Monday, February 20, 2017

Hormone Prostaglandins and the kidney

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.                     

                      Hormone Prostaglandins

Prostaglandins, are a group of lipid mediators, found and isolated from human semen in the 1930s by Ulf von Euler of Sweden, responsible for inflammation features, such as swelling, pain, stiffness, redness and warmth. The hormones are produced by almost all nucleated cells and synthesized in the cell from the essential fatty acids (EFAs), include prostacyclin I2 (PGI2), prostaglandin E2(PGE2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)

     Hormone Prostaglandins and the kidney

In the review of a summary and assessment of research involving renal prostaglandins (Arachidonic acid released from phospholipids is converted by prostaglandin cyclo-oxygenase in the kidney to PGF2, PGF2alpha, PGD2, and, possibly, to PGI2 and thromboxane A2. Production of PGE2 and PGF2alpha is predominately but not exclusively in the medulla, whereas degradative enzymes are present in both cortex and medulla. Prostaglandins enter the tubular lumen by facilitated transport and are partially reabsorbed from the urine in the distal nephron. Urine prostaglandins probably reflect renal synthesis. PGE2 and endoperoxides stimulate and PGF2alpha and indomethacin inhibit renal renin synthesis. In response to ischemia, vasoconstriction, or angiotensin II the kidney increases prostaglandin synthesis to modulate renal vascular resistance), found that in conscious animals or man no role has been established for prostaglandins in the maintenance of basal renal blood flow or renal sodium excretion. PGE influences renal water excretion by inhibiting the action vasopressin. Despite conflicting data there is evidence that renal prostaglandins are involved either primarily or secondarily in many types of hypertension. Inhibitors of prostaglandin cyclooxygenase have been used with success in Bartter's syndrome. Conflicting results in many areas of investigation may be resolved by the use of more accurate and reliable assays, careful handling of samples, and the use of urine to further investigate renal prostaglandin synthesis(11).

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