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Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
7. Low back pain
Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than men and generally occurs after the ages of 40, causing diminished quality of life of many elders(1). According to CDC, Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affects over 52 millions of adults in the US alone, including 294,000 children under age 18 with some form of arthritis or rheumatic conditions(2). Rheumatoid Arthritis can induced bone loss through elevating bone resorption without increasing bone formation(4). A cross-sectional population-based study of 1042 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that RA patients had an increased risk of death from various causes(4a).
B. Treatment in herbal and traditional Chinese medicine
B.3. Diet modification according herbal and TCM medicine specialist
1. Top foods to reduce risk of inflammation
Foods with anti pro inflammatory cytokines can be helpful to prevent and to protect against early
onset of rheumatoid arthritis. "Low grade inflammation has been found to play a pathophysiological role in RA" Dr. Jeppesen J. said (225) as the proinflammatory cytokines may affect synoviocyte proliferation caused by elevated interleukin-21 (IL-21) IL-21-induced proliferation and secretion of TNF-α and IL-6(226).
1. 1. Garlic
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belongings to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia, used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat common cold and flu(228), strengthen immunity(228), etc....The clinical trial of alisate--a garlic preparation produced in Russia showed the effectiveness of alisate used compunction with other and monotherapy in reduced symptoms of RA with little side effects(227). Dr. Majewski M. said" aged garlic extract (AGE), have a clear and significant biological effect in immune system improvement,...Clinically,garlic has been evaluated for a number of purposes, including treatment of .....rheumatoid arthritis,..."(228)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) used in many Eastern culture as a cooking spice is best in the West for its treatment againts morning sickness in early stage of pregnancy. The herbal medicine is also found to relieve pain induced by inflammation due to its effects in inhibited pro inflammatory cytokines(229) of that may be beneficiary as pharmaceutical ingredient for treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis(230) when used in combination with others herbal medicine. DR. Al-Nahain A and the research team at the University of Development Alternative said, "(Ginger) not only can provide symptomatic relief but also may provide total relief from RA by stopping RA-induced bone destruction"(231).
Turmeric is a perennial plant used as spice in Indian and as herbal medicine for strengthening the overall energy of the body, relieving gas, dispelling worms, improving digestion, regulating menstruation, dissolving gallstones, etc.(232) may be a potential candidate for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis due of its phytochemical curcumin imilar to methotrexate(233). Dr. Ramadan G and Dr. El-Menshawy O. said, "mixture of ginger and turmeric rhizomes powder (1 : 1) suspended in distilled water (GTaq) in alleviating both articular and extra-articular manifestations in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA),.....may be effective against RA severity and complications"(234), probably due to the mixture anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties(235).
1.4. Green tea
Green tea , a precious drink in traditional Chinese and many culture in Southeast Asia cultures used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years has been found to consist the property of suppressed autoimmune arthritis(238) through its phytochemical epigallocatechin-3-Gallate
(EGCG) in upregulation of the Nrf-2 antioxidant pathway in -mediated immunoregulation and ameliorated experimental arthritis in animal study(236).
Dr. Riegsecker S and the research team at the University of Toledo said," (The) potential benefits of green tea polyphenol EGCG in the prevention and treatment of vascular inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis,.........., extensive clinical evidence of the 'synovial inflammation-systemic inflammation' link and the benefits of EGCG in regulating cytokine-driven inflammation in the pathogenesis of RA and its CV complication"(237).
1.5. Cooked tomato
Tomato, the edible vegetable is best known for its phytochemical lycopene found in skin for treatment of prostate health(239)(240). According to the University of Kerala, lycopene (all-trans) found in tomato may be a better natural source with increased activity and without side effects in the treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases, in the study on type II collagen induced arthritis in Sprague Dawley rats(241). In a total of 184,643 US women followed in the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II cohorts in 1980-2004 study showed that intake of antioxidants including lycopene, may protect against development of rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus by combating oxidative stress(242).
Arthritis Is Curable
You Can Eliminate Osteoarthritis
By addressing the Underlying Causes through Clinical Trials and Studies
Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
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(225) Low-grade chronic inflammation and vascular damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: don't forget "metabolic inflammation" by Jeppesen J.(PubMed)
(226) Interleukin-21 Induces Proliferation and Proinflammatory Cytokine Profile of Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis by Xing R1, Yang L1, Jin Y1, Sun L1, Li C1, Li Z2, Zhao J1, Liu X1.(PubMed)
(227) [Garlic effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis].[Article in Russian] by Denisov LN, Andrianova IV, Timofeeva SS.(PubMed)
(228) Allium sativum: facts and myths regarding human health by Majewski M.(PubMed)
(229) Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes by Mashhadi NS1, Ghiasvand R, Askari G, Feizi A, Hariri M, Darvishi L, Barani A, Taghiyar M, Shiranian A, Hajishafiee M.(PubMed)
(230) Effect of sanhuangwuji powder, anti-rheumatic drugs, and ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with peptic ulcer: a randomized controlled study by Liu D, Guo M, Hu Y, Liu T, Yan J, Luo Y, Yun M, Yang M, Zhang J, Guo L.(PubMed)
(231) Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis by Al-Nahain A1, Jahan R2, Rahmatullah M1.(PubMed)
(232) Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition, Chapter 13Turmeric, the Golden Spice From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine by Sahdeo Prasad and Bharat B. Aggarwal(NCBI)
(233) The effect of curcumin and its nanoformulation on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats by Zheng Z1, Sun Y2, Liu Z1, Zhang M1, Li C1, Cai H3.(PubMed)
(234)Protective effects of ginger-turmeric rhizomes mixture on joint inflammation, atherogenesis, kidney dysfunction and other complications in a rat model of human rheumatoid arthritis by Ramadan G1, El-Menshawy O.(PubMed)
(235) Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by Ramadan G1, Al-Kahtani MA, El-Sayed WM.(PubMed)
(236) Green Tea Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Suppresses Autoimmune Arthritis Through Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase Expressing Dendritic Cells and the Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2-Like 2 Antioxidant Pathway by Min SY1, Yan M1, Kim SB2, Ravikumar S3, Kwon SR4, Vanarsa K3, Kim HY5, Davis LS1, Mohan C3.(PubMed)
(237) Potential benefits of green tea polyphenol EGCG in the prevention and treatment of vascular inflammation inrheumatoid arthritis by Riegsecker S1, Wiczynski D, Kaplan MJ, Ahmed S.(PubMed)
(238) Nutraceuticals of anti-inflammatory activity as complementary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis by Al-Okbi SY1.(PubMed)
(239) A Phase II Randomized Trial of Lycopene-Rich Tomato Extract Among Men with High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by Gann PH1, Deaton RJ1, Rueter EE1, van Breemen RB2, Nonn L1, Macias V1, Han M3, Ananthanarayanan V4.(PubMed)
(240) Lycopene/tomato consumption and the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies by Chen J1, Song Y, Zhang L.(PubMed)
(241) Anti-inflammatory activity of lycopene isolated from Chlorella marina on type II collagen induced arthritis in Sprague Dawley rats by Renju GL1, Muraleedhara Kurup G, Saritha Kumari CH.(PubMed)
(242) Antioxidant intake and risks of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus in women by Costenbader KH1, Kang JH, Karlson EW.(PubMed)