Saturday, February 23, 2013


Chromium(chromium 3+) is a essential mineral for the body in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, found abundantly in Beef, Eggs, Chicken, Oysters, Wheat germ, Green peppers, Banana, Apple, Etc.

1. Dietary chromium on glucose and insulin responses
In the study to to determine the effect of chromium on glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and in individuals with glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes of the review summarizes data on 618 participants from the 15 trials that reported adequate data: 193 participants had type 2 diabetes and 425 were in good health or had impaired glucose tolerance, found that The meta-analysis showed no association between chromium and glucose or insulin concentrations among nondiabetic subjects, but  a study of 155 diabetic subjects in China showed that chromium reduced glucose and insulin concentrations; the combined data from the 38 diabetic subjects in the other studies did not. Three trials reported data on Hb A(1c): one study each of persons with type 2 diabetes, persons with impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy subjects. The study of diabetic subjects in China was the only one to report that chromium significantly reduced Hb A(1c)(1).

2. Intravenous chromium treatment of Severe insulin resistance
Insulin resistance has been well documented in critically ill patients. Adequate blood sugar control has been associated with better wound healing, and better outcomes in selected patient populations.  According to the study by the Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi, there is a report of a case of extreme insulin resistance in a 62-year-old woman with history of diabetes who suffered a cardiac arrest and respiratory failure, leading to aspiration pneumonia and septic shock requiring greater than 7000 units of insulin over a period of 12 h which was successfully treated with intravenous chromium replacement(2). Other study reported in using intravenous chromium to achieve glycemic control in a patient with extreme insulin resistance and acute critical illness. Prospective clinical trials using intravenous chromium may provide the means to optimize intensive insulin therapy for critically ill patients(2a).

3. Metabolic and physiologic response to chromium supplementation
In the study to to provide a comprehensive evaluation of chromium (Cr) supplementation on metabolic parameters in a cohort of type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects representing a wide phenotype range and to evaluate changes in "responders" and "nonresponders.", found that clinical response to Cr is more likely in insulin-resistant subjects who have more elevated fasting glucose and A(1c) levels. Chromium may reduce myocellular lipids and enhance insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who do respond clinically independent of effects on weight or hepatic glucose production(3).

4. Supplemental chromium histidinate (CrHis)and Heat stress
In the study to evaluate the effects of supplemental chromium histidinate (CrHis) on performance and expressions of hepatic nuclear factors kappaB, an enhancer (NF-κB) and an inhibitor (IκBα) of activated B cells in heat-stressed Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), found that heat stress depressed performance variables and augmented lipid peroxidation and supplemental CrHis alleviated oxidative stress through modulating expressions of stress-related hepatic nuclear transcription factors (NF-κB and IκBα)(4).

5. Chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate protects against renal dysfunction
In the study to investigate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and chromium histidinate (CrHis) on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) pathway in the rat kidney by the Faculty of Veterinary Science, Firat University, the result show that in kidney tissue CrHis/CrPic increases Nrf2 level, parallelly decreases NF-κB and partially restores IκBα levels in HFD/STZ group, suggesting that CrPic and CrHis may play a role in antioxidant defense system via the Nrf2 pathway by reducing inflammation through NF-κβ p65 inhibition. Moreover, a greater reduction in NF-κB expression and greater increases in expressions of IκBα and Nrf2 in diabetic rats supplemented with CrHis than rats supplemented with CrPic suggest that CrHis has more favorable effects than CrPic(5).

6. Chromium histidinate on renal function, oxidative stress, and heat-shock
Chromium is an essential element for carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. In the study to investigate the effects of CrHis on serum parameters of renal function, on oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and 8-isoprostane), and on the expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in rats, indicated that Chromium histidinate significantly decreased lipid peroxidation levels and HSP expression in the kidneys of experimentally induced diabetic rats and it supported the efficacy of CrHis in reducing renal risk factors and impairment because of diabetes(6).

7. Anti-diabetic activity of chromium picolinate and biotin
In the study to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and biotin supplementations in type 2 diabetic rats, by Firat University, indicated that the supplements decreased the expression of NF-κB in diabetic rats (P < 0·05). Results of the present study revealed that supplementing CrPic and biotin alone or in a combination exerts anti-diabetic activities, probably through modulation of PPAR-γ, IRS-1 and NF-κB proteins(7).

8. Is chromium an essential trace element?
It has been recognized that chromium is an essential trace element associated with carbohydrate metabolism, and chromium deficiency causes an impaired glucose tolerance. According to the study by  Kansai University, the amount of chromium absorbed in humans estimated from chromium intake (20 to 80 μg/day), chromium absorption rate (1%), and urinary chromium excretion (<1 μg/day) is less than 1 μg/day, which is much lower than those of other essential trace elements. In addition, because there is an inconsistency between the chromium concentration in food and chromium intake, chromium intake seems to be dependent on chromium contamination during food processing and cooking. It is concluded that there is a high possibility that chromium is not an essential trace element(8).

9. Cr supplementation as a growth enhancer
In a  growth trial conducted on juvenile mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for 8 weeks and to compare the efficacy of three chromium (Cr) compounds (Cr chloride, Cr picolinate, and Cr yeast) at a level 0.5 mg/kg as a potential growth enhancer, showed that there is a significantly (P < 0.05) increased DNA damage in fish fed on high level of Cr chloride (2.0 mg/kg) but the other treatments were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control groups. The concentration of Cr in the liver, gut, and whole fish tissues increased with increasing dietary Cr supplementation. Overall, Cr supplementation at a level 0.5 mg/kg from different sources may affect growth performance in carp by activation of some key liver enzymes (HK and G6PD)(9).

10. Chromium and Cholesterol
Chromium (Cr(3+)) supplementation facilitates normal protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by the public in many countries.According to the study by the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress, and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be a more effective form of Cr(3+) supplementation. This study suggests that Cr(3+) supplementation can lower the risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes(10). Other study suggested a mechanism of Cr3+ action that fits with long-standing claims of its role in cholesterol homeostasis(10a).

11. Chromium  and weight loss
Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. According to the study by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, the effects of chromium on body composition are controversial but are supported by animal studies, which increase their validity. A subject's response to chromium depends on his or her chromium status, diet consumed, type and amount of supplemental chromium, and study duration. There have been no confirmed negative effects of chromium in nutritional studies. Chromium is only a small part of the puzzle in the control of weight loss and body composition, and its effects, if present, will be small compared with those of exercise and a well-balanced diet(11). Other study indicated that under conditions of controlled energy intake, CrPic supplementation of women did not independently influence body weight or composition or iron status. Thus, claims that supplementation of 200 microg of Cr as CrPic promotes weight loss and body composition changes are not supported(11a).

12. Chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle in older men
In the study to examine a total of  in 18 men (age range 56-69 yr). The effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on skeletal muscle size, strength, and power and whole body composition, found that high-dose CrPic supplementation did not enhance muscle size, strength, or power development or lean body mass accretion in older men during a RT program, which had significant, independent effects on these measurements(12).

13. Chromium deficiency and cardiovascular risk
Recent measurements have demonstrated that plasma chromium levels in patients with coronary artery disease are very much lower than in normal subjects. According to the study by Dr. Simonoff M., chromium deficiency leads to impaired lipid and glucide metabolism and results in high circulating insulin levels, the probable consequences of which suggest that chromium deficiency may be a primary risk factor in cardiovascular disease(13).

14. Chromium in metabolic and cardiovascular disease
According to the study by Diabetes Research Institute & Academical Hospital Munich-Schwabing, Munich, supplementation with chromium picolinate, a stable and highly bioavailable form of chromium, has been shown to reduce insulin resistance and to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since chromium supplementation is a safe treatment, further research is necessary to resolve the confounding data. The existing data suggest to concentrate future studies on certain forms as chromium picolinate and doses as at least 200 mcg per day(14).

15. Chromium(III) on obesity 
Insulin resistance has been shown to be the major contributing factor to the metabolic syndrome, which comprises a cluster of risk factors for metabolic aberrations such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. According to the study by InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that chromium supplements, particularly niacin-bound chromium or chromium-nicotinate, may be effective in attenuating insulin resistance and lowering plasma cholesterol levels. Utilizing the powerful technology of nutrigenomics to identify the genes regulated by chromium supplementation may shed some light on the underlying mechanisms of chromium-gene interactions, and thus provide strategies to mitigate and prevent insulin-resistance-related disorders(15).

16. chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states and cancers
Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states.  According to the Brown University, Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers(16).

17. Chromium in atypical depression
In a  placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study of CP conducted in 15 patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder, atypical type. Patients received 600 micro g of CP or matching placebo (PBO) for 8 weeks, showed that Chromium picolinate shows promising antidepressant effects in atypical depression. Its mechanism of action may relate to 5HT2A downregulation, increased insulin sensitivity, or to other effects(18).
18. Chromium and depression
According to the study by McLeod MN, Golden RN. in the describing the response to chromium monotherapy, eight patients with refractory mood disorders received chromium supplements and described dramatic improvements in their symptoms and functioning. In several instances, single-blind trials confirmed specificity of response to chromium. Side-effects were rare and mild, and most commonly included enhanced dreaming and mild psychomotor activation(18).

19. Longevity effect of chromium picolinate
The first rodent longevity study with the insulin-sensitizing nutrient chromium picolinate has reported a dramatic increase in both median and maximal lifespan.  But according to the study by the, although the observed moderate reductions in serum glucose imply a decreased rate of tissue glycation reactions, it is unlikely that this alone can account for the substantial impact on lifespan; an effect on central neurohormonal regulation can reasonably be suspected. Recent studies highlight the physiological role of insulin as a modulator of brain function, promoting brain insulin activity with chromium picolinate may help to maintain the hypothalamus in a more functionally youthful state; increased hypothalamic catecholamine activity, sensitization of insulin-responsive central mechanisms regulating appetite and thermogenesis, and perhaps trophic effects on brain neurons may play a role in this regard. Since both the pineal gland and thymus are dependent on insulin activity, chromium may aid their function as well. Thus, the longevity effect of chromium picolinate may depend primarily on delay or reversal of various age-related changes in the body's hormonal and neural milieu. A more general strategy of hypothalamic 'rejuvenation' is proposed for extending healthful lifespan(19).


The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate
Chromium has played a essential role in maintaining proper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mammals and chromium dietary supplementation has been postulated to potentially have effects on body composition, including reducing fat mass and increasing lean body mass.According to the study by The University of Alabama, over a decade of human studies with Cr(pic)(3) indicate that the supplement has not demonstrated effects on the body composition of healthy individuals, even when taken in combination with an exercise training programme. Recent cell culture and in vivo rat studies have indicated that Cr(pic)(3) probably generates oxidative damage of DNA and lipids and is mutagenic, although the significance of these results on humans taking the supplement for prolonged periods of time is unknown and should be a focus for future investigations. Given that in vitro studies suggest that other forms of chromium used as nutritional supplements, such as chromium chloride, are unlikely to be susceptible to generating this type of oxidative damage, the use of these compounds, rather than Cr(pic)(3), would appear warranted. Potential neurological effects (both beneficial and deleterious) from Cr(pic)(3) supplementation require further study(a).
Natural Remedies for Dementia Memory Loss Reversal
Guarantee to Stop Progression and Reverse Memory Loss in Alzheimer and  Dementia  with step by step instructions through Scientific Studies  within 2 Months or your Money back

Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

For over 100 healthy recipes,


No comments:

Post a Comment