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Thursday, August 25, 2016

Phytochemicals in Foods- The Effects of Pelargonidin

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                     Pelargonidin



Pelargonidin, is an anthocyanins (flavonals), in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in bilberry, raspberry, strawberry, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti inflammatory effects
In the systematically investigated the effects of 36 naturally occurring flavonoids and related compounds on NO production in macrophages exposed to an inflammatory stimulus (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), and evaluated the mechanisms of action of the effective compounds,
found that Flavone, the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, the flavonols isorhamnetin, kaempferol and quercetin, the flavanone naringenin, and the anthocyanin pelargonidin inhibited iNOS protein and mRNA expression and also NO production in a dose-dependent manner, according to "Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids: genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein inhibit STAT-1 and NF-kappaB activations, whereas flavone, isorhamnetin, naringenin, and pelargonidin inhibit only NF-kappaB activation along with their inhibitory effect on iNOS expression and NO production in activated macrophages" by Hämäläinen M, Nieminen R, Vuorela P, Heinonen M, Moilanen E.(1)

2. Neuroprotective effects
In the investigation of the neuropathological effect of pelargonidin (Pel),
found that Pel administration has a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA toxicity, partly through attenuating oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that pelargonidin could provide benefits, along with other therapies, in neurodegenerative disorders including PD, according to "Oral pelargonidinexerts dose-dependent neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of hemi-parkinsonism" by Roghani M, Niknam A, Jalali-Nadoushan MR, Kiasalari Z, Khalili M, Baluchnejadmojarad T.(2)

3. Colon and liver cancer
In the investigation of inhibition of potato antioxidant extracts on the proliferation of colon cancer and liver cancer cells, found that an inverse correlation was found between total phenolics and the EC(50) of colon cancer cell (R(2) = 0.9303), as well as liver cancer cell proliferation (R(2) = 0.8992). The relationship between antioxidant activity and EC(50) of colon cancer/liver cancer cell proliferation was significant (R(2) = 0.8144; R(2) = 0.956, respectively). A significant difference in inhibition of cancer cells (P < 0.01) existed between the 3 polyphenols: chlorogenic acid, pelargonidin chloride, and malvidin chloride, suggesting that chlorogenic acid was a critical factor in the antiproliferation of colon cancer and liver cancer cells, according to "Inhibitory effect of antioxidant extracts from various potatoes on the proliferation of human colon and liver cancer cells" by Wang Q, Chen Q, He M, Mir P, Su J, Yang Q.(3)

4. Inflammation and Insulin sensitive
In the investigation of the effect of strawberry antioxidants in beverage form on meal-induced postprandial inflammatory and insulin responses in human subjects, found that the postprandial concentrations of pelargonidin sulfate andpelargonidin-3-O-glucoside were significantly increased when the strawberry beverage was consumed concurrently with the HCFM compared with the placebo beverage (P < 0·001). The strawberry beverage significantly attenuated the postprandial inflammatory response as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and IL-6 (P < 0·05) induced by the HCFM. It was also associated with a reduction in postprandial insulin response (P < 0·05), according to "Strawberry anthocyanin and its association with postprandial inflammation and insulin" by Edirisinghe I, Banaszewski K, Cappozzo J, Sandhya K, Ellis CL, Tadapaneni R, Kappagoda CT, Burton-Freeman BM.(4)

5. Anti-lipid peroxidation activity and hepatoprotective effect
In the investigation of fruit pulp extracts of the lychees for vitamin C, phenolic contents, anti-lipid peroxidation activity and hepatoprotective effect, found that administration of CCl(4) in rats elevated the serum GPT, GOT, and ALP level whereas silymarin, Gimjeng and Chakapat extracts prevented these increases significantly. Significant decrease of apoptotic cells together with restoration of morphological changes confirmed the hepatoprotective effect in the CCl(4)-induced rats pretreated with the extracts, according to "Hepatoprotective effects of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.): a combination of antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities" by Bhoopat L, Srichairatanakool S, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul T, Thananchai H, Bhoopat T.(5)

6. Endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis
In the observation of the potential mechanisms responsible for the cytoprotective actions of three common anthocyanins, namely cyanidin- delphinidin- andpelargonidin-3-glucoside on the biochemical pathways underlying peroxynitrite-triggered apoptosis in endothelial cells, found that a potential role of dietary anthocyanins in the modulation of several apoptotic signaling pathways triggered by peroxynitrite in endothelial cells, supporting mechanistically their health benefits in the context of prevention of endothelial dysfunction and, ultimately, of atherosclerosis, according to "Dietary anthocyanins protect endothelial cells against peroxynitrite-induced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and Bax nuclear translocation: an in vitro approach" by Paixão J, Dinis TC, Almeida LM.(6)

7. Hepatitis B virus
In the analyzing of the anthocyanins (delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside: cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside: petunidin-3,5-diglucoside: delphinidin-3-glucoside: malvdin-3,5-diglucoside: peonidin-3,5-diglucoside: cyanidin-3-glucoside: petunidin-3-glucoside: peonidin-3- glucoside: malvidin-3- glucoside = 27:63:8.27:1:2.21:2.21:6.7:1.25:5.72:1.25) [corrected] isolated from meoru (Vitis coignetiae Pulliat) exerted antiproliferative and anti-invasive and apoptotic effects on human hepatoma Hep3B cells, found that anthocyanins from meoru have antiproliferative and anti-invasive effects and may induce apoptosis through the activation of the mitochondrial pathway and inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins. This study provides evidence that the anthocyanins isolated from meoru might be useful in the treatment of human hepatitis B-associated hepatoma, according to "Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of invasion in human hepatoma cells by anthocyanins from meoru" by Shin DY, Ryu CH, Lee WS, Kim DC, Kim SH, Hah YS, Lee SJ, Shin SC, Kang HS, Choi YH.(7)

8. Antioxidants
In the examination of phytochemical profile and the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruit (cv. Camarosa) upon postharvest ripening at room temperature (20 °C) and to correlate them with qualitative attributes, found that pelargonidin-3-glucoside was the major anthocyanin, which increased with the increase of shelf life period, while cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside were found at lower concentrations. The potent radical scavenging activity, evaluated with four in vitro assays, showed a higher antioxidant capacity after 3 and 1 days of shelf life., according to "The effect of postharvest ripening on strawberry bioactive composition and antioxidant potential" by Goulas V, Manganaris GA.(8)

9. Gastrointestinal digestion and microsomal glucuronidation
In the determination of a simulated gastrointestinal digestion model used to evaluate the potential degradation of anthocyanins post-consumption, found that during the simulated gastric digestion, anthocyanin glycosides (200 μM) remained stable however their aglycone derivatives were significantly degraded (20% loss), while during subsequent pancreatic/intestinal digestion only pelargonidin-3-glucoside remained stable while cyanidin-3-glucoside (30% loss) and Cy and pelagonidin aglycones were significantly degraded (100% loss, respectively), according to "Anthocyanin-derived phenolic acids form glucuronides following simulated gastrointestinal digestion and microsomal glucuronidation" by Woodward GM, Needs PW, Kay CD.(9)

10. Hyperalgesia
In the evaluation of the possible beneficial effect of chronic pelargonidin (PG) treatment on hyperalgesia in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic neuropathic rat, found that diabetic rats showed a marked chemical and thermal hyperalgesia, indicating that development of diabetic neuropathy and PG treatment (especially multiple-doses) significantly ameliorated the alteration in hyperalgesia (P less than 0.05-0.01) in diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics. PG (multiple doses) also significantly decreased diabetes-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation and non-significantly reversed elevation of nitrite level and reduction of antioxidant defensive enzyme superoxide dismutase, according to "Chronic oralpelargonidin alleviates streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic hyperalgesia in rat: involvement of oxidative stress" by Mirshekar M, Roghani M, Khalili M, Baluchnejadmojarad T, Arab Moazzen S.(10)

11. Antioxidants
In the study of The antioxidant and pro-oxidant potential of an extract from red radish, in which the major compounds were acylated pelargonidin derivatives, found that the acylated pelargonidin derivatives extracted from red radish could act as antioxidant and pro-oxidant and their antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties were relative to the reaction conditions. It might provide novel antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agents, according to "Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of acylated pelargonidin derivatives extracted from red radish (Raphanus sativus var. niger, Brassicaceae)" by Wang LS, Sun XD, Cao Y, Wang L, Li FJ, Wang YF.(11)

12. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18274639
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20558255
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21888504
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736853
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540102
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21785847
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723048
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21520448
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21370450
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20683496


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