Monday, February 29, 2016

Most Common Diseases of elder: Lower respiratory tract infection (Respiratory Disease) – Bronchitis Preventions – The Phytochemicals

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                            Respiratory Disease 

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions, affecting the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and muscles breathing , etc,.

                     Lower respiratory tract infection

The lower respiratory tract infection are the infection consisting of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs, including the bronchitis and pneumonia. According to The World Health Report 2004 – Changing History(1), in 2002 lower respiratory track infection were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.


Bronchitis is defined as a condition of an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the larger and medium-sized airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lung parenchyma(7). Most cases of Bronchitis are as a result of recurrent injure to the airways caused by inhaled irritants and cigarette smoking(6). 


Phytochemicals to prevent bronchitis
1. Quercetin
Mucus hypersecretion is a feature of many chronic airway diseases induced by cigarette smoke (CS), and evidence suggests that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory flavonoid quercetin may protect against CS-induced respiratory pathology. According to the study by State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, quercetin attenuates CS-induced mucin protein synthesis in rat lung, possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation via a mechanism involving NF-κB pathway activation and EGFR phosphorylation. These findings suggest that quercetin has a potential for treating chronic airway diseases(42).
2. Catechin
Catechin found abundantly in Actinidia callosa var. ephippioides extract also had good effects in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Catechin might be an important bioactive compound in the stem of ACE. The above experimental data indicated that the stem of ACE is a potent antioxidant medicinal plant, and such efficacy may be mainly attributed to its polyphenolic compounds(43).
3. Eupafolin
Eupafolin found abundantly in Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem also had good pharmacological activity in the antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antiproliferative. Eupafolin might be an important bioactive compound in the stem of K. gracilis. The above experimental data indicated that the stem of K. gracilis is a potent antioxidant medicinal plant, and such efficacy may be mainly attributed to its polyphenolic compounds(44).
4. Puerarin
Puerarin is a major isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medical herb Radix puerariae (kudzu root), In the study to investigate the myocardial protective effect of puerarin injection (PI) in children with severe pneumonia, conducted by Hospital Affiliated to Weifang Medical College, indicated that
change of serum myocardial zymographic parameters was indirectly proportional to the severity of childrens condition. The reduction of myocardialcontrastive function was demonstrated by the change of cardiac blood flow parameters in Ultrasound Doppler examination (P < 0.01). Both PI and FDP had the effect in protecting myocardium and improving heart function, showing insignificant difference between their efficacy (P > 0.05), but PI had less stimulation to vessels and without any obvious adverse reaction(45).
5. Etc.
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