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Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions, affecting the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing, etc,.
Pulmonary vascular disease: Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary vascular disease is defined as a condition of blood flow to the lung’s artery is blocked suddenly due to a blood clot somewhere in the body, including pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, pulmonary edema, etc.
Pulmonary edema is defined as a condition of fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs of that can lead to difficult of breathing and respiratory failure.
Since Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a result of blockage of blood flow due to a blood clot of either in main artery of the lung or somewhere else in the body. Any Phytochemicals and antioxidants containing anti coagulation property is associated to reduced risk of the disease.
A. Diet to prevent pulmonary embolism
Since Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a result of blockage of blood flow due to a blood clot of either in main artery of the lung or somewhere else in the body. Any food containing anti coagulation property is associated to reduced risk of the disease
1. Onion and Garlic
in the testing the effect of dried garlic (Allium sativum) powder on blood lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in a 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Seventy-five healthy, normo-lipidaemic volunteers (men and women aged 40-60 years) were assigned to dried garlic powder tablets (10.8 mg alliin (3-(2-propenylsulfinyl)-L-alanine)/d, corresponding to about three garlic cloves) or placebo, showed that garlic powder was associated with a near-significant decrease (12 %) in triacylglycerol concentration (P=0.07). In conclusion, garlic powder tablets have no clinically relevant lipid-lowering and blood pressure-lowering effects in middle-aged, normo-lipidaemic individuals. The putative anti-atherosclerotic effect of garlic may be linked to risk markers other than blood lipids, according to “Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) powder tablets on serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normo-lipidaemic volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial” by Turner B, Mølgaard C, Marckmann P.(41). Other in a study of “Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products.” by Lawson LD, Ransom DK, Hughes BG. posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that The best garlic powder tablets were equally as active as clove homogenates whereas steam-distilled oils were 35% as active and oil-macerates (due to low content) only 12% as active. A garlic product aged many months in aqueous alcohol had no activity. For steam-distilled oils, most of the activity was due to diallyl trisulfide. For the oil-macerates, most of the activity was due largely to the vinyl dithiins. Ajoene, an exclusive component of the oil-macerates, had highest specific activity of all the compounds tested but, because of its low concentration, had only 13% of the activity of diallyl trisulfide and 3% of the activity of allicin. Compounds which may be active in vivo are discussed.
In the identification of key hepatic pathways targeted by anti-obsogenic ginger phytochemicals fed to mice, found that Dietary ginger phytochemicals target cholesterol metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in mice, with consequences, according to “Ginger phytochemicals mitigate the obesogenic effects of a high-fat diet in mice: a proteomic and biomarker network analysis” by Beattie JH, Nicol F, Gordon MJ, Reid MD, Cantlay L, Horgan GW, Kwun IS, Ahn JY, Ha TY.(42). Other In the study of ginger proteases were extracted from fresh ginger rhizome by using phosphate buffer and subsequently purified by ion exchange chromatography, found that the ginger proteases exhibited a similar affinity for κ-casein and higher specificity with increasing temperature. Gel electrophoresis and mass spectra indicated that Ala90-Glu91 and His102-Leu103 of κ-casein were the preferred target bonds of ginger proteases. The milk clotting activity, affinity, and specificity toward κ-casein showed that ginger protease is a promising rennet-like protease that could be used in manufacturing cheese and oriental-style dairy foods, according to “Purification, characterization, and milk coagulating properties of ginger proteases” by Huang XW, Chen LJ, Luo YB, Guo HY, Ren FZ.(43).
3. Red pepper
In a study of Thirty-six participants (22 women and 14 men), aged 46+/-12 (mean+/-s.d.) years; BMI 26.4+/-4.8 kg/m(2), consumed 30 g/day of a chilli blend (55% cayenne chilli) with their normal diet (chilli diet), and a bland diet (chilli-free) for 4 weeks each, researchers found that Four weeks of regular chilli consumption has no obvious beneficial or harmful effects on metabolic parameters but may reduce resting heart rate and increase effective myocardial perfusion pressure time in men, according to” The effect of 4-week chilli supplementation on metabolic and arterial function in humans” by Ahuja KD, Robertson IK, Geraghty DP, Ball MJ.(44). Fermented red pepper paste(FRPP) has caused a modulation of cholesterol levels not seen in the placebo group, causing either no variation or a decrease in low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels, according to the study of “Hypoxanthine levels in human urine serve as a screening indicator for the plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein modulation activities of fermented red pepper paste” by Kim Y, Park YJ, Yang SO, Kim SH, Hyun SH, Cho S, Kim YS, Kwon DY, Cha YS, Chae S, Choi HK.(45).
B. Phytochemicals and antioxidantsto prevent pulmonary embolism
In a study of `Curcumin, a major component of food spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) inhibits aggregation and alters eicosanoid metabolism in human blood platelets.`by Srivastava KC, Bordia A, Verma SK. (Source from Department of Environmental Medicine, Odense University Denmark.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that this compound inhibited thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production from exogenous [14C] arachidonate in washed platelets with a concomitant increase in the formation of 12-lipoxygenase products. Moreover, curcumin inhibited the incorporation of [14C]AA into platelet phospholipids and inhibited the deacylation of AA-labelled phospholipids (liberation of free AA) on stimulation with calcium ionophore A23187. Curcumin’s anti-inflammatory property may, in part, be explained by its effects on eicosanoid biosynthesis.
2. Cinnamic acid
A series of novel ligustrazinyloxy-cinnamic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effect on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in vitro,
found that compound 2e displayed the highest protective effect on the proliferation of the damaged ECV-304 cells (EC(50) = 0.020 mM), and compound 2f was the most active anti-platelet aggregation agent (EC(50) = 0.054 mM). Structure-activity relationships were briefly discussed, according to “Ligustrazine derivatives. Part 5: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel ligustrazinyloxy-cinnamic acid derivatives as potent cardiovascular agents” by Chen H, Li G, Zhan P, Liu X.(46)
3. Aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger
Aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger inhibited platelet aggregation induced by several aggregation agents, including arachidonate (AA), in a dose-dependent manner. While onion and garlic extracts were found to be weak inhibitors of platelet thromboxane synthesis, ginger extract inhibited the platelet cyclooxygenase products and this effect correlated well with its inhibitory effects on the platelet aggregation induced by the above aggregation agents(47).
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