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Sunday, August 14, 2016

Children Health: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) - The Causes

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

           Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD)

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) also known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disease occurs in certain age and years of a children, defined as a condition with characteristics of co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity. It effects about 5% of the all children in the world with boys have 3-4 times higher risk than girl. Over one third of children with ADHD will have continued symptoms existed into their adult life.


                              The Causes


1. Heredity
ADHD can be an inherited form the parent as a result of abnormal genes, according to the study of "Quantitative and Molecular Genetics of ADHD" by Asherson P, Gurling H., researchers indicated that there is consistent evidence of monoamine neurotransmitter involvement with the best evidence coming from genetic markers in or near the dopamine D4 and D5 receptor genes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified new association findings, including genes involved in cell division, cell adhesion, neuronal migration, and neuronal plasticity(2)

2. Perinatal factors
Perinatal factors such as miscarriage symptoms, premature delivery symptoms, severe flu attacks (cold with fever, without virus confirmation), tobacco abuse, alcohol abuse (to become drunk), minor congenital malformations, neonatal seizures and hospitalizations may cause ADHD to the new born, according to the study of "[Perinatal factors associated with attention deficit/hyperactivitydiagnosis in Colombian Paisa children].[Article in Spanish]" by Pineda DA, Puerta IC, Merchán V, Arango CP, Galvis AY, Velásquez B, Gómez M, Builes A, Zapata M, Montoya P, Martínez J, Salazar EO, Lopera F., posted in PubMed(3)

3. Heavy prenatal maternal smoking
Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy increase risk of ADHD as a result of neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD, according to the study of "Adverse effects of heavy prenatal maternal smoking on attentional control in children with ADHD" by Motlagh MG, Sukhodolsky DG, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Katsovich L, Thompson N, Scahill L, King RA, Peterson BS, Schultz RT, Leckman JF., posted in PubMed(4)

4. Environmental influences
In a study of 200 children with ADHD (149 males and 51 females) and 286 healthy controls (135 males and 151 females). The ADHD DSM-IV diagnosis was obtained using the DICA and BASC evaluation instruments, and the children's mothers or grandmothers filled out a questionnaire on each child's exposure to prenatal, neonatal, and early childhood risk factors, conducted by
University of San Buenaventura, researchers indicated that the risk of developingADHD must include these environmental factors as covariates(5)

5. Brain injure
The behavioural and cognitive sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have features in common with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to the study of "Inhibitory control in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" by Konrad K, Gauggel S, Manz A, Schöll M., PubMed(6)

6. Refined Sugar
In the study of A total of 107 students participated, and eight boys and one girl (8.4% of the total) categorized as high risk for ADHD according to diagnostic criteria, conducted by Graduate School of Education, Dankook University, posted in PubMed(7), researchers indicated that children who consumed less sugar from fruit snacks or whose vitamin C intake was less than RI was at increased risks forADHD (P < 0.05). However, no significant association was observed between total volume of simple sugar intake from snacks and ADHD development.

7. Artificial food additives and dyes
Although there is contradictive results of how Artificial food additives causes of ADHD, Some reserachers do believe that the balance of existing evidence neither refutes nor supports the link between AFCs and ADHD, which highlights the need for carefully designed studies to further investigate the link between AFCs andADHD, according to the study of "A research model for investigating the effects of artificial food colorings on children with ADHD" by Kleinman RE, Brown RT, Cutter GR, Dupaul GJ, Clydesdale FM., posted in PubMed(8)

8. Toxic Substances
Toxic substances may be considered as a substantial contribution to the etiology of ADHD, as a result of affecting the dopamine system, according to the study of "Etiologic subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brain imaging, molecular genetic and environmental factors and the dopamine hypothesis" by Swanson JM, Kinsbourne M, Nigg J, Lanphear B, Stefanatos GA, Volkow N, Taylor E, Casey BJ, Castellanos FX, Wadhwa PD., posted in PubMed(9)

9. Maternal stress during pregnancy
Maternal stress during pregnancy may increase the risk of the development ofADHD symptomatology after controlling for family history of ADHD and other environmental factors(36)

10. Etc.

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Sources
(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20451036
(1) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), posted in National Institute of Mental Health, http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/complete-index.shtml(2)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21989848
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20616372
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17487441
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11076133
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21779528
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576306
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17318414
(36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22299010

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