Friday, January 8, 2016

Most Common Diseases of elder: Respiratory Disease: Asthma Treatment: The Effectiveness of Vegetables

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Respiratory Disease
 is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing , etc,.


Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the air way of the lung with recurring symptoms, such as wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The disease affects people of all ages, and mostly starts during childhood. In the study of 463,801 children aged 13-14 years in 155 collaborating centres in 56 countries. Children self-reported, through one-page questionnaires, symptoms of these three atopic disorders. In 99 centres in 42 countries, a video asthma questionnaire was also used for 304,796 children, found that for asthma symptoms, the highest 12-month prevalences were from centres in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Republic of Ireland, followed by most centres in North, Central, and South America; the lowest prevalences were from centres in several Eastern European countries, Indonesia, Greece, China, Taiwan, Uzbekistan, India, and Ethiopia(1). In the United States, approximately, asthma affects 25 million people, 7 million of them are children.

The Effectiveness of Vegetables
1. Garlic
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold and flu, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc.
Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound found in garlic, in an ovalbumin-induced model of allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells, showed to inhibit the proinflammatory proteins, through up regulation of Nrf-2/HO-1 and down regulation of NF-κB pathways(2). According to the study by Tarbiat Modares University, purified aged garlic extract exhibited the protective effect of asthma through a significant decrease in the hallmark criteria of allergic airway inflammation levels(3).

2. Tomatoes
Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belonging to the family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, tomato is grown world wide for commercial purpose
and often in green house.
High-antioxidant diet is associated to reduced risk of asthma, according to University of Newcastle, whole foods intake such as tometoes showed to alter clinical asthma outcomes of patient who were in low antioxidant giventomato extract (45 mg lycopene/d)(4). The John Hunter Hospital study also supported the role of tomato juice and extract in reduced airway neutrophil influx with tomato extract also reduced sputum neutrophil elastase activity(5). Naringenin chalcone, the other polyphenols found in the skin of red tomatoes, showed to suppresses asthmatic symptoms through inhibition of Th2 cytokine production from CD4 T(6).

3. Seaweeds
Marine algae have been used as food products and herbal medicine in many countries throughout human history with an abundance of algae floral. In recent studies, marine algae may consist great sources of chemical ingredients in treating inflammatory and allergic disorders, such as such asasthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis (7)(8). According to the study at Pukyong National University, many marine macro- and microalgae have been reported to have potential to ameliorate the effect of asthma and furtherstudies are needed to identify the molecular mechanism of this disease to apply those marine resources against asthma effectively(9). Iota-Carrageenan, derived from red seaweed showed to be potent against anti-rhinoviralas (HRVs may worsen COPD and asthma), it effectively prevented the replication of HRV1A, HRV2, HRV8, HRV14, HRV16, HRV83 and HRV84 in primary human nasal epithelial cells in culture(10).

4. Ginger
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil. It has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.
Purified components of ginger was found to be effective in relax airway smooth muscle (ASM), through involvement of PDE4D inhibition and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Together with other chemical constituents such as β-agonists, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol may augment existingasthma therapy, insisted by Columbia University study(11). Quercetin, a chemical compound found in ginger, relaxed airway smooth muscle via cAMP-mediated pathways and augments β-agonist relaxation(12). The Columbia University Medical Center study also found many ginger's isolated active components, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, relax ASM, and [8]-gingerol attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness, in part by altering [Ca(2+)](i) regulation(13).

5. Broccoli
Broccoli is a mustard/cabbage plant, belong to the family Brassicaceae. It has large flower heads, usually green in color and the mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves and evolved from a wild cabbage plant on the continent of Europe.
Sulforaphane, a major chemical compound found in broccoli sprout demonstrated the potential preventive and therapeutic potential. Broccoli orbroccoli sprouts rich in glucoraphanin reduced the impact of particulate pollution on allergic disease and asthma, according to David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA(14).In (OVA)-induced murine asthma model, Sulforaphane significantly alleviated the OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness possiblt through suppressed the increase in the levels of SOCS-3 and GATA-3 and IL-4 expression in the OVA-challenged mice(15).

6. Spinach
Spinach is an edible flowering plant in the genus Spinacia, belongs to the family of Amaranthaceae and native to central and southwestern Asia. It is considered as a healthy plant containing vary vitamins and minerals. Aqueous extract of spinach, in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic model. exerted strong anti-asthmatic effects through induction of a decrease in the CD4+ cell number, IL-4/13, and other molecular markers in the lung(16).

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(1) American academy, allergy, asthma and immunology(AAAAI)
(a) Association between nutrition and the evolution of multimorbidity: The importance of fruits and vegetables and whole grain products by Ruel G1, Shi Z, Zhen S, Zuo H, Kröger E, Sirois C, Lévesque JF, Taylor AW.(PubMed)
(b) Dietary factors associated with lifetime asthma or hayfever diagnosis in Australian middle-aged and older adults: a cross-sectional study by Rosenkranz RR1, Rosenkranz SK, Neessen KJ.(PubMed)
(c) Protective effect of fruits, vegetables and the Mediterranean diet onasthma and allergies among children in Crete by Chatzi L1, Apostolaki G, Bibakis I, Skypala I, Bibaki-Liakou V, Tzanakis N, Kogevinas M, Cullinan P.(PubMed)
(d) Effect of diet on asthma and allergic sensitisation in the International Study on Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two by Nagel G1, Weinmayr G, Kleiner A, Garcia-Marcos L, Strachan DP; ISAAC Phase Two Study Group.(PubMed)
(2) Diallyl-disulfide, an organosulfur compound of garlic, attenuates airway inflammation via activation of the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway and NF-kappaB suppression by Shin IS1, Hong J, Jeon CM, Shin NR, Kwon OK, Kim HS, Kim JC, Oh SR, Ahn KS.(PubMed)
(3) Purified aged garlic extract modulates allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice by Zare A1, Farzaneh P, Pourpak Z, Zahedi F, Moin M, Shahabi S, Hassan ZM.(PubMed)
(4) Manipulating antioxidant intake in asthma: a randomized controlled trial by Wood LG1, Garg ML, Smart JM, Scott HA, Barker D, Gibson PG.(PubMed)
(5) Lycopene-rich treatments modify noneosinophilic airway inflammation inasthma: proof of concept by Wood LG1, Garg ML, Powell H, Gibson PG.(PubMed)
(6) Naringenin chalcone suppresses allergic asthma by inhibiting the type-2 function of CD4 T cells by Iwamura C1, Shinoda K, Yoshimura M, Watanabe Y, Obata A, Nakayama T.(PubMed)
(7) Potential targets for anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities of marine algae: an overview BY Vo TS1, Ngo DH, Kim SK.(PubMed)
(8) Antiallergic benefit of marine algae in medicinal foods by Kim SK1, Vo TS, Ngo DH.(PubMed)
(9) Marine macro- and microalgae as potential agents for the prevention ofasthma: hyperresponsiveness and inflammatory subjects by Senevirathne M1, Kim SK.(PubMed)
(10) Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection by Grassauer A1, Weinmuellner R, Meier C, Pretsch A, Prieschl-Grassauer E, Unger H.(PubMed)
(11) Active components of ginger potentiate β-agonist-induced relaxation of airway smooth muscle by modulating cytoskeletal regulatory proteins by Townsend EA1, Zhang Y, Xu C, Wakita R, Emala CW.(PubMed)
(12) Quercetin acutely relaxes airway smooth muscle and potentiates β-agonist-induced relaxation via dual phosphodiesterase inhibition of PLCβ and PDE4 by Townsend EA1, Emala CW Sr.(PubMed)
(13) Effects of ginger and its constituents on airway smooth muscle relaxation and calcium regulation by Townsend EA1, Siviski ME, Zhang Y, Xu C, Hoonjan B, Emala CW.(PubMed)
(14) Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract attenuates nasal allergic response to diesel exhaust particles by Heber D1, Li Z, Garcia-Lloret M, Wong AM, Lee TY, Thames G, Krak M, Zhang Y, Nel A.(PubMed)
(15) Sulforaphane inhibits the Th2 immune response in ovalbumin-inducedasthma by Park JH1, Kim JW, Lee CM, Kim YD, Chung SW, Jung ID, Noh KT, Park JW, Heo DR, Shin YK, Seo JK, Park YM.(PubMed)
(16) Amelioration of asthmatic inflammation by an aqueous extract ofSpinacia oleracea Linn by Heo JC1, Park CH, Lee HJ, Kim SO, Kim TH, Lee SH.(PubMed)

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