Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Lower respiratory tract infection
The lower respiratory tract infection are the infection consisting of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs, including the bronchitis and pneumonia. According to The World Health Report 2004 – Changing History(1), in 2002 lower respiratory track infection were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.
Bronchitis is defined as a condition of an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the larger and medium-sized airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lung parenchyma(7). Most cases of Bronchitis are as a result of recurrent injure to the airways caused by inhaled irritants and cigarette smoking(6).
In Herbal medicine perspective(1)
1. Actinidia callosa var. ephippioides
Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer. Actinidia callosa var. ephippioides (ACE) is a special folk medicinal plant from Taiwan. In the study to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of the methanol extract and fractions from the stem of ACE, showed that Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total phenolic content, flavonoid content, inhibition on nitric oxide (NO) productions by LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell, and on lung cancer cell proliferation were employed. Among all fractions, ethyl-acetate fraction (EA-ACE) showed higher TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activities, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. EA-ACE also decreased the LPS-induced NO production and expressions of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW264.7 cells. EA-ACE had the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC(50) (The concentrations required for inhibition of 50% of cell viability) of 469.17 ± 3.59 μg/mL(56).
2. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem
In the study to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of the stem of K. gracilis, found that TEAC, total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were analyzed. Among all fractions, the chloroform fraction showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities. The chloroform fraction also had the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Chloroform fractions also decreased LPS-induced NO production and expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells(57).
3. Lobelia, coltsfoot, and elecampane
Herbal remedies and herbal teas ease difficult breathing by opening up the inflamed airways, inhibit coughing, and act as antiseptics to treat bronchitis. Lobelia, coltsfoot, and elecampane are all good old fashioned herbal remedies that have been in use for centuries for all kinds of respiratory illnesses. They still work just as well today(58).
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