Monday, August 15, 2016

Children Health: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) - Diseases with similar symptoms to ADHD

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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           Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD)

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) also known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disease occurs in certain age and years of a children, defined as a condition with characteristics of co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity. It effects about 5% of the all children in the world with boys have 3-4 times higher risk than girl. Over one third of children with ADHD will have continued symptoms existed into their adult life.

Diseases with similar symptoms to ADHD

A number of other conditions and disorders have similar symptoms, therefore, it is imporant for the doctors to rule out before treating ADHD
1. Visual disturbances
Visual disturbances are defined as a condition of abnormalities of sight associated with neurological disorders often include double vision (diplopia), moving or blurred vision as a result of nystagmus, a rapid involuntary movements of the eyes. Some children with ADHD are experience the symptoms of visual disturbances as a result of neuropsychological dysfunction.

2. Thyroid disorders
Children who are experience the symptoms of dementia and depression, dysfunction of cerebellum and cranial nerves as a result of hypothyroidism (lacks sufficient thyroid hormone) may be risk of misdiagnosis as the symptoms are similar of those in ADHD (10)

3. Epilepsy
Epilepsy is defined as condition of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures and with recurrent symptoms as a result of mutations in several genes. ADHD occurs frequently in children with epilepsy. The factors associated with increased risk of ADHD include the onset age of epilepsy, the types of seizures or epileptic syndromes, the epileptiform EEG discharges, and the effects of antiepileptic drugs(11)

4. Sleeping problems, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Some children with ADHD may be experience the symptoms of childhood eczema, sleeping problems, but not all of them. Researchers at University Clinic of Wuerzburg indicated that ADHD and AE appear to be strongly and independently associated in children with sleeping problems, but not in children without sleeping problems. A substantial part of diagnoses met for ADHD might be engendered by the presence of AE and concomitant sleeping problems.(12)

5. Some genetic disorders
Researchers at the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete found that the X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis is caused by mutation or deletion of the STS gene as. Depending on its size, it can present as an isolated entity or combined with a syndrome caused by neighbouring genes, thus associating itself with other monogenic diseases as well as other mental disorders. The most relevant findings from the literature review are the importance of the Xp22.3-pter region and the higher incidence of neurological disorders among males such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and X-linked mental retardation(13)

6. Eenuresis
Nocturnal enuresis (MNE) or bedwetting is defined as condition of involuntary urination while asleep inchildren at which bladder control usually occurs. Researchers at Duzce University School of Medicine said that monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are multifactorial disorders and biological, social, and psychological factors may play significant roles in the development of both. Children with enuresis display a higher prevalence of ADHD compared to the normal population, in a study of A total of 64 children between the ages of 6 and 13 years (14)

7. Schizophrenic
Schizophrenia is defined as a serve mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by poor emotional responsiveness, including symtoms similar to those of ADHD.
and both associated with deficits in inhibition and working memory, but the hypothesis that working memory is a primary deficit in schizophrenia, but secondary to the inhibitory deficit in ADHD.(15)

8. Substance Use Disorders
In the replied to the article by Timothy E. Wilens, M.D. in The American Journal of Psychiatry, VOL. 164, No. 6, the writer wrote that the case presented does exhibit symptoms typical of marijuana users (4—6). According to Fletcher et al. (7), long-term cannabis use is associated with disruption of short-term memory, working memory, and attentional skills, all of which are exemplified in the case presented in Dr. Wilens’s article (16)

9. Autism and ADHD are characterized with the association of neurodeficits
Even though there are allots of similar symptom, but children with ASD also showed slower rates of adaptation compared with both control groups while children with ADHD did not show this excessive generalization to the proprioceptive target, but they did show excessive variability in the speed of movements with an increase in the exponential distribution of responses (τ) as compared with both TD children and children with ASD.(17)

10. Tourette's Syndrome
Tourette syndrome (TS) is defined as a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. Some time it is misdiagnosis to children with ADHD or vice versa, but there are the evident that ADHD are more common in patient with chronic tics and Tourette's syndrome(18)

k. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
ODD is a psychiatric disorder that is characterized as a set of symptoms, including aggressiveness and a purposefully bother and irritate others. ODD may sometime associate with ADHD and other neuropsychiatric disorders including, depression, Tourette's syndrome, etc..and sometime they can be treated with the same medication and at different improvement rate(19)

11. Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorder is defined as a condition of several different forms of a type of mental illness of abnormal and pathological fear.. In the study of children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16 years) with ADHD (n = 23) on neurocognitive tests of both general and emotion-based attention processes, showed that children with ADHD demonstrated poorer selective and sustainedattention, whereas youth with anxiety disorders demonstrated greater attentional bias toward threatening faces on a visual probe task.(20)

12. Depressive Disorders
Depressive disorders is defined as a metal illness of which includes mood, and thoughts of the patient, affecting their way of eating and sleeping, feeling, etc. with the prevalence rate for MDD is 6.7%, while the ADHD prevalence rate in US adults is 4.4%.(21)

13. Etc.

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