Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Phytochemicals in Foods- The Effects of Rosemarinol

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Rosemarinol, is a phytochemical monophenols, found in essential oil of labiate herbs like Rosemary and also in variety of other plants.

Health Benefits
1. Drug-resistant infections, Anti-bacterial and fungal activities
In the investigation of the antimicrobial activity potential of the essential oil of rosemary and its drug-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis effect found that characterization and isolation of the active compound(s) from the rosemary oilmay be useful in counteracting gram-positive bacterial, fungal, and drug-resistant infections., according to "Potential of rosemary oil to be used in drug-resistant infections" by Luqman S, Dwivedi GR, Darokar MP, Kalra A, Khanuja SP.

4. Antimicrobial activity
In the observation of the essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and their anti,icrobial effects found that The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two essential oils indicated their additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual microorganism tests. The time-kill curves of clove and rosemary essential oils towards three strains showed clearly bactericidal and fungicidal processes of (1)/(2) x MIC, MIC, MBC and 2 x MIC, according to "Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination" by Fu Y, Zu Y, Chen L, Shi X, Wang Z, Sun S, Efferth T.(2)

3. Chemical stabilization of fish oil
In the study of fish oil undergoes multiple changes in its physical properties and its autoxidation occurred found that rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid to ternary blends of tocopherols, ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin or Citrem significantly retarded autoxidation, according to "Chemical stabilization of oils rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage" by Pop F.

4. Female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L (mosquito species)
In the research of ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens) and theirs effect against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L found that The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control, according to "Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L" by Warikoo R, Wahab N, Kumar S.(4)

5. Natural food preservative
In the observation of the Inhibitory effects against Arcobacter butzleri found that 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C, according to "Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential forrosemary oil as a natural food preservative" by Irkin R, Abay S, Aydin F.(5)

6. Lyme disease
In the the application of IC2, a minimal-risk (25B) botanical compound containing 10% rosemary oil, with bifenthrin and it effects against on tick-infested grids in Maine, in an area where Lyme disease found that no adult ticks could be dragged 1.5 wk after the October IC2 spray, and few the following April. No ticks were found on the bifenthrin grids after either spray through the following April, whereas substantial numbers of ticks remained throughout on the grids sprayed with water. Thus, IC2 appears to be an effective, minimum-risk acaricide to control the vector tick of Lyme disease, according to "Trial of a minimal-risk botanical compound to control the vector tick of Lyme disease" by Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Elias SP, Lubelczyk CB, St Amand T, Smith RP Jr.(6)

7. Oral pathogens
In the analyzing the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) was obtained by hydro-distillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and its effect against Oral pathogens found that the pure major compounds were more active than the essential oil. Among all the microorganisms tested, the pathogen S. mitis was the most susceptible and E. faecalis was the most resistant to the evaluated samples, according to "Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis and its major components against oral pathogens" by Bernardes WA, Lucarini R, Tozatti MG, Flauzino LG, Souza MG, Turatti IC, Andrade e Silva ML, Martins CH, da Silva Filho AA, Cunha WR.(7)

8. Propionibacterium acnes
In the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Labiatae) essential oil and its effect against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) found that increasing concentration of the essential oil, the bacterial bodies were severely damaged. The length, width and height were all reduced, when the concentration was increased up to 64xMIC, the length, width and height were reduced by 42.56%, 92.00% and 41.58%, respectively, according to "Investigation of antibacterial activity of rosemary essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes with atomic force microscopy" by Fu Y, Zu Y, Chen L, Efferth T, Liang H, Liu Z, Liu W.(8)

9. Quorum-sensing signals
In the investigation of tested oils and their effects against Quorum-sensing signals produced by micro-organisms found that rose, geranium, lavender and rosemary oils were the most potent QS inhibitors. Eucalyptus and citrus oils moderately reduced pigment production by CV026, according to "Inhibition of quorum-sensing signals by essential oils" by Szabó MA, Varga GZ, Hohmann J, Schelz Z, Szegedi E, Amaral L, Molnár J.(9)

10. Supercritical fluid
In the investigation of rosemary extract could enhance antioxidant defenses and improve antioxidant status in aged rats found that rosemary extract produced a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation and ROS levels that was significant for catalase activity in heart and brain, NOS in heart, and LPO and ROS levels in different brain tissues. These observations suggest that the rosemary supplement improved the oxidative stress status in old rats, according to "Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, Rosmarinus officinalis, on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats" by Posadas SJ, Caz V, Largo C, De la Gándara B, Matallanas B, Reglero G, De Miguel E.(10)

11. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
In the observation of non-toxic doses of a low-calcemic 1,25D(3) analogue, 1,25-dihydroxy-21(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-butyl)-19-nor-cholecalciferol (19-nor-Gemini; Ro27-5646), and rosemary plant agents and its effect in a mouse model of AML found that there was consistent with strong cooperative antiproliferative and differentiation effects of low concentrations of 19-nor-Gemini or 1,25D(3) combined with rosemary extract or its major polyphenolic component, carnosic acid, as well as with the antioxidant action of rosemary agents and vitamin D derivatives in WEHI cell cultures, according to "Synergistic antileukemic activity of carnosic acid-rich rosemary extract and the 19-nor Gemini vitamin D analogue in a mouse model of systemic acute myeloid leukemia" by Shabtay A, Sharabani H, Barvish Z, Kafka M, Amichay D, Levy J, Sharoni Y, Uskokovic MR, Studzinski GP, Danilenko M.(11)

12. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the research of the extract of rosemary leaves from supercritical fluid extraction and its anti inflammatory effects found that the yield of 3.92% and total phenolics of 213.5 mg/g extract obtained from the most effective extraction conditions showed a high inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 33.4 μg/mL). Both the SC-CO(2) extract and CA markedly suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated inhibitor-kappaB (P-IκB), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)/p65 in a dose-dependent manner, according to the study of "Anti-inflammatory effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extract and its isolated carnosic acid fromRosmarinus officinalis leaves" by Kuo CF, Su JD, Chiu CH, Peng CC, Chang CH, Sung TY, Huang SH, Lee WC, Chyau CC.(12)

13. Etc.

Overdoses of Rosemarinol may be toxic. If you are pregnant, please do not use the herb with out approval of the related field specialist.

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(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900043
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17562569
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21447601
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21445613
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21142947
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20695287
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21138060
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17893831
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19827025
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19289162
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18852491
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21375325

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