, Ogunleye DO, Bisi-Adeniyi T, Adeyemi AO, Adekeye BT.(PubMed)
(2) Amelioration of oxidative stress in red blood cells from patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia and E-beta-thalassemia following administration of a fermented papaya preparation by Fibach E1, Tan ES, Jamuar S, Ng I, Amer J, Rachmilewitz EA.(PubMed)
(3) Fermented papaya preparation as redox regulator in blood cells of beta-thalassemic mice and patients by Amer J1, Goldfarb A, Rachmilewitz EA, Fibach E(PubMed)
(4) Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit® by Iweala EE1, Uhegbu FO, Ogu GN.(PubMed)

7. Papaya and anti inflammatory effects
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises of the body's defense system against diseases.
According to Universiti Putra Malaysia, papaya exhibited anti inflammatory effects through T cells
regulated regulation through suppression of inflammatory cytokines(1). Mangiferin (MF), a natural glucosyl xanthone found in papaya showed a significant protection against sepsis-induced ALI through inhibiting inflammatory signaling and proinflammatory mediators(2). Fermented papaya preparation, a functional food supplement, in the study of Touro College of Pharmacy exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulatory (at the level of the mucus membrane) and induction of antioxidant enzymes(3).
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References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Carica papaya increases regulatory T cells and reduces IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells in healthy human subjects by Abdullah M1, Chai PS, Loh CY, Chong MY, Quay HW, Vidyadaran S, Seman Z, Kandiah M, Seow HF.(PubMed)
(2) Anti-inflammatory effects of mangiferin on sepsis-induced lung injury in mice via up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 by Gong X1, Zhang L, Jiang R, Ye M, Yin X, Wan J.(PubMed)
(3) Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation by Aruoma OI1, Hayashi Y, Marotta F, Mantello P, Rachmilewitz E, Montagnier L.(PubMed)

Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Cervical cancer in Vitamin B12 Points of View

 According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of  4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(1).
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, a water-soluble vitamin, found abundantly in a variety of foods, such as fish, shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, etc. plays an important role in regulating the functions of nervous system and formation of blood.

Epidemiological studies focusing vitamin B12 in reduced risk of cervical  cancer have produced conflict results(a)(b)(c)(d). Mahidol University, showed that lower levels of serum of vitamin B12 may be associated to the risk of cervical cancer, in the vitamin B12 statuses of Thai women with high- and low-grade cervical dysplasia study(1). Other researchers suggested that there may be a link between serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine and the risk of cervical cancer due to vitamins role in role in the synthesis and repair of DNA. In a a community-based cohort of women who donated blood in 1974 for a serum bank in Washington County, Maryland, 39 cases of cervical cancer diagnosed between 1975 and mid-1990 were included in the study (13 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 26 cases of carcinoma in situ). vitamin B12 was found to mimic those for folate and lower homocysteine, a marker of low B vitamin concentrations was associated to increased risk of the disease(1). In cervical cancer progression, folate showed to have an influence on B12 levelsbut not those of MTHFR polymorphisms, serum homocysteine(3). improving folate and vitamin B12 status may have a beneficial impact on the prevention of CC, because of their role in interventions of HR-HPV infections(4)(5). The National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea, showed a positive effect of vitamins intake in protection of  on cervical neoplasms in case-control studies due to antioxidant activities(6). Other researchers suggested the lower levels of vitamin B12 and folate may be due to abnormal Intestinal malabsorptionof that can lead to deficiency and reduced length of survival(7). On the other hand, the University of Hawai study indicated that thiamin, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B12 may play a protective role in cervical carcinogenesis(8). Unfortunately, the Arizona Cancer Center study do not support the role of folate, vitamin B12, or homocysteine in HPV persistence or cervical dysplasia(9), the leading cause of cervical cancer.

Taking altogether, in take of vitamin B12 may be effective in reduced risk and treatment of cervical cancer when used conjunction with folate. Over doses of the vitamin may induce symptoms of toxicity, including headache, giddiness and abnormal heart functioning, etc., please make sure to follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.


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References
(1) Cerical cancer (Amerrican cancer society)
(a) Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12 by Hernandez BY1, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Kamemoto L, Goodman MT.(PubMed)
(b) A case control study of nutritional factors and cervical dysplasia by Liu T1, Soong SJ, Wilson NP, Craig CB, Cole P, Macaluso M, Butterworth CE Jr.(PubMed)
(c) [Chemoprevention of cervical cancer--intervention study of cervical precancerous lesions by retinamide II and riboflavin].[Article in Chinese] byChen RD.(PubMed)
(d) Epidemiologic studies of vitamins and cancer of the lung, esophagus, and cervix by Ziegler RG.(PubMed)
(1) Vitamin B12 status of Thai women with neoplasia of the cervix uteri by Kwanbunjan K1, Saengkar P, Cheeramakara C, Tangjitgamol S, Chitcharoenrung K.(PubMed)

(2) The risk of cervical cancer in relation to serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine by Alberg AJ1, Selhub J, Shah KV, Viscidi RP, Comstock GW, Helzlsouer KJ.(PubMed)
(3) A case-control nutrigenomic study on the synergistic activity of folate and vitamin B12 in cervical cancer progression by Ragasudha PN1, Thulaseedharan JV, Wesley R, Jayaprakash PG, Lalitha P, Pillai MR.(PubMed)
(4) Indian women with higher serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are significantly less likely to be infected with carcinogenic or high-risk (HR) types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) by Piyathilake CJ1, Badiga S, Paul P, Vijayaraghavan K, Vedantham H, Sudula M, Sowjanya P, Ramakrishna G, Shah KV, Partridge EE, Gravitt PE.(PubMed)
(5) Lower risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with high plasma folate and sufficient vitamin B12 in the post-folic acid fortification era by Piyathilake CJ1, Macaluso M, Alvarez RD, Bell WC, Heimburger DC, Partridge EE.(PubMed)


(6) Vitamin or antioxidant intake (or serum level) and risk of cervical neoplasm: a meta-analysis by Myung SK1, Ju W, Kim SC, Kim H; Korean Meta-analysis (KORMA) Study Group.(PubMed)
(7) Intestinal malabsorption in long-term survivors of cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy by Vistad I1, Kristensen GB, Fosså SD, Dahl AA, Mørkrid L.(PubMed)
(8) Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12 by Hernandez BY1, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Kamemoto L, Goodman MT.(PubMed)




Monday, April 28, 2014

Herbal Ginseng and Infertility

Kyle J. Norton

Ginseng, the King of Chinese herb, according to the literature in Chinese medicine may be the next  single herb in enhancing male fertility. According to the statistic from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 7.3 million women of childbearing age (between 15 and 44) in the US are likely to have impaired fecundity. 11% of population in the US alone were infertile.

Beside improving general well-being, the herb has been used in used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior.

Recent animal studies and confirmed in human case control studies, ginseng has shown a positive effects of ginseng in enhancing libido, and copulatory performances. Ginsenosides, an active chemical compound extracted from ginseng was found not only to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility, but also facilitate penile erection through directly inducing the vasodilatation and relaxation of penile corpus cavernosum.

In treatment of sexual dysfunction and ginsenoside induced Nitric oxide (NO) function in the process involving psychogenic and hormonal input, and a neurovascular nonadrenergic, noncholinergic mechanism.

Dr. Murphy LL and Lee TJ. at the Southern Illinois University, School of Medicine, told PubMed, "Treatment with American ginseng also affects the central nervous system and has been shown to significantly alter the activity of hypothalamic catecholamines involved in the facilitation of copulatory behavior and hormone secretion"

In 30 male rats randomly allocated into three groups of 10 rats each: 1. controls, 2. diabetes (D) and 3. diabetes + ginseng (DG) study, oral administration of ginseng extract showed a significant improvement of fertility parameters and testicular antioxidants together with a decrease in malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation and prostaglandin biosynthesis and testicular pathological signs including degenerative changes of the seminiferous tubules. In infertile women with Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE), lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in the polycystic ovaries.

Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root).
The herb has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to promote yang and to improve cardiac function, short of breath, blood pressure. Panax ginseng can generates fluids and reduce thirst, to treat anxiety, insomnia, dizziness/headache, forgetfulness, impotence, diabetes, bleeding in the vagina not during period, etc.

The composition of  carnitine, acetyl carnitine, L-arginine and ginseng in treatment of men with asthenopermia promoted the improvement of sperm motility and enhanced libido and sexual performance.

Its nutrients and chemical constituents include koryoginsenoside, ginsenoside, ginseng saponins, ginseng oils and phytosterol, carbohydrates and sugars, organic acids, nitrogenous substances, amino acids and peptides, vitamins and minerals, may hold the power of enhancing immunity through stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production, improved survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection, vascular dysfunctions, such as hypertension, atherosclerotic disorders and ischemic injury, etc. These findings with the diverse pharmacological activities of ginseng may be the reason for ginseng to be named the king of all herbs in improved general well-being.

Taken altogether, ginseng, especially Panax ginseng and its major chemical compound ginsenosides
may be effective in enhancing the chance of fertility in both sexes, through vary mechanisms. Overdoses may cause nausea, diarrhea, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, breast pain, tremors, nervousness, headache, vomiting, insomnia, nose bleeding, etc.. All articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying.

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References
(1) Ginseng and male reproductive function by Wah Leung K, Wong AS.(PubMed)
(2) The role of nitric oxide in erectile dysfunction: implications for medical therapy by Burnett AL.(PubMed)
(3) Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric oxide by Murphy LL, Lee TJ.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of ginseng extract supplementation on testicular functions in diabetic rats by Sawiress FA, Ziada MS, Bebawy WS, Amer HA.(PubMed)
(5) The chemical constituents of ginseng plants by Hou JP.(PubMed)
(6) Therapeutic effect of korean red ginseng extract on infertility caused by polycystic ovaries by Jung JH, Park HT, Kim T, Jeong MJ, Lim SC, Nah SY, Cho IH, Park SH, Kang SS, Moon CJ, Kim JC, Kim SH, Bae CS.(PubMed)
(7) [Treatment with carnitine, acetyl carnitine, L-arginine and ginseng improves sperm motility and sexual health in men with asthenopermia].[Article in Italian] by Morgante G, Scolaro V, Tosti C, Di Sabatino A, Piomboni P, De Leo V.(PubMed)
(8) Immunomodulatory activity of red ginseng against influenza A virus infection by Lee JS, Hwang HS2, Ko EJ3, Lee YN4, Kwon YM5, Kim MC6, Kang SM(PubMed)
(9)Pharmacogenomics and the Yin/Yang actions of ginseng: anti-tumor, angiomodulating and steroid-like activities of ginsenosides by Yue PY, Mak NK, Cheng YK, Leung KW, Ng TB, Fan DT, Yeung HW, Wong RN(PubMed)
(10) Popular Herbs - Ginseng, Asian (Panax ginseng) and Ginseng, North America by Kyle J. Norton




Sunday, April 27, 2014

Cervical cancer in Folate Points of View

 Kyle J. Norton

 According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of  4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(1).

 Folate, also known as folic acid, vitamin B9, is a water soluble vitamin, found abundantly in leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans, whole grain, etc. The vitamin plays an important role in synthesize DNA, repair DNA, and methylate DNA as well as to act as a cofactor in certain biological reactions, production of red blood cells for anemia prevention.

Epidemiological studies focusing folate or vitamin B9 in reduced risk of cervical  cancer have produced conflict results(a)(b)(c)(d).
Levels of serum of folate
Suggestion of lower levels of serum of folate or deficiency of folate and vitamin B12  may induce risk of cervical caner. According to a case-control study enrolled 927 Korean women (440 controls, 165 patients with CIN 1, 167 patients with CIN 2/3, and 155 patients with cervical cancer, aged 20-75 years) study by Kyunghee University College of Medicine, serum of folate is associated to reduced risk of cervical cancer but MTHFR variant genotype may increase CIN and cervical cancer risk in women with low folate or vitamin B12 status(2). The Shanxi Medical University, in the study of the effects of folate against human cervical cancer cell line and HPV indicated that different concentration of folate inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation and enhanced cell apoptosis, but not interaction between folate and HPV16 in cervical cancer cell(3). Also, in regard of serum folate, vitamin B12, MTHFR polymorphisms and serum homocysteine (chemiluminescence assay) among 322 women from Kerala, South India, found that no significant associations between MTHFR polymorphisms, serum homocysteine, and folate levels with cervical carcinogenesis but these parameters acted as effect modifiers of serum vitamin B12, implicating a synergistic role of these 2 vitamins in invasive cervical cancer(4). Other suggestion of high-expression of DNMT1 protein or mRNA and folate deficiency was significantly associated with cervical carcinogenesis(5) and adequate foleta could effectively inhibit the proliferation of cervical cancer cells and facilitate their apoptosis in vitro, thus would reverse the aberration protein expression of DNMT1 and MeCP2(6).

The effects
The All India Institute of Medical Sciences,study, alood and tissue samples collected from normal (n = 35), SILs (n = 27), and cervical cancer patients (n = 38) in the age group of 26-70 years, indicated a role of folate and vitamin B(12) in modulating the risk of cervical cancer(7). Women with higher concentrations of serum folate and vitamin B12 may have a beneficial impact on the prevention of CC. and a lower risk of being positive for HR-HPVs, according to the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB)(8). Other researchers suggested that  low levels of folate might increase the risk of cervical cancer, and there may be a potential interaction between low level of serum folate and HPV16 in the development of cervical cancer(9) and  Improved folate status in people who are at risk of getting infected or already infected with high-risk HPV may have a beneficial impact in the prevention of cervical cancer(9). IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, decreased associated to the progression of cervical cancer, folic acid increased levels of IGF-BP3, of that lead to inhibition of cervical cancer cell growth(10).


Taking altogether, serum concentration of folate is associated to reduced risk and treatment of cervical cancer and supplement folate may improve people who are at risk of cervical due to HPV infection.
Over doses of folate may induce the symptoms of difficulty of coordinating movement, numbness, sensory changes, etc., please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.


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References
(1) Cerical cancer (Amerrican cancer society)
(a) Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12 by Hernandez BY1, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Kamemoto L, Goodman MT.(PubMed)
(b) A case control study of nutritional factors and cervical dysplasia by Liu T1, Soong SJ, Wilson NP, Craig CB, Cole P, Macaluso M, Butterworth CE Jr.(PubMed)
(c) [Chemoprevention of cervical cancer--intervention study of cervical precancerous lesions by retinamide II and riboflavin].[Article in Chinese] byChen RD.(PubMed)
(d) Epidemiologic studies of vitamins and cancer of the lung, esophagus, and cervix by Ziegler RG.(PubMed)
(2) Common polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene are associated with risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in women with low serum folate and vitamin B12 by Tong SY1, Kim MK, Lee JK, Lee JM, Choi SW, Friso S, Song ES, Lee KB, Lee JP.(PubMed)
(3) [Effect of folate on the proliferation of human cervical cancer cell and relationship with HPV16].
[Article in Chinese] by Ding L1, Ma J, Zhou Q, Wang J.(PubMed)


(4) A case-control nutrigenomic study on the synergistic activity of folate and vitamin B12 in cervical cancer progression by Ragasudha PN1, Thulaseedharan JV, Wesley R, Jayaprakash PG, Lalitha P, Pillai MR.(PubMed)
(5) Folate deficiency and aberrant expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 were associated with cervical cancerization by Jin-Tao W1, Ling D, Shi-Wen J, Junxia H, Wei-Min Z, Qin Z, Zuo-Kai Y, Li Z.(PubMed)
(6) [Effect of folate in modulating the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 and methyl-CpG-bingding protein 2 in cervical cancer cell lines].
[Article in Chinese]by Wang JT1, Wu TT, Bai L, Ding L, Hao M, Wang Y.(PubMed)
(7) Cervical cancer pathogenesis is associated with one-carbon metabolism by Pathak S1, Bhatla N, Singh N(PubMed)
(8) Indian women with higher serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are significantly less likely to be infected with carcinogenic or high-risk (HR) types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) by Piyathilake CJ1, Badiga S, Paul P, Vijayaraghavan K, Vedantham H, Sudula M, Sowjanya P, Ramakrishna G, Shah KV, Partridge EE, Gravitt PE.(PubMed
(9) Folate is associated with the natural history of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Piyathilake CJ1, Henao OL, Macaluso M, Cornwell PE, Meleth S, Heimburger DC, Partridge EE.(PubMed
(10) In vitro downregulation of growth factors by insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in cervical cancer. by Mathur RS1, Mathur SP.(PubMed)


Cervical cancer in Vitamin B6 Points of View

 Kyle J. Norton (Draft Article)

Epidemiological studies focusing vitamin B6 in reduced risk of cervical  cancer have produced conflict results(a)(b)(c)(d). According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of  4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(e).
Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, is a water soluble vitamin found abundantly in green peas, yams, broccoli, asparagus and turnip greens, Peanuts, sunflower seeds, cashews and hazelnuts, meat, fish etc., with functions of amino acid, carbohydrate  metabolism, brain health, and liver detoxification, etc.

Suggestion of polymorphisms in genes related to folate metabolism modify the association of dietary and circulating folate and vitamin B-6 with cervical neoplasia, according to the study of Dr.Cardoso MA and the research team(1). In the study of Vitamin B6 status in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, researchers found that  23-35%the patients with cervical cancer, a 23-35% are associated with deficiency of vitamin B6(2). Other in the research of serum homocysteine  and cervical cancer risk indicated a strongly and significantly predictive of invasive cervical cancer risk associated with folate, B12 and/or B6 inadequacy, or genetic polymorphisms affecting one-carbon metabolism(3). In a multiethnic case-control study for examination of the association of dietary folate and MTHFR genotype with the odds ratios (ORs) for cervical dysplasia among women identified from several clinics on Oahu, Hawaii, between 1992 and 1996 indicated that dietary intakes of folate, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) were inversely related to the ORs for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs)(4). The study at the University of Arizona, showed that folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and methionine may function to prevent cervical cancer through their role in DNA methylation(5)

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References
(a) Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12 by Hernandez BY1, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Kamemoto L, Goodman MT.(PubMed)
(b) A case control study of nutritional factors and cervical dysplasia by Liu T1, Soong SJ, Wilson NP, Craig CB, Cole P, Macaluso M, Butterworth CE Jr.(PubMed)
(c) [Chemoprevention of cervical cancer--intervention study of cervical precancerous lesions by retinamide II and riboflavin].[Article in Chinese] byChen RD.(PubMed)
(d) Epidemiologic studies of vitamins and cancer of the lung, esophagus, and cervix by Ziegler RG.(PubMed)
(a) Cerical cancer (Amerrican cancer society)
(1) Nutritional and genetic inefficiencies in one-carbon metabolism and cervical cancer risk. by Ziegler RG1, Weinstein SJ, Fears TR.(PubMed)
(2) Vitamin B6 status in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix by Ramaswamy PG, Natarajan R.(PubMed)
(3) Elevated serum homocysteine levels and increased risk of invasive cervical cancer in US women by Weinstein SJ1, Ziegler RG, Selhub J, Fears TR, Strickler HD, Brinton LA, Hamman RF, Levine RS, Mallin K, Stolley PD.(PubMed)
(4) Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism C677T and dietary folate with the risk of cervical dysplasia by Goodman MT1, McDuffie K, Hernandez B, Wilkens LR, Bertram CC, Killeen J, Le Marchand L, Selhub J, Murphy S, Donlon TA.(PubMed)
(5) Human papillomavirus persistence and nutrients involved in the methylation pathway among a cohort of young women by Sedjo RL1, Inserra P, Abrahamsen M, Harris RB, Roe DJ, Baldwin S, Giuliano AR.(PubMed)

Saturday, April 26, 2014

Cervical cancer in Vitamin B2 Points of View

 Kyle J. Norton(Draft Article)

 According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of  4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(a).

Vitamin B2 also known as  Riboflavin, is a water-soluble, yellow-orange organic compound found abundantly in milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, green vegetables, etc. The vitamin is essential for normal cellular growth and function and best known for converting energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism and its antioxidant effects in oxidation-reduction reactions.

Epidemiological studies, linking vitamin B2 in reduced risk and treatment of cervical cancer have been inclusive(a)(b)(c)(d). Suggestion of serum homocysteine was strongly and significantly predictive of invasive cervical cancer risk. In the study of cervical cancer risk factors through at-home interview and blood drawn at least 6 months after completion of cancer treatment from 51% and 68% of interviewed cases and controls, suggested that elevated serum homocysteine increases risk of cervical cancer are associated to the inadequacy of folate, B12 and/or B6, or genetic polymorphisms affecting one-carbon metabolism(1)(2). Other researchers indicated that deficiencies in dietary B-vitamin input and genetic polymorphisms for the enzymes in one-carbon metabolism are associated with a host of human health concerns,including cancer(3). Other suggestion of vitamin B2 deficiency may lead to with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. researchers at the the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, found the inverse association  between tissue riboflavin levels and C20orf54 mRNA and protein expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC)(4), serum and tissues of vitamin B2 may be linked to the risk of the cervical cancer development. In the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, researchers at the 1University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham showed that women who have the MTHFR polymorphism and low riboflavin status, were less likely to develop cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or 3, than women who was without the polymorphism and high riboflavin status(5). In the analysis of the cancer site, MTHFR C677T polymorphism interacted with folate and riboflavin in modulating cancer risk in a manner, depending to the types of cancer but  the effect on cervical cancer risk is not clear(6).

Taking altogether, Vitamin B2 deficiency and defection of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may be associated to increased risk of cervical cancer, but further studies are necessary to validate its claims. At the mean time, please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies as  over doses for a prolong period may cause symptoms of skin rashes, hypersensitivity, high blood pressure etc.,

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References
(a) Diet and premalignant lesions of the cervix: evidence of a protective role for folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin B12 by Hernandez BY1, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Kamemoto L, Goodman MT.(PubMed)
(b) A case control study of nutritional factors and cervical dysplasia by Liu T1, Soong SJ, Wilson NP, Craig CB, Cole P, Macaluso M, Butterworth CE Jr.(PubMed)
(c) [Chemoprevention of cervical cancer--intervention study of cervical precancerous lesions by retinamide II and riboflavin].[Article in Chinese] byChen RD.(PubMed)
(d) Epidemiologic studies of vitamins and cancer of the lung, esophagus, and cervix by Ziegler RG.(PubMed)
(1) Elevated serum homocysteine levels and increased risk of invasive cervical cancer in US women.
Weinstein SJ1, Ziegler RG, Selhub J, Fears TR, Strickler HD, Brinton LA, Hamman RF, Levine RS, Mallin K, Stolley PD.(PubMed)
(2) Nutritional and genetic inefficiencies in one-carbon metabolism and cervical cancer risk by Ziegler RG1, Weinstein SJ, Fears TR.(PubMed
(3) Mathematical Models of Cell Metabolism(Fred Hutchinson cancer research center)
(4) Association of the plasma and tissue riboflavin levels with C20orf54 expression in cervical lesions and its relationship to HPV16 infection by Aili A1, Hasim A, Kelimu A, Guo X, Mamtimin B, Abudula A, Upur H.(PubMed)
(5) Protective association of MTHFR polymorphism on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is modified by riboflavin status by Piyathilake CJ1, Azrad M, Macaluso M, Johanning GL, Cornwell PE, Partridge EE, Heimburger DC.(PubMed)
(6) Interaction among folate, riboflavin, genotype, and cancer, with reference to colorectal and cervical cancer. by Powers HJ.(PubMed)                        

Friday, April 25, 2014

Weight loss in Herbs and Foods points of view

The prevalence of extreme overweight and obesity has caused concerns of scientific community in the South East Asian population, due unhealthy diet and life style change over 2 decades of economic prosperity. Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many Asian countries, affecting even younger age than in Western populations with economic burden in the development of  obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases(1).  One of six Malaysian are either extreme overweight or obese, according to Datin Paduka Santha Kumari, chairman of the Selangor branch of the Malaysian Diabetes Association and  according to global health observatory, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, and an estimated 35.8 million (2.3%) of global DALYs are caused by overweight or obesity, worldwide(2).
Epidemiological studies, linking herbal medicine, foods and vitamins in preventing and treating these diseases have been inconclusive(a)
Some researchers suggested that intake of certain herbal medicine may enhance appetite suppression. According to the Georgetown University Medical Center, average daily food intake was decreased only with the herbal formulation, not the phenylpropanolamine (PPA) at the low and high doses, in comparison of the effectiveness among herbal formulation and a commonly available(3). Other researchers insisted that using herbs and supplements to induce weight loss should be taken with care, as a  considerable number of reports have been published on hepatotoxicity associated with herbal products attributed with weight-reducing properties(4)(5)(6)(7). the College of Medicine, The Ohio State University insisted that various dietary, lifestyle, and psychologic factors are involved in the etiology of Prameha, particularly in relation to disturbances in fat and carbohydrate metabolism(8), without effective management, obtaining a workable weight loss plan may be extremely difficult.
A. Weight loss in herbs points of view
1. Ephera (Ma Huang)
Ma Huang is also known as ephedra. The acrid, slightly bitter and warm herb has been used in TCM to promote urination and sweating, and rid of cold,  sooth wheezing asthma, etc. as it calms dyspnea,  asthma, cough, etc., by enhancing the functions of lung and bladder channels(9)
Ephedra sinica, the Chinese herb may be effective in induced weigh loss. According to the Dongguk University, certain chemicals found in Ephera showed an association with changes of BW and BMI through alteration of gut microbiota varied by indigenous microbiota of each subject(10). The combined study of a low-calorie diet and Ephera, in 125 otherwise healthy obese women, showed  effective in reducing BMI. RMR change was not compensated for by the herbal medicines tried. resting metabolic rate (RMR) change seemed to be affected by constitution and body composition rather than by medicine(11). The Dongeui University study of composition GGEx18( Laminaria japonica, Rheum palmatum, and Ephedra sinica) in high fat diet-induced obese mice suggested that GGEx18 improves obesity through skeletal muscle AMPK and AMPK-stimulated expression of PPARα and its target enzymes for fatty acid oxidation, through inhibited lipid accumulation, and similar activation of genes(12).
Please note that  due to its  adverse reactions of palpitations, stress, headache and insomnia and stroke, heart attacks, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures and psychotic,  the Dutch Inspectorate for Health Care and the Ministry of Health in Canada have recently requested a market recall of some ephedrine-containing herbal products in response to above adverse reactions reported in association with these products. In the Netherlands, the status of Ephedra-containing products is currently reconsidered(13).

2. Ginseng
Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root)(14).
In 10 obese middle-aged Korean women took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk, ginseng showed to be effective in influence on gut microbiota in promoting weigh loss but depending to the composition of gut microbiota prior to ginseng intake(15). In mice fed on a high-fat diet, ginseng saponin and ginsenosides not only exerted anti-obesity effects via the modulation of physiological lipid metabolism in vivo or intracellular signalling in cell culture systems, but also promoted anti-obesity effects, through abnormal physiology via HFD. Leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, which carry out critical functions in energy and lipid metabolism(16).

3. Zingiber Officinale(Ginger
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil. It has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.(17).
According to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight or inhibition of weight gain(18). The composition of multi-ingredient supplement containing primarily raspberry ketone, caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger and Citrus aurantium, also found the improvements in body composition, waist and hip girth, in an eight-week diet and exercise weight loss program(19). In a comparison of the weight loss effect of Orlistat, a pharmacological agent promoting weight loss and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) in male albino rats, researchers at the Ain Shams University Cairo, found that ginger has a great ability to reduce body weight without inhibiting pancreatic lipase level, or affecting bilirubin concentration, with positive effect on increasing peroxisomal catalase level and HDL-cholesterol(20).

4. Cissus quadrangularis (CQ)
Cissus quadrangularis is an ancient herb used to treat a variety of indications, belonging to the grape family, probably native to India or Sri Lanka. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 123 overweight and obese persons (47.2% male; 52.8% female; ages 19-50). conducted by University of Yaoundé I, the herb showed a statistically significant net reductions in weight and central obesity, as well as causes of metabolic syndrome(21). In comparison of the effectiveness of Cissus quadrangularis-only and a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination, on weight loss in overweight and obese human subjects, Cissus quadrangularis-only group showed significant reductions on all variables compared to the placebo group, the Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination resulted in even larger reductions(22). CQR-300, a proprietary extract of Cissus quadrangularis, also showed a significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while decreasing serum lipids thus improving cardiovascular risk factors, according to the University of Yaoundé I,(23).

5. Sambucus nigra
Elder also known as Common Elder, is a shrub or small tree of the genus Sambucus of 30 specie, belonging to the family Adoxaceae, native to the temperate-to-subtropical regions of both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.The herb has been used in traditional and herbal medicine to treat constipation, colic, diarrhea, colds, flu, bronchial and upper-respiratory, irritation of the skin, rheumatism, etc.
In a composition of supplement with Sambucus nigra and Asparagus officinalis study, showed an effectiveness in reduced weight, blood pressure, enhanced physical and emotional well-being and the quality of life had significantly improved (ITT analysis)(24). In Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sambucus nigra, showed a significant decrease in body weight in numbers of animal studies(25).

6. Asparagus officinalis
Asparagus is a flowering plant belong to species the genus Asparagus, native to the western coasts of northern Spain, north to Ireland, Great Britain, and northwest Germany, northern Africa and western Asia. Asparagus has been used from early times as a vegetable and medicine, because of its delicate flavour and diuretic properties(26). Asparagus officinalis L. powder tablets provided 19 mg saponins per day study showed an effectiveness of the tablets in reduced mean weight, blood pressure, and ebhanced physical and emotional well-being and the quality of life with the rate of very good or good by most of the completers(27). In 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula, including Asparagus, researchers at the Poznan University of Medical Science, indicated a significantly change of the Body Composition Improvement Index (BCI), induce greater weight loss than placebo, probably through a concurrently performed exercise program--a recommended strategy for life style modification(28).

7. Slimax
Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan), in the reviews of the data base of studies published, showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, the formaula was found to be effective in significant induced weight loss or inhibited of weight gain(29).

B. Weight loss in foods points of view
Epidemiological studies, linking certain foods in reduced weight loss for obese individual have produced certain positive results, but researchers emphasized that weight loss can not be in the expenses of intake of nutrients(30a).
1. Oats
Oat is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed and was first cultivated in Europe but is now grown all over the world, especially in Scotland and England. It is one of good crop to plant in the poor soil after crops are harvested in the Fall(30).
Oat, rich in beta-glucan, may hold a magic power in regulation of  metabolism and liver-protecting effect. According to Chung-Shan Medical University, consumption of oat reduced obesity, abdominal fat, and improved lipid profiles and liver functions with no adverse effects(31). Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, in a randomized study of 144 Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL, had favorable effects on fasting lipid levels and waist circumference(32). Other study suggested that at-derived beta-glucan, combined with moderate exercise also improved lipid profile and caused a decrease in weight(33).

2. Salmon
Salmon is the common name for Salmonidae. They are anadromous, born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then travel thousands of miles in the deep sea cold water throughout their life cycle and within to five years returning to the exacted location where they were born to reproduce and die(34).
Dietary salmon oil, in rat study showed to reduced weight loss of CXB-E and -H tested mice, but induced with weight gain in recombinant inbred strains. This findings may suggested that body weight response to salmon oil feeding is controlled by multiple genes(35). A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin (sCT), according to the study at 1Nordic Bioscience, also showed to improve fasting and postprandial glycemic control and insulin sensitivity and may be considered as a promising agent for the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes patients(36)(37).

3. Brown rice
Brown rice or unpolished rice is a kind of whole, natural grain with very brown color of which only the outermost layer of the rice kernel are removed, thus preventing the lost of nutrients(38).
The study of the weigh effect of brown rice on metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes, showed a positive effect of consumption of the brown rice (LB)  in association with a decreased waist circumference in type 2 diabetic patients(39). Other randomized study of forty women between 20 and 35 years of age in the comparison of white rice and mixed rice of weight control, including brown rice, indicated that meal replacement with mixed rice was superior to replacement with white rice in weight control, improving antioxidant enzyme activity(40).

4. Chicken
Chicken are domesticated fowl belonging to the subspecies of Gallus domesticus and is raised all over the world for its delicious meats and eggs. It can be roasted, broiled, grilled or poached into a very delicious, tasteful and nutritious meal(41).
In the comparison of weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken, researchers at 1Rippe Lifestyle Institute, Shrewsbury showed a interest result of weight loss and improved lipid profile can be accomplished through diet and exercise, regardless to dietary protein source including lean beef or chicken(42). But the study at University of Navarra, showed a opposite result in the study of frequent consumption of selenium-enriched chicken meat(43), it may be the result of the presence of antioxidant selenium in the meat.

5. Water
According to Virginia Tech, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal may lead to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults, because of it acutely reduces meal energy intake(EI)(44) but not younger subjects(45). The Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial, suggested that replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages induced 2% to 2.5% weight loss(46).

6. Nuts
Dietary consumption of nuts with  rich sources of multiple nutrients is associated with health benefits and weight loss,epidemiologically.  but in well-controlled nut-feeding trials, no changes in body weight were observed(47). Pistachio nuts, a member of the cashew family, can be consumed as a portion-controlled snack for individuals restricting calories to lose weight without concern that pistachios will cause weight gain(48).


7. Green tea
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
According to Maastricht University, caffeine intake and green tea supplementation are associated to improved weight maintenance, partly through thermogenesis and fat oxidation, in a randomized placebo-controlled double blind parallel trial in 76 overweight and moderately obese subjects(49). Catechins the antioxiands found abundantly in green tea, significantly decreased body weight and significantly maintained body weight after a period of weight loss, depending to the moderators of habitual caffeine intake and ethnicity(50). In a high-protein diet, green tea-caffeine mixture, failed to exert the same effect on body weight maintenance(51).

8. Coffee
Coffee made from the roasted seeds of the genus Coffee, belonging to the family Rubiaceae native to southern Arabia. Coffee may consist certain substances.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study, green coffee extract, consistent with human and animal studies and a meta-analysis may be an effective nutraceutical in reducing weight in preobese adults(52). Mannooligosaccharides (MOS), extracted from coffee, exhibited a potential functional use for weight management and improvement in adipose tissue distribution, but varying in gender(53)
Unfortunately, green coffee extract (GCE), according to University of Exeter, in reviews of the effect against weight loss of existed data, showed a significant poor methodological quality and suggested that more rigorous trials are needed to assess the usefulness of GCE as a weight loss tool(54). Other study, reported a case of Brazil Potent Slimming Coffee and possibly also other weight-loss products may be contaminated with sibutramine and as a result cause severe adverse reactions after stabbing herself in the stomach with a knife(55).

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References
(1) Rising Burden of Obesity in Asia by Ambady Ramachandran and Chamukuttan Snehalatha(Journey of Obesity)
(2) Obesity - Situation and trends(WHO)
(3) Influence of a combination of herbs on appetite suppression and weight loss in rats by Talpur NA1, Echard BW, Manohar V, Preuss HG.(PubMed)
(4) [Hepatotoxicity induced by herbs and medicines used to induce weight loss].[Article in Spanish]by Herrera S1, Bruguera M.(PubMed)
(5) A case report of adult lead toxicity following use of Ayurvedic herbal medication by Breeher L1, Gerr F, Fuortes L.(PubMed)
(6) [Chronic lead intoxication associated with Ayurvedic medication].[Article in Dutch] by Kanen BL1, Perenboom RM.(PubMed)
(7) Potential toxicity of caffeine when used as a dietary supplement for weight loss by Pendleton M1, Brown S, Thomas C, Odle B.(PubMed)
(8) Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial by Hackman RM1, Havel PJ, Schwartz HJ, Rutledge JC, Watnik MR, Noceti EM, Stohs SJ, Stern JS, Keen CL.(PubMed)
(9) Ma Huang(Popular Chinese herbs)
(10) Prameha in Ayurveda: correlation with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Part 2--management of Prameha by Sharma H1, Chandola HM.(PubMed)
(11) Effect of herbal Ephedra sinica and Evodia rutaecarpa on body composition and resting metabolic rate: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial in Korean premenopausal women by Kim HJ1, Park JM, Kim JA, Ko BP(PubMed)
(12) The herbal composition GGEx18 from Laminaria japonica, Rheum palmatum, and Ephedra sinica reduces obesity via skeletal muscle AMPK and PPARα by Shin SS1, Park D, Lee HY, Hong Y, Choi J, Oh J, Lee H, Lee HR, Kim MR, Shen ZB, Cui HH, Yoon M.(PubMed)
(13) [Ephedrine and ephedra in weight loss products and other preparations].[Article in Dutch] by van der Hooft CS1, Stricker BH.(PubMed)
(14) Ginseng, Asian (Panax ginseng) and Ginseng, North America(Popular Chinese Herbs)
(15) Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women by Song MY1, Kim BS2, Kim H(PubMed)
(16) Lipid metabolic effect of Korean red ginseng extract in mice fed on a high-fat diet by Song YB1, An YR, Kim SJ, Park HW, Jung JW, Kyung JS, Hwang SY, Kim YS.(PubMed)
(17) Popular #Herbs - #Ginger (Zingiber officinale)(Popular Chinese herbs)
(18) A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity by Hasani-Ranjbar S1, Nayebi N, Larijani B, Abdollahi M.(PubMed)
(19) Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women by Lopez HL1, Ziegenfuss TN, Hofheins JE, Habowski SM, Arent SM, Weir JP, Ferrando AA.(PubMed)
(20) Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of ginger and orlistat on obesity management, pancreatic lipase and liver peroxisomal catalase enzyme in male albino rats by Mahmoud RH1, Elnour WA.(PubMed)
(21) The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome by Oben J1, Kuate D, Agbor G, Momo C, Talla X.(PubMed)
(22) The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. by Oben JE1, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, Agbor GA, Sobgui CS.(PubMed)
(23) The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress by Oben JE1, Enyegue DM, Fomekong GI, Soukontoua YB, Agbor GA.(PubMed)
(24) An observational study and quantification of the actives in a supplement with Sambucus nigra and Asparagus officinalis used for weight reduction by Chrubasik C1, Maier T, Dawid C, Torda T, Schieber A, Hofmann T, Chrubasik S.(PubMed)
(25) A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity by Hasani-Ranjbar S1, Nayebi N, Larijani B, Abdollahi M(PubMed)
(26) #Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)(health tips for better living and living health)
(27) An observational study and quantification of the actives in a supplement with Sambucus nigra and Asparagus officinalis used for weight reduction by Chrubasik C1, Maier T, Dawid C, Torda T, Schieber A, Hofmann T, Chrubasik S.(PubMed)
(28) Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula on body weight, body composition and blood chemistry in healthy, overweight subjects--a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial by Opala T1, Rzymski P, Pischel I, Wilczak M, Wozniak J.(PubMed)
(29) A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity by Hasani-Ranjbar S1, Nayebi N, Larijani B, Abdollahi M.(PubMed)
(30) #Healthy #Foods - Oats ((Avena sativa) (Health tips for better living and living health)
(31a) Association between mood and diet quality in subjects with metabolic syndrome participating in a behavioural weight-loss programme: A cross-sectional assessment by Perez-Cornago A, Zulet MA, Martinez JA.(PubMed)
(31b) Dietary quality-adherence to the dietary guidelines in Tehranian adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study by Mirmiran P1, Azadbakht L, Azizi F.(PubMed)
(31) Oat prevents obesity and abdominal fat distribution, and improves liver function in humans by Chang HC1, Huang CN, Yeh DM, Wang SJ, Peng CH, Wang CJ.(PubMed)
(32) Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods by Maki KC1, Beiseigel JM, Jonnalagadda SS, Gugger CK, Reeves MS, Farmer MV, Kaden VN, Rains TM.(PubMed)
(33) Oat-derived beta-glucan significantly improves HDLC and diminishes LDLC and non-HDL cholesterol in overweight individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia, Reyna-Villasmil N1, Bermúdez-Pirela V, Mengual-Moreno E, Arias N, Cano-Ponce C, Leal-Gonzalez E, Souki A, Inglett GE, Israili ZH, Hernández-Hernández R, Valasco M, Arraiz N.(PubMed)
(34) #Healthy #Foods - Seafoods - Salmon (Healthy tips for better living and living health)
(35) Genetically determined body weight loss in mice fed diets containing salmon oil by LeBoeuf RC1, Veldee MS.(PubMed)
(36) Oral salmon calcitonin improves fasting and postprandial glycemic control in lean healthy rats by Feigh M1, Nielsen RH, Hansen C, Henriksen K, Christiansen C, Karsdal MA.(PubMed)
(37) A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin improves glucose homeostasis and reduces body weight in diet-induced obese rats by Feigh M1, Henriksen K, Andreassen KV, Hansen C, Henriksen JE, Beck-Nielsen H, Christiansen C, Karsdal MA.(PubMed)
(38) #Healthy #Foods - Whole Grain - Brown rice or Hulled rice's(Health tips for beter living and living health)
(39) Intake of brown rice lees reduces waist circumference and improves metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes by Kim TH1, Kim EK, Lee MS, Lee HK, Hwang WS, Choe SJ, Kim TY, Han SJ, Kim HJ, Kim DJ, Lee KW.(PubMed)
(40) Meal replacement with mixed rice is more effective than white rice in weight control, while improving antioxidant enzyme activity in obese women by Kim JY1, Kim JH, Lee da H, Kim SH, Lee SS.(PubMed)
(41) #Healthy #Foods - Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)(Health tips for btter living and living health)
(42) Weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken as the primary protein source by Melanson K1, Gootman J, Myrdal A, Kline G, Rippe JM.(PubMed)
(43) Frequent consumption of selenium-enriched chicken meat by adults causes weight loss and maintains their antioxidant status by Navas-Carretero S1, Cuervo M, Abete I, Zulet MA, Martínez JA.(PubMed)
(44) Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults by Dennis EA1, Dengo AL, Comber DL, Flack KD, Savla J, Davy KP, Davy BM(PubMed)
(45) Pre-meal water consumption reduces meal energy intake in older but not younger subjects by
Van Walleghen EL1, Orr JS, Gentile CL, Davy BM.(PubMed)
(46) Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial by  Tate DF1, Turner-McGrievy G, Lyons E, Stevens J, Erickson K, Polzien K, Diamond M, Wang X, Popkin B.(PubMed)
(47) Nut consumption and body weight by Sabaté J.(PubMed)
(48) Pistachio nuts reduce triglycerides and body weight by comparison to refined carbohydrate snack in obese subjects on a 12-week weight loss program by Li Z1, Song R, Nguyen C, Zerlin A, Karp H, Naowamondhol K, Thames G, Gao K, Li L, Tseng CH, Henning SM, Heber(PubMed)
(48) Impact of peanuts and tree nuts on body weight and healthy weight loss in adults by Mattes RD1, Kris-Etherton PM, Foster GD.(PubMed)
(49) Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation by Westerterp-Plantenga MS1, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM.(PubMed)
(50) The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis by Hursel R1, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS.(PubMed)
(51) Green tea catechin plus caffeine supplementation to a high-protein diet has no additional effect on body weight maintenance after weight loss by Hursel R1, Westerterp-Plantenga MS.(PubMed)
(52) Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects by Vinson JA1, Burnham BR, Nagendran MV.(PubMed)
(53) A weight-loss diet including coffee-derived mannooligosaccharides enhances adipose tissue loss in overweight men but not women, by St-Onge MP1, Salinardi T, Herron-Rubin K, Black RM.(PubMed)
(54) The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials by Onakpoya I1, Terry R, Ernst E.(PubMed)
(55) [Life-threatening psychosis caused by using sibutramine-contaminated weight-loss coffee].
[Article in Dutch] by Bertholee D1, ter Horst PG, Wieringa A, Smit JP.(PubMed)