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Friday, September 9, 2016

General Health: Cystitis - The Causes

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.



                               Cystitis 


Cystitis is defined as a condition of urinary bladder inflammation


                      The Causes


1. Bacterial infection
Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus is a Gram-positive pathogen that is typically associated with neonatal disease and infection in pregnant women. Group B streptococcus also causes invasive infections in non-pregnant adults including urinary tract infections(5). Other researchers found that in 85.7% of cases following non-clostridial anaerobic (NCA) bacteria were identified in biopsy samples: Propionibacterium sp. (41.8%), Peptococcus sp. (35.7%), Eubacterium sp. (28.6%), Peptostreptococcus sp. (14.3%), and Bacteroides sp. (14.3%). Aerobic-anaerobic associations were observed in 7.1% of samples(6).

2. Nonbacterial infection
a. Viral cystitis
BK-virus is a very common polyomavirus in the global population, similar to the JC-virus responsible for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. BK-virusinfections are an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in immuno-compromised patients, including: bone marrow transplant pediatric recipients in whom it may cause hemorrhagic cystitis(7).

b. Mycobacterial infection
There is a review of a to review clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of renal mycobacteriosis, illustrated by presentation of a case of pyelonephritis and cystitiscaused by Mycobacterium chelonei(8).

c. Chlamydial infection
In the study of Male guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) by intraurethral injection of chlamydiae or by placement of a drop of chlamydial suspension on the meatus of the extruded penis, researchers found that when infected animals were immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide, the number of guinea pigs with cystitis was increased, and chlamydiae could be detected in the bladder for as long as 50 days afterinfection(9).

d. Fungal infection
There is a report of 4 cases of fungal cystitis. All patients had severe urgency, frequency and nocturia with sterile pyuria and microhematuria. Significant fungalgrowth was observed on routine blood agar cultur. Bladder biopsy was necessary to rule out tumor(10).

e. Schistosomal infection
In the study to evaluate the immunoreactivity for p53 and c-erbB-2 proteins in 31schistosomal urinary bladder carcinomas and 21 cases of schistosomal cystitiswith hyperplastic, metaplastic and/or dysplastic (premalignant) lesions and compare with 30 carcinomas and 21 premalignant lesions of the urinary bladder without schistosomiasis showed that abnormal nuclear p53 protein accumulation was found in 17/31 schistosomal and in 15/30 non-schistosomal carcinomas and in 8/21 schistosomal cystitis with premalignant lesions of which five showed hyperplasia(11).

f. Etc.

3. Noninfection and Bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC)
In the study to describe the practice patterns among primary care physicians' (PCPs) managing patients with symptoms suggestive of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), indicated that of 290 completed questionnaires (response rate, 52%), regarding etiology, 90% correctly indicated that IC/PBS was a noninfectious disease((radiation cystitis, autoimmune, hypersensitivity), 76% correctly reported that it was not caused by a sexually transmitted infection, and 61% correctly indicated that it was not caused by a psychiatric illness(12).

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20679058
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16979747
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19900386
(4) http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/440225-overview
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883571
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446162
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22621826
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17972827
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7292213
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7411704
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7911381
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20303575

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