Monday, December 26, 2016

Hormone(Catecholamines): Adrenal glands and the activation of glucogenesis during undernutrition

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Catecholamines, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, produced by the adrenal glands, which are found on top of the kidneys. are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine. The hormone are released into the blood during times of physical or emotional stress.

     Hormone(Catecholamines) - Adrenal glands and the activation of glucogenesis during undernutrition

In adults, the adrenal glands are essential for the metabolic response to stress, but little is known about their role in fetal metabolism. In the study to investigate the effects of adrenalectomizing fetal sheep on glucose and oxygen metabolism in utero in fed conditions and after maternal fasting for 48 h near term, showed that the circulating concentrations of cortisol and total catecholamines, and the hepatic glycogen content and activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes, were also less in AX than intact fetuses in fasted animals. Insulin concentrations were also lower in AX than intact fetuses in both nutritional states. Maternal glucose utilization and its distribution between the fetal, uteroplacental, and nonuterine maternal tissues were unaffected by fetal AX in both nutritional states. Ovine fetal adrenal glands, therefore, have little effect on basal rates of fetal glucose and oxygen metabolism but are essential for activating fetal glucogenesis in response to maternal fasting. They may also be involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in utero(12).
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