Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Phytochemicals in Foods- The Effects of Apiole

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Apiol, a phytochemical monophenols, is also known as parsley apiol, apiole or parsley camphor found mostly in celery, parsley seeds. It has been used as medicine to treat menstrual disorders.

Health Benefits
1. Antinociceptive and 2. anti-inflammatory effects
In the investigation of Essential oil from the roots of I. lanceolatum, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analysed by GC-MS, including myristicin (17.63%), α-asarone (17.23%), methyl isoeugenol (11.19%), apiol (8.82%) and isolongifolol (5.94%) found that the essential oil showed significantly antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The results indicate that the essential oil may contain the bioactive components of I. lanceolatum. This is the first report on the chemistry, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of I. lanceolatum, according to the study of "Chemical composition, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil from the roots of Illicium lanceolatum" by Liang J, Huang B, Wang G.(1)

3. Antimicrobial and 4. antiproliferative activity
In the observation of Acetone extracts of leaves, flowers, and stems of A. sicula L., including apiol and myristicin and its effect on cancer cell lines found that antimicrobial activity of acetone extracts was carried out against bacterial and fungal strains and antiproliferative activity against a group of human cancer cell lines (K-562, NCI-H460, and MCF-7), according to "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of Athamanta sicula L. (Apiaceae)" by Stefano VD, Pitonzo R, Schillaci D.(2)

5. Antifungal activity
In demonstration of the extracts prepared from 10 plant species and their effect on Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) which is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) found that the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM, according to the study of "Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis" by Johann S, Cisalpino PS, Watanabe GA, Cota BB, de Siqueira EP, Pizzolatti MG, Zani CL, de Resende MA.(3)

6. Carcinogenesis
In the research of Alkoxy derivatives of allylbenzene, including safrole, estragole, methyleugenol, myristicin, dill apiol, and parsley apiol and their effects on DNA found that safrole, estragole, methyleugenol, myristicin, dill apiol, and parsley apiolare capable of altering the DNA in these cells and thus may contribute to human carcinogenesis, according to the study of "DNA adducts from alkoxyallylbenzene herb and spice constituents in cultured human (HepG2) cells" by Zhou GD, Moorthy B, Bi J, Donnelly KC, Randerath K.(4)

7. Cercaricidal effect
In analyzing the composition of the essential oil of the fresh aerial parts of Apium graveolens var. secalinum at its flowering stage, including the main components in the oil are: alpha- and beta-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cis-beta-ocimene, gamma-terpinene, cis-allo-ocimene, trans-farnesene, humulene, apiol, beta-selinene, senkyunolide and neocnidilide and its cercaricidal effect found that the essential oil showed in addition to a cercaricidal effect also a chemotactic effect, according to the study of "The essential oil of Apium graveolens var. secalinum and its cercaricidal activity" by Saleh MM, Zwaving JH, Malingré TM, Bos R.(5)

8. Etc.
Do not use Apiole without consulting with related field specialist as it can be toxic if overdosed

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(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21999530
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21472076
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20645716
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17948277
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4080514

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