Monday, February 18, 2013

Dietary Mineral - Boron

Boron, a vital trace mineral found abundantly in Almond, Red Apple, Apricots, Avocado, Banana, Red kidneyBeans, etc., is necessary for the normal growth and health of the body. Boric acid has antiseptic and antiviral activity. Its aqueous solutions have been used as mouth-washes, eye-drops, skin lotions and cosmetics(1).

1. Boron and Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis and low bone mineral density affect millions of Americans. According to the study by Orlando Health, the majority of adults in North America have insufficient intake of vitamin D and calcium along with inadequate exercise. Physicians are aware that vitamin D, calcium and exercise are essential for maintenance of bone health. Physicians are less likely to be aware that dietary insufficiencies of magnesium, silicon, Vitamin K, and boron are also widely prevalent, and each of these essential nutrients is an important contributor to bone health(2). Other in the study to compare the possible relationship between urinary concentrations of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in serum and urine of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis of 45 postmenopausal women over 47 years of age, the preliminary results suggest the existence of a significant difference (p < 0.05) in boron and phosphorus concentrations in the urine of two hours between the groups. The model of linear regression analysis used showed a relationship between urinary concentrations of boron/creatinine index and calcium/ creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphorus/creatinine indexes in the urine of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis(2a).

2. Dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women
In the study to to examine the effects of aluminum, magnesium, and boron on major mineral metabolism in postmenopausal women, conducted by the  Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, showed that boron supplementation markedly reduced the urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium; the depression seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. Boron supplementation depressed the urinary excretion of phosphorus by the low-magnesium, but not by the adequate-magnesium, women. Boron supplementation markedly elevated the serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone; the elevation seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low(3). Other study found that increase in dietary intake of B from 0.25 to 3.25 mg/d has been reported to increase plasma oestradiol and testosterone and decrease urinary Ca excretion in postmenopausal women. Changing B intake from 0.33 to 3.33 mg/d had no effect on minerals, steroids or crosslinks. However, the LBD (low-B diet) appeared to induce hyperabsorption of Ca since positive Ca balances were found in combination with elevated urinary Ca excretion. This phenomenon may have inhibited or obscured any effect of B(3a).

3. Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males
In the study to examine the effect of boron supplementation in 10 male bodybuilders, who  (aged 20 to 26) were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement, with nine male bodybuilders (aged 21 to 27) were given a placebo for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on day 1 and day 49, found that bBoth groups demonstrated significant increases in total testosterone (p < 0.01), lean body mass (p < 0.01), and one repetition maximum (RM) squat (p < 0.001) and one RM bench press (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser-trained bodybuilders, but boron supplementation affects these variables not at all(4).

4. Boron supplementation on lean body mass, plasma testosterone levels
In the study to evaluate the effect of boron supplementation in 19 male bodybuilders ages 20-27 years. Ten were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement while 9 were given a placebo every day for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on Days 1 and 49, found that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser trained bodybuilders, and that boron supplementation had no effect on these measures(5).

5. Boron and Fertility
In the study to investigate the consequences of exposure to three levels of boric acid on male rats reproduction, fertility, and progeny outcome, with emphasis on testicular DNA level and quality, by Ain Shams University, showed that the impact of boric acid exposure at dose 250 mg on male rats fertility was translated into increases in pre-implantation loss with a resulting decrease in the number of live fetuses/ litter. In addition to the significant alteration of biochemical measurements, observed at dose 250 mg, administration of boric acid at 500 mg caused testicular atrophy, severe damage of spermatogenesis, spermiation failure and significant reduction of Mg and Zn testicular levels. None of the male rats, treated with 500 mg/kg bwt, could impregnate untreated females, suggesting the occurrence of definitive loss of fertility(5a).

6. Dietary Boron and aging
Total boron concentrations in Drosophila changed during development and aging. In the study of mouses conducted by Masonic Medical Research Laboratory, found that  Adding excess dietary boron during the adult stage decreased the median life span by 69% at 0.01 M sodium borate and by 21% at 0.001 M sodium borate. Lower concentrations gave small but significant increases in life span. Supplementing a very low boron diet with 0.00025 M sodium borate improved life span by 9.5%. The boron contents of young and old mouse tissues were similar to those of Drosophila and human samples. Boron supplements of 4.3 and 21.6 ppm in the drinking water, however, did not significantly change the life span of old mice fed a diet containing 31.1 ppm boron(6).

7. Boron and hormonal regulation and cognitive function
in the study to review the scientific evidence of some studies on boron including expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing, found that there was a lack of systematic study on the safety and effectiveness of boron in humans. However, based on popular use and supportive scientific data, nine indications are discussed in this review: hormone regulation, improving cognitive function, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, vaginitis (topical), bodybuilding aid (increasing testosterone), menopausal symptoms, prevention of blood clotting (coagulation effects), and psoriasis (topical). Although studies assessing the use of boron for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are in preliminary stages, reports are promising. There is conflicting evidence to support the use of boron in hormonal regulation and cognitive function. Future randomized controlled trials are warranted. There is fair negative evidence regarding the use of boron as an anticoagulant, a bodybuilding aid, for menopausal symptoms, or for psoriasis. Excessive use may be harmful, and caution is advised(7).

8. Boron nutrition for brain and psychological function
Certain stuies indicated that Boron (B) nutriture has been related to bone, mineral and lipid metabolism, energy utilization, and immune function. In the study to consider possible relationships between B nutriture and brain and psychological function, indicated that assessments of brain electrical activity in both animals and humans found that B deprivation results in decreased brain electrical activity similar to that observed in nonspecific malnutrition. Assessments of cognitive and psychomotor function in humans found that B deprivation results in poorer performance on tasks of motor speed and dexterity, attention, and short-term memory. However, little support was found for anecdotal reports that supplementation with physiologic amounts of B helps alleviate the somatic and psychological symptoms of menopause. Parallels between nutritional and toxicological effects of B on brain and psychological function are presented, and possible biological mechanisms for dietary effects are reviewed. Findings support the hypothesis that B nutriture is important for brain and psychological function in humans(8).

9. Dietary boron and Magnessium
In the study with human volunteers conducted to test the hypothesis that naturally occurring inadequate intakes of magnesium induce negative magnesium balance and undesirable changes in calcium metabolism variables, and that these changes are influenced by dietary boron, indicated that consuming an ordinary diet deficient in magnesium, resulting in negative magnesium balance, can affect calcium, potassium, and cholesterol metabolism. Dietary boron did not have an obvious effect on the response to magnesium deprivation(9).

10. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and ORAI1
In the study to assess the influence of Orai1(ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1) intervention on mouse airway epithelium reactions in vivo and in vitro, found that administration of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) into the nostrils suppressed Orai1 expression in nasal and tracheal mucosa of treated mice compared with that in control mice and restrained the mediators in nasal lavage fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and airway mucosa of treated groups compared with those in control groups. Similarly, the 2-APB intervention also alleviated Orai1 and the production of the mediators in culture supernatant and cultured airway epithelium under allergic conditions(10).

11.  Boronic acid and Antimalarials
The high rate of mortality due to malaria and the worldwide distribution of parasite resistance to the commonly used antimalarial drugs chloroquine and pyrimethamine emphasize the urgent need for the development of new antimalarial drugs. According to the study to test Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade: [(1R)-3-methyl-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-3-phenyl-2-[(pyrazinylcarbonyl) amino]propyl]amino]butyl] boronic acid), which has been approved for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma, and a second boronate analog Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-B(OH)2 (ZL3B),  against four different strains of P. falciparum (3D7, HB3, W2 and Dd2) by University of Connecticut Health Center, found that the identification of bortezomib and its analog as potent antimalarial drugs will set the stage for the advancement of this class of compounds, either alone or in combination therapy, for treatment of malaria, and emphasize the need for large-scale screens to identify new antimalarials within the library of clinically approved compounds(11).

12. Boron and parasites
In the study of Balb/c mice fed either a low-B (0.2 microg B/g), marginal (2.0 microg B/g), or control (12.0 microg B/g) diet and to  explore whether low dietary B would: 1) alter survival or reproduction of Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda); 2) modify the resulting cytokine response to this parasitic infection; or 3) influence liver mineral concentrations in the infected host, showed that parasite survival and cytokine and inflammatory responses are modified by dietary B intake but indicates that a GI nematode infection alters liver mineral concentrations(12). 

13. Boronic acids and Candida albicans
In the study of the inhibition of the beta-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC from the pathogenic fungi Cryptococcus neoformans (Can2) and Candida albicans (Nce103) with a series of aromatic, arylalkenyl- and arylalkylboronic acids, found that the host human enzymes CA I and II were also effectively inhibited by these boronic acids. The B(OH)(2) moiety is thus a new zinc-binding group for designing effective inhibitors of the alpha- and beta-CAs.

14. Bortezomib and antibody-mediated diseases (lupus-like disease)
In the study of The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib depletes plasma cells and protects mice with lupus-like disease from nephritis conducted by Nikolaus Fiebiger-Center of Molecular Medicine, University Hospital Erlangen, found that treatment with bortezomib depleted plasma cells producing antibodies to double-stranded DNA, eliminated autoantibody production, ameliorated glomerulonephritis and prolonged survival of two mouse strains with lupus-like disease, NZB/W F1 and MRL/lpr mice. Hence, the elimination of autoreactive plasma cells by proteasome inhibitors might represent a new treatment strategy for antibody-mediated diseases(14). Other study showed that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma, efficiently depletes short- and long-lived plasma cells and ameliorates lupus nephritis in mouse models. These novel therapies may improve the future treatment of SLE and other antibody-mediated diseases(14a).

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