Saturday, September 17, 2016

Phytochemicals in Foods- The Effects of Gingerole

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Gingerole, is also known as gingerol, a phytochemical of Flavonoids (polyphenols)found in fresh ginger. and in variety of other plants. The herb has been used to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, motion sickness, rheumatoid arthritis, relieve migraine, etc.

Health benefits
1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects
In the investigation of the effectiveness of chemical constituents of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae)in treating oxidative stress found that compounds [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol of the herb scavenges of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picyrlhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, inhibitsof N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), lipopolysaccharide induced nitrite and prostaglandin E(2) production in RAW 264.7 cells, according to the study of "Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol" by Dugasani S, Pichika MR, Nadarajah VD, Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Korlakunta JN(1)

2. Cancer metastasis
In the observation of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, carnosol, capsaicin, 6-shogaol, 6-gingerol and their anti-invasion and anti-metastasis effects found that molecular mechanisms of phenolic acids, monophenol, polyphenol, and their derivatives, except flavonoids, on cancer invasion and metastasis, according to "Chemopreventive effects of dietary phytochemicals against cancer invasion and metastasis: Phenolic acids, monophenol, polyphenol, and their derivatives" by Weng CJ, Yen GC.(2)

3. Asthma
In the evaluation of [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [10]-gingerol of gingerol and it human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC) effects found that they suppress phthalate ester-mediated airway remodeling by Depleting both IL-8 and RANTES completely reversed the effect of DBP-BEAS-2B-CM and DBP-HBE-CM-mediated BSMC proliferation and migration, according to "Ginger suppresses phthalate ester-induced airway remodeling" by Kuo PL, Hsu YL, Huang MS, Tsai MJ, Ko YC.(3)

4. Nausea and Vomiting
In the research of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol. and it effects in Nausea and Vomiting found that the efficiency of ginger in reducing nausea and vomiting may be based on a weak inhibitory effect of gingerols and shogaols at cholinergic M (3) receptors and serotonergic 5-HT (3) receptors. Serotonergic 5-HT (4) receptors, which play a role in gastroduodenal motility, appear not to be involved in the action of these compounds, according to "Effects of ginger constituents on the gastrointestinal tract: role of cholinergic M3 and serotonergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors" by Pertz HH, Lehmann J, Roth-Ehrang R, Elz S.(4)

5. Dementia
In the study of Ginger effectiveness in treating dementia in South Asia with A 70% aqueous/methanolic extract of dried ginger (Zo.Cr) was used. Zo.Cr tested positive for the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, secondary amines, phenols, alkaloids and saponins found that
specific inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) rather than acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Different pure compounds of ginger also showed spasmolytic activity in stomach fundus, with 6-gingerol being the most potent. 6-Gingerol also showed a specific anti-BuChE effect, according to "Muscarinic, Ca(++) antagonist and specific butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of dried ginger extract might explain its use in dementia" by Ghayur MN, Gilani AH, Ahmed T, Khalid A, Nawaz SA, Agbedahunsi JM, Choudhary MI, Houghton PJ.(6)

7. Ovarian cancer
In the observation of The ginger component [6]-gingerol anf its antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects indicated that Ginger treatment of cultured ovarian cancer cells induced profound growth inhibition in all cell lines tested and found that in vitro, 6-shogaol is the most active of the individual ginger components tested. Ginger treatment resulted in inhibition of NF-kB activation as well as diminished secretion of VEGF and IL-8, according to the study of "Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells" by Rhode J, Fogoros S, Zick S, Wahl H, Griffith KA, Huang J, Liu JR.(7)

8. Lung cancer
In the investigation of 6-gingerol of ginger and its anti lung cancer effect found that 6-gingerol could significantly inhibit K562 cells proliferation and the efficacy was concentration and dose-dependent, according to the study of "[Comparative protein analysis of K562 cell apoptosis induced by 6-gingerol].[Article in Chinese]" by Zeng HL, Han XA, Gu C, Huang XS, Gu JQ, Zhong Q, Ming WJ, Cai XN.(8)

9. Liver cancer
In the evaluation of 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol of ginger and it effects in liver cancer cell line found that 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol might both exert anti-invasive activity against hepatoma cells through regulation of (matrix metalloproteinase)MMP-9 and (tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase protein)TIMP-1 and that 6-shogaol could further regulate urokinase-type plasminogen activity, according to the study of "Anti-invasion effects of 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, two active components in ginger, on human hepatocarcinoma cells" by

Weng CJ, Wu CF, Huang HW, Ho CT, Yen GC.(9)

10. Skin cancer
In the unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive potential of [6]-gingerol of ginger rhizomeand its anti skin cancer effect found that [6]-gingerol treatment resulted in release of Cytochrome c, Caspases activation, increase in apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) as mechanism of apoptosis induction and concluded [6]-gingerol possesses apoptotic potential in mouse skin tumors as mechanism of chemoprevention, according to the study of "Induction of apoptosis by [6]-gingerol associated with the modulation of p53 and involvement of mitochondrial signaling pathway in B[a]P-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis" by Nigam N, George J, Srivastava S, Roy P, Bhui K, Singh M, Shukla Y.(10)

11. Colon cancer
In evaluation of [6]-Gingerol, a natural component of ginger and its anti colon cancer effect found that [6]-gingerol effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo in nude mice, an effect that was mediated by inhibition of LTA(4)H activity. Collectively, these findings indicate a crucial role of LTA(4)H in cancer and also support the anticancer efficacy of [6]-gingerol targeting of LTA(4)H for the prevention of colorectal cancer, according to "[6]-Gingerol suppresses colon cancer growth by targeting leukotriene A4 hydrolase" by Jeong CH, Bode AM, Pugliese A, Cho YY, Kim HG, Shim JH, Jeon YJ, Li H, Jiang H, Dong Z.(11)

12. Rheumatoid arthritis
In the investigation of the crude dichloromethane extract, which also contained essential oils and more polar compounds, was more efficacious (when normalized to gingerol content and it effects on rheumatoid arthritis found that there are very significant joint-protective effect of these ginger samples and suggest that nongingerol components are bioactive and can enhance the antiarthritic effects of the more widely studied gingerols, according to the study of 'Comparative effects of two gingerol-containing Zingiber officinale extracts on experimental rheumatoid arthritis" by Funk JL, Frye JB, Oyarzo JN, Timmermann BN.(12)

13. Gastric cancer
In the observation of 6-gingerol, a phenolic alkanone isolated from ginger and it effects o gastric cancer cells found that in gastric cancer cells, 6-gingerolenhances TRAIL-induced viability reduction by inhibiting TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB activation while 6-shogaol alone reduces viability by damaging microtubules, according to "Ginger ingredients reduce viability of gastric cancer cells via distinct mechanisms" by Ishiguro K, Ando T, Maeda O, Ohmiya N, Niwa Y, Kadomatsu K, Goto H.(13)

14. Pancreatic cancer
In the analyzing [6]-Gingerol, a major phenolic compound derived from ginger and its anti pancreatic cancer cells effect found that [6]-gingerol can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53- expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing apoptotic cell death while it exerts cytostatic effect on wild type p53- expressing cells by inducing temporal growth arrest, according to "[6]-Gingerol induces cell cycle arrest and cell death of mutant p53-expressing pancreatic cancer cells" by Park YJ, Wen J, Bang S, Park SW, Song SY.(14)

15. Prostatic inflammation
In the determination of anti-inflammatory activities of the phytochemicals curcumin, resveratrol and [6]-gingerol and theirs anti prostate inflammatory effect found that direct anti-inflammatory activity of MKP5 in prostate cells and suggest that up-regulation of (mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-5) MKP5 by phytochemicals may contribute to their chemopreventive actions by decreasing prostatic inflammation, according to "Chemopreventive anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin and other phytochemicals mediated by MAP kinase phosphatase-5 in prostate cells" by Nonn L, Duong D, Peehl DM.(15)

16. Etc.

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