Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy - Popular Chinese Herbs - Long Yan (Arillus Euphoriae Longanae)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

         Long Yan (Arillus Euphoriae Longanae)

Long Yan is also known as longan. The slightly sweet and neutral herb (fruit) or slightly bitter and neutral (leaf, root or seed) has been used in TCM
1. (Long Yan Gen) Roots to treat Chyluria , leucorrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
2. (Long Yan Ye) Leaves to prevent epidemic influenza, epidemic meningitis, influenza, enteritis, eczema of the scrotum
3. (Long Yan Rou) Edible part of the fruit
As tonic after illnesses, neurasthenia, forgetfulness, palpitation, insomnia, etc.
4. (Long Yan Zi) Seeds to stomachache, scalding, bleeding from cut, etc.
as they tonify Heart and Spleen, benefits Qi and Blood, enhancing the functions of heart and spleen channels

A. In Fruits
1. vitamin A, B1, B2 , P, C
2. glucose
3. tartaric acid
4. Etc.

B. Seeds
1. Saponin
2. Pigments
3. Animo acid
4. 2-amino-4-hydroxymet-hylhex-5-ynoic acid
5. 2-am-ino-4-hydroxyhept-6-ynoic acid
6. Fat
7. Tannin
8. Etc.

C. Leaves
1. Quercetin
2. Quercitrin
3. Friedelin
4. 16-hentriacontanol
5. Epifriedelinol
6. β-sitosterol
7. Sigmateryl-D-glucoside
8. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anxiolytic-like effect
In the investigation of the extract of Longan Arillus was tested for its anxiolytic-like effect by application of the Vogel-type anti-conflict method in mice. he extract indicated significant activity at a dose of 2 g/kg, s.c., and results of the bioassay-oriented isolation revealed adenosine to be the active principle. Adenosine produced the anti-conflict effect significantly at a dose of 30 mg/kg, s.c. Adenine, uridine, and 5-methyluridine did not exhibit the effect, although these compounds were isolated from the extract. Some other related compounds such as AMP and c-AMP showed no effect, except for inosine. Adenosine also contributed to the analgesic effect which was observed in the extract by the writhing method(1).

2. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects
In the study of Eight male rats per group were assigned randomly to one of the following dietary groups: (1) normal-caloric diet and pure water (NCD + NDW); (2) hypercaloric diet and pure water (HCD + NDW); (3) HCD and 1.25% (w/v) LFWE (HCD + 1.25% LFWE); (4) HCD and 2.5% (w/v) LFWE (HCD + 2.5% LFWE) for 9 weeks. Body weight, size of epididymal fat, serum triglyceride level and atherogenic index, and hepatic lipids were decreased (p < 0.05) in HCD rats by drinking 2.5% LFWE which may result from downregulated (p < 0.05) pancreatic lipase activity, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expressions, as well as upregulated (p < 0.05) LDL receptor (LDLR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) gene expressions, and also increased (p < 0.05) fecal triglyceride excretions. (2).

3. Metabolic syndrome
In the study to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of longan flower water extract (LFWE), which showed powerful antioxidative activity in vitro, on markers of metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: group C, fed with standard Purina chow; group F, fed with high-fructose diet (HF) alone; group L, fed with HF plus LFWE 125 mg/kg bw per day by gavage; and group H, fed HF plus LFWE 250 mg/kg bw per day by gavage. The dietary manipulation lasted for 14 weeks, showed that rats fed with HF resulted in oxidative stress and affected the antioxidant status including plasma thiobarbituric acid and liver antioxidant enzyme activity. Treatment with LFWE significantly augmented the antioxidant system. HF was able to cause insulin resistance and elevation of the blood pressure. The supplementation of LFWE ameliorated insulin resistance by enhancing the expression of insulin signaling pathway related proteins, including insulin receptor substrate-1 and glucose transporter 4. LFWE supplementation was also found to decrease systolic blood pressure(3).

4. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects
in the investigation of the antioxidative effects of water extract and ethanolic extract of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) flowers were evaluated by radical scavenging activity and compared to those of gallic acid, myricetin, and epigallocatechin gallate, suggest that longan flower crude extracts, especially ethanolic extract, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and the probable mechanism involves inhibition of inflammation by proanthocyanidins. Preliminary observations suggest that longan flower extract, especially alcoholic extract, could be another potential source of natural dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent(4).

5. Antioxidative activity
In the evaluation of three different solvent extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane) of longan ( Dimocarpus longan Lour.) flowers were assayed with three different antioxidant capacity methods, namely, the DPPH free radical scavenging effect, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and the inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL), showed that methanol extract has the best antioxidative activity, followed by ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts(5).

6. Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury
In this study to observe the effects of polysaccharides of the Euphoria Longan (Lour.) Steud on [Formula: see text] and ?OH in?vitro, found that Compared with the I/R group, polysaccharides of the Euphoria Longan (Lour.) Steud could obviously reduce the neurological score, the infract volume, the brain water content, MDA content, MPO activity, TNF-? and IL-1? level, expression of Bax, and increase SOD, GSH, GSH-Px activity and expression of Bcl-2.(6).

7. Memory-enhancing effects
In the investigation of the effects of aqueous extract of Euphoria longan fruit (ELE) on learning and memory and their underlying mechanisms, suggest that subchronic administration of aqueous extract of Euphoria longan fruit enhances learning and memory, and that its beneficial effects are mediated, in part, by BDNF expression and immature neuronal survival.(7).


Side effects
1. Do not use the herb in case of insomnia as a result of heart, spleen and blood deficiency
2. Do not use the herb in cases of phlegm-fire in the middle burner
3. Etc.


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