Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Children Health: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) - What to avoid During pregnancy

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

           Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD)

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD) also known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disease occurs in certain age and years of a children, defined as a condition with characteristics of co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity. It effects about 5% of the all children in the world with boys have 3-4 times higher risk than girl. Over one third of children with ADHD will have continued symptoms existed into their adult life.

               What to avoid During pregnancy

1. Alcohol
Moderate in take of alcohol can be helpful in enhancing the circulatory and nervous functions, but excessive intake of alcohol during pregnancy can increase the risk of low birth weight and birth defect including ADHD. In this prospective study of alcohol and other substance use during pregnancy, a cohort of 650 women was interviewed at each trimester of pregnancy demonstrated between prenatal maternal alcohol use and growth and morphologic abnormalities in the offspring. Low birth weight, decreased head circumference and length, and an increased rate of fetal alcohol effects were all found to be significantly correlated with exposure to alcohol during the first 2 months of the first trimester(34). Other sugested that alcohol consumption during pregnancy may associated to neuropsychological deficits of the offdpring, as Prenatal alcohol exposure may have its primary effect on brain growth, reflected by smaller forehead widths, and may suppress neural crest migration to the branchial arches, reflected by deficits in ear length and mandibular dimensions(35)

2. Drugs
It is not always possible to isolate the effect of marijuana exposure from other possible confounders on pregnancy outcome, but some studies suggested it might have subtle negative effects on neurobehavioural outcomes, including sleep disturbances, impaired visual problem solving, hyperactivity, impassivity, inattention, and increased delinquency.(32)

Other researchers point out that Prenatal marijuana use was significantly related to increased hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention symptoms as measured by the SNAP, increased delinquency as measured by the CBCL, and increased delinquency and externalizing problems as measured by the TRF. The pathway between prenatal marijuana exposure and delinquency was mediated by the effects of marijuana exposure on inattention symptoms. These findings indicate that prenatal marijuana exposure has an effect on child behavior problems at age 10.(33)

3. Smoking
Smoking during pregnancy cause the exposure of nicotine to the fetal neuroteratogen of which may lead to lower executive function proficiency, according to the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function(37)

4. Etc.

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