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Sunday, April 9, 2017

Hormone Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in Cardiovascular effects

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.                     

          Hormone Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter derived from tryptophan, primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and in the central nervous system (CNS). In Gut, serotonin regulates intestinal movements, in CNS, it regulates mood, appetite, sleep, memory and learning, etc.


     Hormone Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)  in Cardiovascular effects 

Serotonin causes contraction of most large arteries and veins; it also causes contraction of venules. This is due mainly to direct activation of vascular smooth muscle, although amplification of the response to other endogenous vasoconstrictors (e.g., angiotensin II and norepinephrine) as well as facilitated release of norepinephrine may contribute. In peripheral blood vessels, the receptors mediating the contractions evoked by serotonin belong mainly to the 5-HT2-serotonergic subtype; in the coronary and cerebral arteries, this need not be the case. Vasodilator responses to serotonin are seen mainly at the arteriolar level, but they can also be observed in larger blood vessels. They can be caused by the release of other endogenous vasodilators (e.g., vasoactive intestinal polypeptide), direct relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission, or production of endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s). The dilator responses to serotonin are mediated by receptors with characteristics similar to 5-HT1-serotonergic binding sites. Aggregating platelets release enough serotonin to evoke both constrictor and dilator responses. The absence of endothelium may change the primary response to aggregating platelets from relaxation to contraction. The responsiveness of the blood vessel wall to serotonin can be augmented acutely by local hypoxia or by cooling(18).



Sources
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2446079

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