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Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Herbal therapy: Popular Herbal Usnea

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                    Usnea


Usnea is a symbiosis of a fungus and an alga, generally growth hanging from tree branches, a genus Usnea, belonging to the family Parmeliaceae. The herb has been used in tradtional medicine to enhance immune function, relieve sore throat, bronchitis, cold & flu, infection, to treat indigestion, etc.


Health Benefits
1. Antioxidative and hepatoprotective activity
In the demonstration of antioxidative and hepatoprotective activity of a cultured lichen Usnea ghattensis, found that The cultured lichen extract also showed hepatoprotection against ethanol-induced toxicity in the mice liver slice culture model by a significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, along with a decrease in lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase release, according to "Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of a lichen Usnea ghattensis in vitro" by Verma N, Behera BC, Makhija U.(1)

2. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities
In the investigation of methanol extract in the preventiopn of lipid peroxidation by 87% followed by 65% in Trolox at 20 microg/ml, found that In addition, these extracts were inhibitory against Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 5-10 microg/ml, according to "Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lichen Usnea ghattensis in vitro" by Behera BC, Verma N, Sonone A, Makhija U.(2)

3. Antimicrobial activity
In the determination of the usnic acid amounts in acetone extracts by HPLC of six species of lichens, such as Usnea florida, Usnea barbata, Usnea longissima, Usnea rigida, Usnea hirta and Usnea subflorida, found that antimicrobial activities of these extracts were determined against Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218), Enterococcus faecalis (RSKK 508), Proteus mirabilis (Pasteur Ens. 235), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium. It was shown that with increasing amount of usnic acid, the antimicrobial activity increased. Usnic acid contents of Usnea species varied between 0.22-6.49% of dry weight, according to "Identification and quantitation of usnic acid from the lichen Usnea species of Anatolia and antimicrobial activity" by Cansaran D, Kahya D, Yurdakulola E, Atakol O.(3)

4. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities
In the investigation of the antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of a methanol extract of a medicinal lichen, Usnea longissima, found that the antithrombotic activity of U. longissima extract might be due to antiplatelet activity rather than anticoagulant activity, according to "Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of methanol extract of Usnea longissima" by Lee KA, Kim MS.(4)

5. Gastroprotective and antioxidant effects
In the determination of Usnea longissima, a medicinal lichen of Anatolia (Turkey), used in the treatment of gastric ulcer in local folk medicine in rat, found that he gastric lesions were significantly reduced by all doses of UA as compared with the indomethacin (25 mg/kg body weight) treated group. In the stomach tissues of treated animals, the in vivo antioxidant levels were evaluated. The administration of indomethacin caused a significant decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH), and an increase in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level (p < 0.05). The administration of all doses of UA reversed the trend, inducing a significant increase of SOD, GSH and GPx levels and a reduction in LPO level in tissues, according to "Gastroprotective and antioxidant effects of usnic acid on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats" by Odabasoglu F, Cakir A, Suleyman H, Aslan A, Bayir Y, Halici M, Kazaz C.(5)

6. Skin wound healing
In the study of the effects of sodium usnic acid on proliferation of fibroblasts and skin wound healing, found that Sodium usnic acid can accelerate skin wound healing, the effects was not by stimulating proliferation of fibroblasts. according to "[The study on skin wound healing promoting action of sodium usnic acid].[Article in Chinese]" by Jin J, Dong Y, He L.(6)

7. Antineoplastic activity
In the determination of Different fractions, isolated from the lichen Usnea fasciata, analyzed by PC, TLC, and RP-HPLC for the effect on Antineoplastic activity, found that Fractions containing usnic acid, as well as those containing isolichenin, showed moderate activity against sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich tumor cells. High antitumoral activity, near 90% inhibition, was found associated with the fraction containing raffinose, according to "Analysis of Usnea fasciata crude extracts with antineoplastic activity" by Periera EC, Nascimento SC, Lima RC, Silva NH, Oliveira AF, Bandeira E, Boitard M, Beriel H, Vicente C, Legaz ME.(7)

8. Etc.


Side effects
1. Overdoses may be toxic (a)
2. Please consult with the related field specialist before applying the herb to new born, children, or if yopu are pregnant or breast feeding.
3. The herb may cause allergic effect (b)

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19034791
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3568642
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18975145
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16132842
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17294685
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16372374
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16169175
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15981883
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7660383


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