Sunday, February 19, 2017

Hormone Prostaglandins in Physiological regulation in the kidney

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.                     

                      Hormone Prostaglandins

Prostaglandins, are a group of lipid mediators, found and isolated from human semen in the 1930s by Ulf von Euler of Sweden, responsible for inflammation features, such as swelling, pain, stiffness, redness and warmth. The hormones are produced by almost all nucleated cells and synthesized in the cell from the essential fatty acids (EFAs), include prostacyclin I2 (PGI2), prostaglandin E2(PGE2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)

     Hormone Prostaglandins  in Physiological regulation in the kidney

Cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids exert complex and diverse functions within the kidney. The biological effect of each prostanoid is controlled at multiple levels, including (a) enzymatic reactions catalyzed sequentially by cyclooxygenase and prostanoid synthase for the synthesis of bioactive prostanoid and (b) the interaction with its receptors that mediate its functions. Cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids act in an autocrine or a paracrine fashion and can serve as physiological buffers, protecting the kidney from excessive functional changes during physiological stress. According to the study by Vanderbilt University, and Veterans Affair Medical Center, alhrough these actions, prostanoids play important roles in maintaining renal function, body fluid homeostasis, and blood pressure. Renal cortical COX2-derived prostanoids, particularly PGI2 and PGE2, play critical roles in maintaining blood pressure and renal function in volume-contracted states. Renal medullary COX2-derived prostanoids appear to have an antihypertensive effect in individuals challenged with a high-salt diet. Loss of EP2 or IP receptor is associated with salt-sensitive hypertension. COX2 also plays a role in maintaining renal medullary interstitial cell viability in the hypertonic environment of the medulla. Cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids also are involved in certain pathological processes. The cortical COX2-derived PGI2 participates in the pathogenesis of renal vascular hypertension through stimulating renal renin synthesis and release. COX-derived prostanoids also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy(10).

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