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Tuesday, October 11, 2016

General Health: Duodenitis Prevention - The Phytochemicals

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                 
                       Duodenitis

Duodenitis is defined as a condition of inflammation in the lining of the duodenum,the first section of the small intestine.

                               Prevention - The Phytochemicals

The aim of phytochemicals is to enhance the inmmue function ain fighting against invasion as result of bacterial, viral and parasitic causes of inflammation
1. Gingerole
Gingerole, is also known as gingerol, a phytochemical of Flavonoids (polyphenols)found in fresh ginger. and in variety of other plants. The herb has been used to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, motion sickness, rheumatoid arthritis, relieve migraine, etc. In the investigation of the effectiveness of chemical constituents of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae)in treating oxidative stress found that compounds [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol of the herb scavenges of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picyrlhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, inhibitsof N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), lipopolysaccharide induced nitrite and prostaglandin E(2) production in RAW 264.7 cells, according to the study of "Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol" by Dugasani S, Pichika MR, Nadarajah VD, Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Korlakunta JN(23).

2. Rutin
Rutin also known as rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin is a Flavonols, belong to Flavonoids (polyphenols) of Phenolic compounds found orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime, berries mulberry, cranberries, buckwheat etc. In the investigation of Rutin, a natural flavone derivative and its anti inflammatory effect found that Oral administration of rutin reduced rat paw swelling starting 2 hours after lambda-carrageenan injection. Rutin reduced significantly (p < 0.05) and in a dose-dependant manner the polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis to fMet-Leu-Phe, according to the study of "Anti-inflammatory effect of rutin on rat paw oedema, and on neutrophils chemotaxis and degranulation" by Selloum L, Bouriche H, Tigrine C, Boudoukha C.(24).

3. Catechin
Catechin is phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, etc. In the research on polyphenolic compounds (included catechins) in the berries of edible honeysuckle and their biological effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed found that These berries seem to be prospective sources of health-supporting phytochemicals that exhibit beneficial anti-adherence and chemo-protective activities, thus they may provide protection against a number of chronic conditions, e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumour growth or cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, according to "Phenolic profile of edible honeysuckle berries (genus lonicera) and their biological effects" by Jurikova T, Rop O, Mlcek J, Sochor J, Balla S, Szekeres L, Hegedusova A, Hubalek J, Adam V, Kizek R.(25). Also in the preparation of the gel of Chinese medicine catechu, and to observe the release mechanism in vitro and anti-inflammatory activity in rats, found that the optimum condition of extraction from catechu was as follows, the concentration of ethanol, ratio of raw material to solvent, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature were 50% , 1: 12, 35 min and 60 degrees C, respectively. The formulation of catechu gel was carbomer-9 400.5 g, glycerol 5.0 g, the extracts of catechu 50.0 mL, and triethanomine 0.5 mL The gel was semitransparent and stable. The drugs released quickly. The catechu gel reduced the paw edema considerably in dose-dependent manner compared to carrageenan-induced rat, according to "[Preparation and pharmacodynamics studies on anti-inflammatory effect of catechu gel].[Article in Chinese]" by Zheng X, Zheng C.(26).

4. Cinnamic acid
Cinnamic acid is a phytochemical in the class of Hydroxycinnamic acids, found abundantly in cinnamon, aloe. etc. In the sudy of the ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE) belonging to the family Zingiberceae, found that compositional analysis favored by determination of the efficacy of individual phenolic acids towards their potential ulcer-preventive ability revealed that between cinnamic (50%) and gallic (46%) phenolic acids, cinnamic acidappear to contribute to better H(+), K(+)-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, while gallic acid contributes significantly to anti-oxidant activity, according to "Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-oxidative Mechanism" by Nanjundaiah SM, Annaiah HN, M Dharmesh S.(27).

5. Resveratrol
Resveratrol is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in skins and seed of grape wine, nuts, peanuts, etc. In the observation of Resveratrol's effects in exhibition of several physiological activities including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in experimental animal models, as well as in humans, found that Anticancer activity of this compound is mainly due to induction of apoptosis via several pathways, as well as alteration of gene expressions, all leading to a decrease in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. Resveratrol exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulation of enzymes and pathways that produce mediators of inflammation and also induction of programmed cell death in activated immune cells. Resveratrol has been shown to produce no adverse effects, even when consumed at high concentrations, according to "Potential of resveratrol in anticancer and anti-inflammatory therapy" by Udenigwe CC, Ramprasath VR, Aluko RE, Jones PJ.(28). Also in the study of implantation and growth of metastatic cancer cells at distant organs is promoted by inflammation-dependent mechanism, found that resveratrolremarkably inhibited hepatic retention and metastatic growth of melanoma cells by 50% and 75%, respectively. The mechanism involved IL-18 blockade at three levels: First, resveratrol prevented IL-18 augmentation in the blood of melanoma cell-infiltrated livers. Second, resveratrol inhibited IL-18-dependent expression of VCAM-1 by tumor-activated hepatic sinusoidal endothelium, preventing melanoma cell adhesion to the microvasculature. Third, resveratrol inhibited adhesion- and proliferation-stimulating effects of IL-18 on metastatic melanoma cells through hydrogen peroxide-dependent nuclear factor-kappaB translocation blockade on these cells, according to "Resveratrol prevents inflammation-dependent hepatic melanoma metastasis by inhibiting the secretion and effects of interleukin-18" by Salado C, Olaso E, Gallot N, Valcarcel M, Egilegor E, Mendoza L, Vidal-Vanaclocha F.(29).

6. Etc.

Sources
(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22988262
(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19833188
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12710715
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269864
(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22256752
(27) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19570992
(28) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18667005
(29) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21569399


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