Saturday, January 2, 2016

The Tasty Smoothie of Strawberry, broccoli and Green Tea for reducing risk and treatment of Colorectal Cancer

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

The smoothie for reduced risk and treatment of colorectal cancer

Yield: 2 serving (about 8 ounce each)
1 cup of strawberry
1/2 cup broccoli
1 cup green tea drink (Make from 4 grams of green tea and a cup of hot water lipped for 5 minutes, and let cool to room temperature)

1. Place all ingredients in a blender and puree about 1 minute
2. Blend on high speed about 1 minute or until the mixture is thick and the ice is well crushed.
3. Serve immediately

The finding of a natural source for treatment of colorectal cancer has been running into many obstacles, many ingredients showed initially with promising result in animal studies have not produced same potentials in either large sample size and mutli centers human trials.

Colorectal cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progress cancer and in predictable way. It is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries, including US and Canada.

Fruits rich in bioactive phytochemicals including several classes of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols) and phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids) are associated to lower risk of cancer, including bowel cancer(1)(2).

Strawberries is a genius of Fragaria × ananassa belongings to the family Roseaceae. The fruits have been grown all over the world in suitable climate for commercial profits and health benefits. Recent study by the Università Politecnica delle Marche, suggested that strawberry extracts expressed strongly anti oxidant effects and the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes in protection against free radicals induced gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease(4).

According to the University of California, berry extracts, particular strawberry containing major classes of berry phenolics expressed potential ability in inhibition of the growth of human colon (HT-29, HCT116) cancers through anti cell proliferation and modulate cellular proliferation and apoptosis of COX-2 expressing(3).
In support to the above claim, Dr. Wu QK and the research team at the University of Kuopio, berry extracts,(including strawberry) containing different phenolic profiles on cell viability and expression of markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells(5).

Broccoli is a mustard/cabbage plant, belong to the family Brassicaceae. It has large flower heads, usually green in color and the mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves and evolved from a wild cabbage plant on the continent of Europe.
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in broccoli induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cell line SW480, through expression in some unkown potential pathways(6).
Sulforaphane, another natural product commonly found in broccoli, inhibited HCT116 human colon cancer cells angiogenesis and its progression through attenuating the expression of angiogenesis of tumors and mammalian development(HIF-1α) and migration and proliferation of endothelial cells(VEGF)(7).
Dr. Lippmann D and colleagues at the German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke said," High consumption of Brassica vegetables is considered to prevent especially colon carcinogenesis" and "GSLs(glucosinolates) can act anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic but both effects depend on the specific amount and pattern of GSLs within a vegetable"(8).

Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Due to its commercial values and health effects, green tea now has been cultivated all over the world in suitable climate.
According to the Saga University, drinking 10 Japanese-size cups of green tea daily, supplemented with tablets of green tea extract (GTE), reduced the recurrence of colorectal cancer by 51.6% in patients after polypectomy(11) and an average of tumor volume by 70.3%(11). 

In a cohort of 69,710 Chinese women aged 40 to 70 years, drink tea regularly at both the baseline and follow-up surveys are associated to reduced risk of colon and rectal  cancer(9). According to the Shanghai Men's Health Study, regular consumption of green tea may reduce colorectal cancer risk among non-smokers but not smokers(10).

Dr. Núñez-Sánchez MA and colleagues at the Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, Murcia, Spain said," Preclinical studies using in vitro (cell lines) and animal models of CRC have reported anticancer effects for dietary phenolics through the regulation of different markers and signaling pathways" but " Overall, the clinical evidence of dietary phenolics against CRC is still weak and the amounts needed to exert some effects largely exceed common dietary doses"(12)

Made From Fresh Fruits And Vegetable Recipes
Secret To A Vibrant And Healthy Lifestyle
That You Can Find Easily At The Comfort Of Your Kitchen.

(1) Mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of berry components in in vitro models of colon cancer by Brown EM1, Gill CI, McDougall GJ, Stewart D(PubMed)
(2) Berry phytochemicals, genomic stability and cancer: evidence for chemoprotection at several stages in the carcinogenic process by Duthie SJ1.(PubMed)
(3) Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro by Seeram NP1, Adams LS, Zhang Y, Lee R, Sand D, Scheuller HS, Heber D.(PubMed)
(4) Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase by Alvarez-Suarez JM1, Dekanski D, Ristić S, Radonjić NV, Petronijević ND, Giampieri F, Astolfi P, González-Paramás AM, Santos-Buelga C, Tulipani S, Quiles JL,Mezzetti B, Battino M.(PubMed)
(5) Berry phenolic extracts modulate the expression of p21(WAF1) and Bax but not Bcl-2 in HT-29 colon cancer cells by Wu QK1, Koponen JM, Mykkänen HM, Törrönen AR.(PubMed)
(6) Isothiocyanates from Broccolini seeds induce apoptosis in human colon cancer cells: proteomic and bioinformatic analyses by Yang Y1, Yan H, Li Y, Yang ST, Zhang X.(PubMed)
(7) Sulforaphane inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression and migration of human colon cancer cells by Kim DH1, Sung B1, Kang YJ1, Hwang SY1, Kim MJ1, Yoon JH1, Im E1, Kim ND1.(PubMed)
(8) Glucosinolates from pak choi and broccoli induce enzymes and inhibit inflammation and colon cancerdifferently by Lippmann D1, Lehmann C, Florian S, Barknowitz G, Haack M, Mewis I, Wiesner M, Schreiner M, Glatt H, Brigelius-Flohé R, Kipp AP.(PubMed)
(9) Prospective cohort study of green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in women by Yang G1, Shu XO, Li H, Chow WH, Ji BT, Zhang X, Gao YT, Zheng W.(PubMed)
(10) Green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Men's Health Study by Yang G1, Zheng W, Xiang YB, Gao J, Li HL, Zhang X, Gao YT, Shu XO.(PubMed)
(11) Synergistic enhancement of anticancer effects on numerous human cancer cell lines treated with the combination of EGCG, other green tea catechins, and anticancer compounds by Fujiki H1, Sueoka E, Watanabe T, Suganuma M.(PubMed)
(12) Dietary phenolics against colorectal cancer--From promising preclinical results to poor translation into clinical trials: Pitfalls and future needs by Núñez-Sánchez MA1, González-Sarrías A1, Romo-Vaquero M1, García-Villalba R1, Selma MV1, Tomás-Barberán FA1, García-Conesa MT1, Espín JC1.(PubMed)

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