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Prune is a dried plum, therefore it is a genus of Prunus with many species, belong to family Rosaceae with unknown origin. Plum is cultivated for commercial drying called dried plum or prune. Prune is a sticky chewy texture and very nutritious.
3. Vitamin A
4. Vitamin B3
5. Vitamin B6
6. Vitamin C
7. Vitamin E
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Liver diseases
In the research of prunes (Prunus domestica) and its effect on liver function, found that There was significant reduction of serum alanine transaminase (p 0.048) and serum alkaline phosphatase (p 0.017) by the lower dose of prunes. There was no change in serum aspartate transaminase and bilirubin. Alteration in liver function by use of prunes may have clinical relevance in appropriate cases and prunes might prove beneficial in hepatic disease, according to "Report: prunes and liver function: a clinical trial" by Ahmed T, Sadia H, Khalid A, Batool S, Janjua A.(a)
In the investigation of prunes (Prunus domestica) and its effect on blood pressure found that there was significant reduction of blood pressure by single dose of prunes daily group and the controls (p < 0.05). With the double dose of prunes, only systolic BP was reduced significantly (p < 0.05), according to "Use of prunes as a control of hypertension" by Ahmed T, Sadia H, Batool S, Janjua A, Shuja F.(b)
In the evaluation of Nine different beverages, including prune juice and their free radical scavenging activity found that there was an almost 7-fold difference in the Total Oxyradical Scavenging Capacity (TOSC) between brewed coffee and ascorbic acid. The data suggest a potential role for commonly consumed beverages in lowering the risk of pathophysiologies associated with peroxyl radical-mediated events, according to "Comparison of peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of commonly consumed beverages" by Kwon do Y, Choi KH, Kim SJ, Choi DW, Kim YS, Kim YC.(c)
4. Cognitive effects
In the observation of prune juice and normal aging in animals and humans is accompanied by a decline in cognitive performance indicated that rats that drank plum juice from 19 to 21 mo of age had improved working memory in the Morris water maze, whereas rats fed dried plum powder were not different from the control group, possibly due to the smaller quantity of phenolics consumed in the powder group compared with the juice group. These results are discussed in relation to the amount and type of phenolics present in the plum products and in relation to other dietary intervention studies in which cognitive benefits have been reported, according "Plum juice, but not dried plum powder, is effective in mitigating cognitive deficits in aged rats" by Shukitt-Hale B, Kalt W, Carey AN, Vinqvist-Tymchuk M, McDonald J, Joseph JA.(d)
5. Human colon carcinoma Caco-2
In the study of the dried fruits of certain cultivars of Prunus domestica L. extract and its effect Caco-2, KATO II found that PE treatment for 24 h led to apoptotic changes in Caco-2 such as cell shrinkage and blebbed surfaces due to the convolutions of nuclear and plasma membranes and chromatin condensation and induced apoptosis in Caco-2, acording to "Prune extract (Prunus domestica L.) suppresses the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of human colon carcinoma Caco-2" by Fujii T, Ikami T, Xu JW, Ikeda K.(e)
In the identification of Forty-one free-living adult men with mild hypercholesterolemia (5.2-7.5 mmol/L) voluntarily participated in an 8-wk crossover study designed to determine the effect of prunes as a source of fiber on plasma cholesterol and on fecal output and bile acid concentration found that During theprune period, subjects supplemented their usual diets with 12 prunes (100 g; 6 g dietary fiber) daily. Plasma low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower after the prune period (3.9 mmol/L) than after the grape-juice-control period (4.1 mmol/L). Fecal bile acid concentration of lithocholic acid was significantly lower after the prune period (0.95 mg bile acid/g dry wt stool) than after the grape-juice-control period (1.20 mg bile acid/g dry wt stool), according to "Consumption of prunes as a source of dietary fiber in men with mild hypercholesterolemia" by Tinker LF, Schneeman BO, Davis PA, Gallaher DD, Waggoner CR.(f)
B. Health Benefits according to concentration
Protein in Prune is not only beneficial to the cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of "Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: an American Heart Association Science Advisory for professionals from the Nutrition Committee" by Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee(I), but also plays an important role in treating diabetes, according to "Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity: a 6-mo double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal Chinese women with prediabetes or untreated early diabetes" by Liu ZM, Chen YM, Ho SC, Ho YP, Woo J.(II)
2. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" byTakahashi N, Takasu S.(III) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(IV)
3. Vitamin C
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin Csupplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(V)
b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(VI)
Phosphorus is one of essential trace minerals to maintains healthy teeth and bones, according to the study of "Phosphorus nutrition and the treatment ofosteoporosis" by Heaney RP, posted in PubMed (VII).
Beside is a important minerals for lymphatic function in regulating the body fluids, it is also essential in preventing the forming of kidney stone, according to the study of "Empiric use of potassium citrate reduces kidney-stone incidence with the ketogenic diet" by McNally MA, Pyzik PL, Rubenstein JE, Hamdy RF, Kossoff EH., posted in PubMed(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596731), researchers wrote in conclusion that Oral potassium citrate is an effective preventive supplement against kidney stones in children who receive the KD, achieving its goal of urine alkalinization. Universal supplementation is warranted.
C. Other health benefits
1. Immune system
Since prune contains high amount antioxidants, it enhances the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radical thus reducing the risk of irregular cell growth, inflammation and infection, according to the study of "[Antioxidant and/or free radical scavenger vitamins in tropical medicine].[Article in French]" by Clerc M., posted in PubMed(1)
2. Antioxidants and cardivascular health
Antioxidant also deceases the risk of heart diseases and strike by guarding our body against cholesterol oxidation and breaking off of capillaries and hardening of arterial walls, according to the study of "Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases" by Ibarra-Alvarado C, Rojas A, Mendoza S, Bah M, Gutiérrez DM, Hernández-Sandoval L, Martínez M., Posted in PubMed(2). For more information of Antioxidant and Cancers and Diseases, visit http://the-anti-aging-guide.blogspot.com/2011/03/anti-aging-guide.html
Potassium in prune helps to maintain normal blood pressure by making blood vessels less sensitive to substances, such as hormones, causing blood vessel to contract, thus causing hypertension of that can lead to cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of "Blood pressure lowering efficacy of potassium-sparing diuretics (that block the epithelial sodium channel) for primary hypertension" by Heran BS, Chen JM, Wang JJ, Wright JM., posted in PubMed(3)
High amount of fibers helps to regulate blood sugar by releasing glucose slowly into bloodstream thus reducing pancreas stress cause of insulin sensitive, according to the study of "Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients" by Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese AA, Lasorella G, Giacco A, D'Episcopo L, Riccardi G., posted in PubMed(4)
5. Cells nourishment
Prune contains high amount of iron, the mineral that enhances the reproduction of red blood cells and formation of hemoglobin, thus increasing the the oxygen absorption from the lung to nourish the body' cells, according to the study of "Iron deficiency in women: assessment, causes and consequences" by Coad J, Conlon C., posted in PubMed(5)
As plum, it may cause problem for people with untreated kidney and gallbladder diseases and reduce the absorption of calcium.
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