Friday, April 29, 2016

Most Common Diseases of 50plus: Pulmonary vascular disease(Respiratory disease): Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease - The Misdiagnosis

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                           Respiratory Disease

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions, affecting the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing, etc,.

   Pulmonary vascular disease:  Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease 

Pulmonary vascular disease is defined as a condition of blood flow to the lung’s artery is blocked suddenly due to a blood clot somewhere in the body, including pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, pulmonary edema, etc.

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is an extremely rare form of pulmonary hypertension, affecting mostly in children and young adults as a result of a progressive obstruction of small pulmonary veins that leads to elevation in pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular failure.

                             The Misdiagnosis

PVOD is an underdiagnosed and commonly misdiagnosed cause of pulmonary hypertension, which may present with a failure to respond to medical therapy. Further studies on PVOD may help confirm whether a change in its classification as a type of PAH is necessary(29). Other study reported a case of a 27-yr-old female with a 6-month diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) confirmed elsewhere was referred to our centre with worsening dyspnoea. On examination, the patient had low systemic oxygen saturation despite high oxygen flow and reduced exercise capacity. Haemodynamics were indicative of severe pre-capillary PAH. High-resolution computed tomography revealed diffuse ground-glass opacity with thickening interlobular septa, and haemosiderin-laden macrophages were identified by bronchoalveolar lavage. Based on clinical and diagnostic findings, the patient was re-diagnosed with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD)(30). Also, there is a review of cases of 14 patients with clinically diagnosed PAH who had failed to respond to medical therapy and had lung tissue available from autopsy or explant. Control samples (n = 6) were obtained from lungs explanted for other causes, and a previous transthoracic echocardiogram excluded pulmonary hypertension(31). 

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