Tuesday, October 4, 2016

Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy: Rou Gui (Cortex Cinnamomi Cassiae)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

          Rou Gui (Cortex Cinnamomi Cassiae)

Rou Gui or Gui Zhi is also known as cinnamon bark or cinnamon twig accordingly. The acrid, sweet and warm herbs (Rou Gui very warm herb) have been used in TCM to treat cold limbs, chill and fever, cold phlegm, diarrhea, muscle spasm, headache, back pain, sweating and promote urination, etc., as it tonifies Fire, benefits the Yan, disperses Cold, calms pain, promotes circulation in the channels, moves Blood, etc. by enhancing the functions of heart, lung and bladder channels.

1. Cinnamic aldehyde
2. Cinnamyl acetate
3. Eugenol
4. Aldehyde
5. Pinene
6. Coumarin
7. Cinnamyl alcohol
8. Cinnamic acid
9. Cinnzeylanol
10. Cinnzeylanine
11. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Diabetes
In the investigation of the clinical potential of aqueous extract of cinnamon and it potential effects in diabetes found that high in type A polyphenols, have also demonstrated improvements in fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in women with insulin resistance associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome, according to”Chromium and polyphenols from cinnamon improve insulin sensitivity” by Anderson RA.(1)
2. Immunomodulatory effect
In administration of popular herb used in traditional medicine to treat various disorders such as chronic gastric symptoms, arthritis, and the common cold and its immunomodulatory effect found that observations provided evidence that CWE was able to down-regulate IFN-γ expression in activated T cells without altering IL-2 production, involving inhibition of p38, JNK, ERK1/2, and STAT4, according to the study of “Immunomodulatory effect of water extract of cinnamon on anti-CD3-induced cytokine responses and p38, JNK, ERK1/2, and STAT4 activation” by Lee BJ, Kim YJ, Cho DH, Sohn NW, Kang H.(2)
3. Antimicrobial Activities
In the observation of three natural essential oils (i.e., clove bud oil, cinnamon oil, and star anise oil) and their antimicrobal effects found that the cinnamon oil-chitosan film had also better antimicrobial activity than the clove bud oil-chitosan film. The results also showed that the compatibility of cinnamon oil with chitosan in film formation was better than that of the clove bud oil with chitosan, according to the study of “Synergistic Antimicrobial Activities of Natural Essential Oils with Chitosan Films” by Wang L, Liu F, Jiang Y, Chai Z, Li P, Cheng Y, Jing H, Leng X.(3)
4. Anti-inflammatory activity
In the investigation of Myristicin (1-allyl-5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene) is an active aromatic compound found in nutmeg (the seed of Myristica fragrans), carrot, basil,cinnamon, and parsley and it anti-inflammatory effects found that Myristicin significantly inhibited the production of calcium, nitric oxide (NO),interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, interferon inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein(MCP)-1, MCP-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, and leukemia inhibitory factor in dsRNA[polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid]-induced RAW 264.7 cells (P < 0.05), according to the study of “Anti-inflammatory effect of myristicin on RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid” by Lee JY, Park W.(4)
5. Cervical Cancer
In the evaluation of Eugenol, a potential chemopreventive agent, is a component of clove and several other spices such as basil, cinnamon, and bay leaves and its anti cancer effects found that eugenol exerts its anticancer activities via apoptosis induction and anti-inflammatory properties and also provide the first evidence demonstrating synergism between eugenol and gemcitabine, which may enhance the therapeutic index of prevention and/or treatment of cervical cancer, according to the study of “Eugenol enhances the chemotherapeutic potential of gemcitabine and induces anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity in human cervical cancer cells” by Hussain A, Brahmbhatt K, Priyani A, Ahmed M, Rizvi TA, Sharma C.(5)
6. Menstrual pain
In the investigation of the alleviating effects of aromatherapy massage, including clary sage, marjoram, cinnamon, ginger, and geranium in a base of almond oil and acetaminophen on menstrual pain in Korean high school girls found that aromatherapy massage was found to be more highly associated with reduction in the level of menstrual pain than acetaminophen, according to the study of “Aromatherapy massage on the abdomen for alleviating menstrual pain in high school girls: a preliminary controlled clinical study” by Hur MH, Lee MS, Seong KY, Lee MK.(6)
7. Systolic Blood Pressure
In this study adult subjects 30 years of age or older with type 2 diabetes were randomized to treatment with 1,200 mg/day cinnamon found that Systolic blood pressure (SBP) declined from baseline values by 3.4±11.4 mm Hg in the cinnamon group, according to the study of “Dietary Cinnamon Supplementation and Changes in Systolic Blood Pressure in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes” by Wainstein J, Stern N, Heller S, Boaz M.(7)
8. Anti biotic
In the investigation of cinnamaldehyde its effects in Campylobacter jejuni which is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illness worldwide found that Films with ≥1.5% cinnamaldehyde reduced populations of all strains to below detection at 23 °C at 72 h. At 4 °C with cinnamaldehyde, reductions were variable for all strains, ranging from 0.2 to 2.5 logs and 1.8 to 6.0 logs at 1.5% and 3.0%, according to the study of “Antimicrobial edible apple films inactivate antibiotic resistant and susceptible Campylobacter jejuni strains on chicken breast” by Mild RM, Joens LA, Friedman M, Olsen CW, McHugh TH, Law B, Ravishankar S.(8)
9. Anti-atherosclerotic activity
In the observation of Aqueous extracts of ground pepper, cinnamon, rosemary, ginger, and clove and their effects in pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis found that Hydrophilic ingredients of cinnamon and clove showed potent activities to suppress the incidence of atherosclerosis and diabetes via strong antioxidant potential, prevention of apoA-I glycation and LDL-phagocytosis, following a 5-week high cholesterol diet, according to the study of “Water extracts of cinnamon and clove exhibits potent inhibition of protein glycation and anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo hypolipidemic activity in zebrafish” by Jin S, Cho KH.(9)
10. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects
In the investigation of of Cinnamomi Cassiae extract of Cinnamon and it effects in antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic found that the fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2 h blood glucose levels in the cinnamon treated group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.01), whereas the serum insulin and adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the cinnamon treated group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The serum lipids and hepatic lipids were improved in the cinnamon administered group. Also the PPARalpha mRNA (liver) and PPARgamma mRNA (adipose tissue) expression levels were increased significantly in the cinnamon treated group (p < 0.05) in test mices, according to the study of “Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic action of Cinnamomi Cassiae (Cinnamon bark) extract in C57BL/Ks db/db mice” by Kim SH, Choung SY.(10)
11. Osteopenic disease
In the evaluation of Cinnamon zeylanicum and its effects in bone loss, including osteoporosis, bone metastasis, and rheumatoid arthritis found that cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde as active components reducing osteoclast-like cell formation and inhibiting NFATc1 expression. Notably, in a resorption pit assay, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde exhibited remarkable inhibition rates of 95% at 2 microM on bone resorption and concluded that Cinnamon zeylanicum inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. This finding raises prospects for the development of a novel approach in the treatment of osteopenic disease, according to the study of “Aldehydic components of cinnamon bark extract suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NFATc1 downregulation” by Tsuji-Naito K.(11)
12. Cognitive impairment
In the examination of Orally administrated cinnamon extract and it effects in cognitive impairment found that oral administration of CEppt to an aggressive AD transgenic mice model led to marked decrease in 56 kDa Aβ oligomers, reduction of plaques and improvement in cognitive behavior, according to the study of “Orally administrated cinnamon extract reduces β-amyloid oligomerization and corrects cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease animal model” byFrydman-Marom A, Levin A, Farfara D, Benromano T, Scherzer-Attali R, Peled S, Vassar R, Segal D, Gazit E, Frenkel D, Ovadia M.(12)
13. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do not use the herbs in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without first consulting with the related field specialist.
2. Cinnamaldehyde is toxic to liver
3. Do not use in case of liver fire ascending, warm-febrile diseases, Yin deficiency with heat, etc.
4. Etc.

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18234131
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22053946
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22034912
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21991618
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21939359
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21949670
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861719
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535839
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21443916
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20195835
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18823786
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305046
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886744

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