Wednesday, December 2, 2015

Most Common Disease of elder: The Clinical trials and Studies edition of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Osteoarthritis Treatment of Herbal and TCM medicine Other alternative treatment

Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                        The Treatment

B. In herbal and traditional Chinese medicine perspective
B.7. The alternative natural treatment 
Beside suggesting certain herbal medicine for treatment of osteoarthritis, modern herbal and TCM medicine doctors may also combine other natural treatment for alleviating symptoms of the disease
1. Use Ice or Heat Therapies therapy
Ice therapy such as repeated, rather than continuous, ice applications may be considered as an effective treatment for some patient with osteoarthritis(380) as it reduces swelling and pain(380), if the therapy is applied correctly to avoid side effects, and prevent possible further injury, but according to Dr. Mac Auley DC. as the therapy has shown to impair reflex activity and motor function  up to 30 following treatment.(378). The doctor also said that guidance on the duration, frequency, or length of ice treatment may be depending on the particular ice therapy, injury location, or severity(379). Heat therapy has shown to loosen tissues and relax stiff joints may also benefits to some patient of osteoartritis(381). According to the study by University of Haifathermal and athermal short-wave diathermyhave shown effectively for the management of knee osteoarthritis(382).

2. Acupuncture
The most oldest form of medical treatment in traditional Chinese medicine has been known for its function in relief pain(383) and functional limitation(384) for chronic patient, including patient with moderate or severe chronic knee pain(383), peripheral joint osteoarthritis(384) and hip osteoarthritis(385) with many different techniques, such as acupuncture techniques, moxibustion, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(392).
In pain management, acupuncture is found to significant reduce pain intensity, improve functional mobility and quality of life in patient with osteoarthritis (386). According to the University of York, in patient with knee osteoarthritis, in a systematic review with network meta-analysis, indicated that
acupuncture is considered as one of the more effective physical treatments for alleviating osteoarthritis knee pain in the short-term, but due to poor quality of the study(387), larger sample size and multi sample studies are necessary to confirm this claim.
Dr. Vas J. and Dr..White A said "... optimal results from acupuncture treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee may involve: climatic factors, particularly high temperature; high expectations of patients; minimum of four needles; electroacupuncture rather than manual acupuncture, and particularly, strong electrical stimulation to needles placed in muscle; and a course of at least 10 treatments"(388)

3. Massage Therapy
Massage therapy has been used in traditional Chinese medicine over thousands of year for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)(392)(389), especially for OA patient for short-term pain relief(389). In a sixty-eight adults with radiographically confirmed OA, massage therapy seems to be most efficacious relief pain, stiffness, and improve physical function limitation for patient OA of the knee(390).
According to the joint study by the University Medical Center and Avans University of Applied Scienc, in a systematic review of randomised clinical trials, said that there is a evidence indicated that massage improves function in the short term compared to no treatment in people with knee arthritis(391)

4. Spa therapy
Spa therapy may be one the effective technique for treatment of lower back pain, according to some studies(392)(393)9394). In patient with rheumatoid arthritis, spa therapy showed to relief symptoms of pain, stiffness and mobility(395). According to the joint study by the  University of Siena and Spa Centre of Fonteverde Natural Spa Resort, the clinical trials conducted exhibited the support of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in hand OA(396), if used conjunction with the application of thermal treatments(396). In patient with knee osteoarthritis, especially in European countries, although the spa treatment is still the subject of debate, the existence of data of some clinical trials suggested a beneficial effect of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in knee OA if the treatment cover the duration from six to nine months(397).
In the study conducted by the University of Siena, Viale Bracci, spa therapy showed effectively in modified plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin of which are, important mediators of cartilage metabolism and related to the development of knee osteoarthritis(398)

5. Hydrotherapy
Hydrotherapy, using water for the treatment of disease has shown some beneficiary for treating pain in patient with lower back pain(399), joint hemorrhages(400) and multiple sclerosis(401). In patient with knee osteoarthritis, water therapy reduced knee pain and increased knee function in participants with knee OA as effectively as conventional based therapy(402).
In a randomized controlled trial conducted among 152 older persons with chronic symptomatic hip or knee OA by the University of Sydney, hydrotherapy or Tai Chi classes showed to enhance large and sustained improvements in physical function for many older, sedentary individuals with chronic hip or knee OA(403).
In lower limb osteoarthritis, the study of 106 patients (93 women, 13 men) over the age of 60 years with confirmed hip and/or knee OA suggested that water exercise induced significantly reduction in pain and improvement in physical function of the participants after 1 year with a favourable cost--benefit outcome(404).
Unfortunately, the water gym study conducted by the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio Mesquita Filho, showed no beneficiary in improving symptoms of individuals with knee OA(405).

6. Tai Chi
Tai chi, an ancient form of mind-body exercise or technique used in Chinese with meditative movements that promote balance and healing of the mind and body induced mental concentration, physical balance, muscle relaxation, and relaxed breathing(406).
In chronic diseases, such as osteoarthritis, Tai Chi improve physical performance(408), such as walking distance (6MWD) and knee extensor strength and pain(408) and stiffness of patient with osteoarthritis(407) and knee osteoarthritis(408)(409).
In the assessing  the effectiveness of Tai Chi for knee osteoarthritis, conducted by Tufts University School of Medicine, Tai Chi therapy improved WOMAC pain(411) and stiffness scores, physical(411) and lower-extremity function, knee proprioception, ect., after 12, 24 and 48 weeks(410).

7. Yoga
An ancient form of medical technique originated from India, is become a popular multimodal mind-body exercise in the Western world for promoted flexibility, strength, endurance, and balance(412). According to the study by the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (CC, JFW), Yoga 45 to 90 mins per session for 6 to 12 wks, reduced pain, stiffness, and swelling, inpatient with osteoarthritis of the knees(413) or osteoarthritis but the study showed an inconclusive outcome on physical function and psychosocial well-being(412).

8. Chiropractic
 Chiropractic is one the alternative therapy for diagnosis and treatment of Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), including osteoarthritis. It is one the primary care of hip osteoarthritis in Denmark(425)
According to the Cleveland Chiropractic College, chiropractic increased range of motion, improved balance and gait speed, and decreased disability after a 12-week course in a 70 year old geriatric patient with left hip pain, a history of repetitive falls, poor balance, myofascial dysfunction, and hip osteoarthritis(424) of that may contribute to a conservative management options for patient with hip osteoarthritis(426).
Chiropractic management showed to decreased WOMAC scores and increases in hip range of motion in patient of hip osteoarthritis, according to the study by Autralia(427) and may provide a short-term benefit to relieve hip pain for patients with hip osteoarthritis waiting for hip surgery(428), according to the report of Scandinavian College of Chiropractic. 
Used in conjunction with heat, chiropractic spinal manipulation,showed more effective for the treatment of low back pain in patient of osteoarthritis (OA) in comparison of the application of moist heat or chiropractic spinal manipulation alone(429).

9. Chinese Herbal Bath Therapy
Chinese herbal bath therapy (CHBT) has been used traditionally for its effects on analgesics and anti-inflammation against pain, especially for patient with knee osteoarthritis(495). According to the joint study by  reviewed of a total of 529 abstracts identified from 7 English
and Chinese databases conducted by the Shuguang Hospital affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tufts University and Tufts University School of Medicine, the therapy effectively reduced pain, improved physical performance, and wellness in comparison to  standard western treatment with little or no adverse effects(496).

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(430) Herbal medicines for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic review by L. Long, K. Soeken 1 and E. Ernst(Rheumatology)
(431) Ginger compress therapy for adults with osteoarthritis by Therkleson T1.(PubMed)
(432) Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis by Altman RD1, Marcussen KC.(PubMed)
(433) Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts by Shara M1, Stohs SJ2.(PubMed)
(434) Willow bark extract STW 33-I in the long-term treatment of outpatients with rheumatic pain mainly osteoarthritisor back pain by Uehleke B1, Müller J, Stange R, Kelber O, Melzer J.(PubMed)
(435) Efficacy and safety of willow bark extract in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: results of 2 randomized double-blind controlled trials by Biegert C1, Wagner I, Lüdtke R, Kötter I, Lohmüller C, Günaydin I, Taxis K, Heide L.(PubMed)
(436) Willow bark extract, a useful alternative for the treatment of osteoarthritis: comment on the editorial by Marcus and Suarez-Almazor by Chrubasik S, Pollak S, Black A.(PubMed)
(437) Efficacy and tolerability of a standardized willow bark extract in patients with osteoarthritis: randomized placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial by Schmid B1, Lüdtke R, Selbmann HK, Kötter I, Tschirdewahn B, Schaffner W, Heide L.(PubMed)
(438) STINGING NETTLE CREAM FOR OSTFOARTHRITIS  by Keith Rayburn, MD; Eric Fleischbein, PharmD; Jessica Song, PharmD; Blaine Allen, RN; Mary Kundert, PharmD; Charles Leiter, PharmD; Thomas Bush, MD(Research letter)
(439) Stinging nettle cream for osteoarthritis by Rayburn K1, Fleischbein E, Song J, Allen B, Kundert M, Leiter C, Bush T.(PubMed)
(440) Phytalgic, a food supplement, vs placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial by Jacquet A1, Girodet PO, Pariente A, Forest K, Mallet L, Moore N.(PubMed)
(441) Is Phytalgic(R) a goldmine for osteoarthritis patients or is there something fishy about this nutraceutical? A summary of findings and risk-of-bias assessment by Christensen R, Bliddal H.(PubMed)
(442) Randomized controlled trial of nettle sting for treatment of base-of-thumb pain by Randall C1, Randall H, Dobbs F, Hutton C, Sanders H.(PubMed)
(443) The use of glucosamine, devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), and acupuncture as complementary and alternative treatments for osteoarthritis by Sanders M1, Grundmann O.(PubMed)
(444) Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) as a treatment for osteoarthritis: a review of efficacy and safety by Brien S1, Lewith GT, McGregor G.(PubMed)
(445) [Devil's claw extract as an example of the effectiveness of herbal analgesics].[Article in German] by Chrubasik S1.(PubMed)
(446) A complex of three natural anti-inflammatory agents provides relief of osteoarthritis pain by Conrozier T, Mathieu P, Bonjean M, Marc JF, Renevier JL, Balblanc JC.(PubMed)
(447) Alteration of anti-inflammatory activity of Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) extract after external metabolic activation with S9 mix by Hostanska K1, Melzer J, Rostock M, Suter A, Saller R.(PubMed)
(448) A review of the efficacy and safety of devil's claw for pain associated with degenerative musculoskeletal diseases, rheumatoid, and osteoarthritis by Denner SS1.(PubMed)
(449) Topical capsaicin. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and osteoarthritis by Rains C1, Bryson HM.(PubMed)
(450) Green tea polyphenol treatment is chondroprotective, anti-inflammatory and palliative in a mouse post-traumaticosteoarthritis model by Leong DJ, Choudhury M, Hanstein R, Hirsh DM, Kim SJ, Majeska RJ, Schaffler MB, Hardin JA, Spray DC, Goldring MB, Cobelli NJ, Sun HB.(PubMed)
(451) Antioxidant and pro-apoptotic effects of marine-derived, multi-mineral aquamin supplemented with a pine bark extract, Enzogenol, and a green tea extract, Sunphenon. by O'Callaghan YC1, Drummond E, O'Gorman DM, O'Brien NM.(PubMed)
(452) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces inflammation induced by calcium pyrophosphate crystals in vitro by Oliviero F1, Sfriso P, Scanu A, Fiocco U, Spinella P, Punzi L.(PubMed)
(453) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate selectively inhibits interleukin-1beta-induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinase subgroup c-Jun N-terminal kinase in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. by Singh R1, Ahmed S, Malemud CJ, Goldberg VM, Haqqi TM.(PubMed)
(454) Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis by Shen CL1, Smith BJ, Lo DF, Chyu MC, Dunn DM, Chen CH, Kwun IS.(PubMed)
(455) Green tea: a new option for the prevention or control of osteoarthritis by Katiyar SK, Raman C.(PubMed)
(456) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate selectively inhibits interleukin-1beta-induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinase subgroup c-Jun N-terminal kinase in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes by Singh R1, Ahmed S, Malemud CJ, Goldberg VM, Haqqi TM.(PubMed)
(457) Popular #Herbs - Turmeric (Curcuma longa) by Kyle J. Norton
(458) Role of Curcumin in Common Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Review of Current Laboratory, Translational, and Clinical Data by Peddada KV1, Peddada KV2, Shukla SK3, Mishra A3, Verma V4.(PubMed)
(459) Evaluation of the protective effects of curcuminoid (curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin)-loaded liposomes against bone turnover in a cell-based model of osteoarthritis by Yeh CC1, Su YH2, Lin YJ2, Chen PJ2, Shi CS3, Chen CN2, Chang HI2.(PubMed)
(460) Mitigation of Systemic Oxidative Stress by Curcuminoids in Osteoarthritis: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial by Panahi Y1, Alishiri GH, Parvin S, Sahebkar A.(PubMed)
(461) A new curcuma extract (flexofytol®) in osteoarthritis: results from a belgian real-life experience by Appelboom T1, Maes N2, Albert A3.(PubMed)
(462) Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) by Kyle J. Norton
(463) Effect of a Herbal-Leucine mix on the IL-1β-induced cartilage degradation and inflammatory gene expression in human chondrocytes by Akhtar N1, Miller MJ, Haqqi TM.(PubMed)
(464) Cat's claw: an Amazonian vine decreases inflammation in osteoarthritis by Hardin SR1.(PubMed)
(465) Efficacy and safety of freeze-dried cat's claw in osteoarthritis of the knee: mechanisms of action of the species Uncaria guianensis by Piscoya J1, Rodriguez Z, Bustamante SA, Okuhama NN, Miller MJ, Sandoval M.(PubMed)
(466) Early relief of osteoarthritis symptoms with a natural mineral supplement and a herbomineral combination: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN38432711] by Miller MJ1, Mehta K, Kunte S, Raut V, Gala J, Dhumale R, Shukla A, Tupalli H, Parikh H, Bobrowski P, Chaudhary J.(PubMed)
(467) Popular #Herbs - Bromelain by Kyle J. Norton
(468) A complex of three natural anti-inflammatory agents provides relief of osteoarthritis pain by Conrozier T, Mathieu P, Bonjean M, Marc JF, Renevier JL, Balblanc JC.(PubMed)
(469) Efficacy and tolerance of an oral enzyme combination in painful osteoarthritis of the hip. A double-blind, randomised study comparing oral enzymes with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by Klein G1, Kullich W, Schnitker J, Schwann H.(PubMed)
(470) Bromelain as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis: a Review of Clinical Studies by Brien S, Lewith G, Walker A, Hicks SM, Middleton D.(PubMed)
(471) Oral enzyme combination versus diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee--a double-blind prospective randomized study by Akhtar NM1, Naseer R, Farooqi AZ, Aziz W, Nazir M.(PubMed)
(472) Boswellia Serrata, A Potential Antiinflammatory Agent: An Overview by M. Z. Siddiqui(PMC)
(473) Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial by Kimmatkar N1, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R.(PubMed)
(474) FlexiQule (Boswellia extract) in the supplementary management of osteoarthritis: a supplement registry by Belcaro G1, Dugall M, Luzzi R, Ledda A, Pellegrini L, Cesarone MR, Hosoi M, Errichi M, Francis S, Cornelli U.(PubMed)
(475) Clinical evaluation of a formulation containing Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts in the management of knee osteoarthritis by Kizhakkedath R1.(PubMed)
(476) Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial by Kimmatkar N1, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R.(PubMed)
(477) Popular Herbs - Ginkgo biloba by Kyle J. Norton
(478) Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 has anti-inflammatory properties and ameliorates colitis in mice by driving effector T cell apoptosis by Venkata S. Kotakadi,† Yu Jin,† Anne B. Hofseth, Lei Ying, Xiangli Cui, Suresh Volate, Alexander Chumanevich, Patricia A. Wood,1 Robert L. Price,2 Anna McNeal,2 Udai P. Singh,2 Narendra P. Singh,2 Mitzi Nagarkatti,2 Prakash S. Nagarkatti,2 Lydia E. Matesic,3 Karine Auclair,4 Michael J. Wargovich,5 and Lorne J. Hofseth(PMC)
(479) Effectiveness of oral Ginkgo biloba in treating limited, slowly spreading vitiligo by Parsad D1, Pandhi R, Juneja A.(PubMed)
(480) Ginkgo biloba extract individually inhibits JNK activation and induces c-Jun degradation in human chondrocytes: potential therapeutics for osteoarthritis by Ho LJ1, Hung LF2, Liu FC3, Hou TY3, Lin LC4, Huang CY2, Lai JH5.(PubMed)
(481) Inhibitory effects of EGb761 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cartilage matrix destruction by Wang X1, Zhao X, Tang S.(PubMed)
(482) EGb761 inhibits inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes and shows chondroprotection in osteoarthritic rat knee by Chen YJ1, Tsai KS, Chiu CY, Yang TH, Lin TH, Fu WM, Chen CF, Yang RS, Liu SH.(PubMed)
(483) Phytodolor--effects and efficacy of a herbal medicine by Gundermann KJ1, Müller J.(PubMed)
(484) Phytodolor® in musculoskeletal disorders: re-analysis and meta-analysis by Uehleke B1, Brignoli R, Rostock M, Saller R, Melzer J.(PubMed)
(485) Selected CAM therapies for arthritis-related pain: the evidence from systematic reviews.
Soeken KL1.(PubMed)
(487) Effect of a proprietary herbal medicine on the relief of chronic arthritic pain: a double-blind study by Mills SY1, Jacoby RK, Chacksfield M, Willoughby M.(PubMed)
(488) [Gitadyl versus ibuprofen in patients with osteoarthrosis. The result of a double-blind, randomized cross-over study].[Article in Danish]by Ryttig K1, Schlamowitz PV, Warnøe O, Wilstrup F.(PubMed)
(489) Gitadyl versus ibuprofen in patients with osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study of clinical efficacy and effects on platelets and PMNs by Mieszczak CI1, Kharazmi A, Rein J, Winther K.(PubMed)
(490) [Gitadyl versus ibuprofen].[Article in Danish] by [No authors listed](PubMed)
(491) Danshen prevents articular cartilage degeneration via antioxidation in rabbits with osteoarthritis by Bai B1, Li Y2.(PubMed)
(492) Veterinary Herbal Medicine By Susan G. Wynn, Barbara Fougère, page 349.
(493) Dan Shen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) in Medicine: Volume 2. Pharmacology ..., Volume 2 edited by Xijun Yan 

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