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Monday, August 15, 2016

Phytochemicals in Foods- The Effects of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                      Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)




Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), including catechins, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly catechin in green tea.

Health Benefits
1. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)
In the investigation of the investigated possible anti-human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) activity of EGCg and its mechanisms of action in the viral life cycle. EGCg, found that EGCg had a destructive effect on the viral particles, and post-adsorption entry and RT in acutely infected monocytoid cells were significantly inhibited at concentrations of EGCg greater than 1 μM, and protease kinetics were suppressed at a concentration higher than 10 μM in the cell-free study. Viral production by THP-1 cells chronically-infected with HIV-1 was also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory effect was enhanced by liposome modification of EGCg, according to "Inhibitory effects of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate on the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)" by Koushi Yamaguchi, Mitsuo Honda,Hajime Ikigai,Yukihiko Hara, Tadakatsu Shimamura(1)

2. Breast cancer
In the investigation of the effect of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against the initiation, progression, and invasion of carcinogenesis of MMP-9 in the human breast cancer cell line, found that EGCG treatment reduced the activity, protein, and mRNA expression ofMMP-9 and enhanced the expression of the tissue inhibitor of MMP 1 (TIMP-1). EGCG downregulated the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), reduced the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to fibronectin and vitronectin, and reduced the mRNA expression of the integrin receptors alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 and concluded that EGCG as a potential inhibitor of the expression and activity of MMP-9 by a process involving FAK/ERK and transcription factorsin MDA-MB-231, according to "Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) downregulates gelatinase-B (MMP-9) by involvement of FAK/ERK/NFkappaB and AP-1 in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231" by Sen T, Dutta A, Chatterjee A.(2)

3. Anti inflammatory effects
In the investigation of investigate the effect of EGCG on the expression of fibrogenic factors and whether EGCG attenuates the severity of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in chronic liver injury, found that Treatment with EGCGsignificantly reduced liver injury, oxidative stress and the inflammatory response.EGCG also significantly reduced the formation of collagen in the liver, the expression of alpha-SMA and all of the assayed pro-fibrogenic markers except TIMP-2 and MMP-9. EGCG significantly attenuated the severity of CCl(4)-induced liver injury and the progression of liver fibrosis. The protective effect of EGCG may in part be a consequence of the reduction in oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory response, according to "Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces liver inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in mice" by Tipoe GL, Leung TM, Liong EC, Lau TY, Fung ML, Nanji AA.(3)

4. Cardiovascular disease
In the examination of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular protection of green tea polyphenols, particularly epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), found that The protective effect of EGCG is due to its ability to decrease lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and the production of nitric oxide (NO) radicals by inhibiting the expression of iNOS. EGCG also ameliorates the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, reduces the activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and the subsequent formation of peroxynitrite with NO and reactive oxygen species. Thus, EGCG effectively mitigates cellular damage by lowering the inflammatory reaction and reducing the lipid peroxidation and NO generated radicals leading to the oxidative stress. Green tea is proposed to be a dietary supplement in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in which oxidative stress and proinflammation are the principal causes, according to "Green tea polyphenols as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for cardiovascular protection' by Tipoe GL, Leung TM, Hung MW, Fung ML.(4)

5. Sjogren’s syndrome (SS)
In the evuation of the Protection of glandular acinar cells from autoimmune-induced damage to Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) patients, found that EGCG is able to protect the NOD mouse submandibular glands from autoimmune-induced inflammation, and reduces serum autoantibody levels. Abnormal proliferation, rather than apoptosis, appears to be a characteristic of the NOD mouse gland that is normalized by EGCG, according to "

Effects of oral consumption of the green tea polyphenol EGCG in a murine model for human Sjogren’s syndrome, an autoimmune disease" by Kevin Gillespie, DMD, Isamu Kodani, MD, PhD, Douglas P. Dickinson, PhD, Kalu U.E. Ogbureke, MD, PhD, Amy M. Camba, BS, Mengjie Wu, DMD, PhD, Stephen Looney, PhD, Tin-Chun Chu, Haiyan Qin, MS, Frederick Bisch, DMD, Mohamed Sharawy, PhD, George S. Schuster, DDS, PhD, and Stephen D. De Hsu, PhD (5)

6. Endometriosis
In the investigation of the effects of EGCG on angiogenesis signal transduction were further characterized in a human endothelial cell line, found that EGCG, but not vitamin E, inhibited microvessels in endometriotic implants. EGCG selectively suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) and tyrosine kinase receptor VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression. EGCG down-regulated VEGFC/VEGFR2 signaling through c-JUN, interferon-γ, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 pathways for endothelial proliferation, inflammatory response, and mobility. EGCG also suppressed VEGFC expression and reduced VEGFR2 and ERK activation in endothelial cells. VEGFC supplementation attenuated the inhibitory effects by EGCG, according to "Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses vascular endothelial growth factor C/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression and signaling in experimental endometriosis in vivo" by Hui Xu, M.D., Ph.D., Christian M. Becker, M.D., Wai Ting Lui, M.Phil., Ching Yan Chu, M.Phil., Tina N. Davis, Andrew L. Kung, M.D., Ph.D., Amy E. Birsner, Ph.D., Robert J. D’Amato, M.D., Ph.D., Gene Chi Wai Man, M.Phil., Chi Chiu Wang, M.D., Ph.D.(6)

7. Chronic neuropathic pain
In the analyzing the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on spinal inflammation and immune response in neuropathic pain, found that the TLR4 signaling pathway plays an important role in the occurrence and development of neuropathic pain, and the therapy targeting TLR4 might be a novel strategy in the treatment of neuropathic pain, according to "Effects of intrathecalepigallocatechin gallate, an inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4, on chronic neuropathic pain in rats" by Kuang X, Huang Y, Gu HF, Zu XY, Zou WY, Song ZB, Guo QL.(7)

8. Acute neurocognitive effects
In the investigationwhether the flavonoid epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) modulates brain activity and self-reported mood in a double-blind, placebo controlled crossover study,
found that EGCG administration was associated with a significant overall increase in alpha, beta and theta activity, also reflected in overall EEG activity, more dominant in midline frontal and central regions, specifically in the frontal gyrus and medial frontal gyrus. In comparison to placebo the EGCG treatment also increased self-rated calmness and stress, according to "Acute neurocognitive effects ofepigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)" by Scholey A, Downey LA, Ciorciari J, Pipingas A, Nolidin K, Finn M, Wines M, Catchlove S, Terrens A, Barlow E, Gordon L, Stough C.(8)

9. Antiviral activity
In examination of the synthesis and antiviral activities of various quercetin derivatives with substitution of C3, C3', and C5 hydroxyl functions with various phenolic ester, alkoxy, and aminoalkoxy moieties, found that newly synthesized compounds, quercetin-3-gallate which is structurally related toEGCG showed comparable antiviral activity against influenza virus (porcine H1N1 strain) to that ofEGCG with improved in vitro therapeutic index, according to "Synthesis and antiviral activity of substituted quercetins" by Thapa M, Kim Y, Desper J, Chang KO, Hua DH.(9)

10. Pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties
In the comparison of mouse mammary carcinoma (BA) cells and transplanted BA tumors growing in C3H mice, treated with PH-mediated PDT and select groups of treated cells and mice also received EGCG and then cytotoxicity, tumor response, and expression of survival molecules were evaluated in all experimental groups, found that the polyphenol EGCG improves PDT efficacy by increasing tumor apoptosis and decreasing expression of pro-survival and angiogenic molecules within the tumor microenvironment, according to "Pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties of the green tea constituent epigallocatechin gallate increase photodynamic therapy responsiveness" by Ferrario A, Luna M, Rucker N, Wong S, Gomer CJ.(10)

11. Neuroprotective effects
In the evaluation of whether the green tea extract, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), could prevent an ovariectomy-induced overactive bladder, found that ovary hormone deficiency induced overactive bladder dysfunction via intramural nerve damage and muscarinic receptor overexpression. EGCG prevented ovariectomy-induced bladder dysfunction through neuroprotective effects in a dose-dependent fashion, according to "Neuroprotection of green tea catechins on surgical menopause-induced overactive bladder in a rat model" by Juan YS, Chuang SM, Long CY, Chen CH, Levin RM, Liu KM, Huang CH.(11)
12. Alzheimer's Disease
In the evaluation of the effect in Alzheimer's Disease, after internalization of Aβ(42) into human neuroblastoma (SH-EP) cells, with moderately intense 670-nm laser light (1000 Wm(-2)) and/or treated with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), found that irradiation with moderate levels of 670-nm light and EGCG supplementation complementarily reduces Aβ aggregates in SH-EP cells. Transcranial penetration of moderate levels of red to near-infrared (NIR) light has already been amply exploited in the treatment of patients with acute stroke; the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of EGCG has been demonstrated in animals. We hope that our approach will inspire a practical therapy for AD, according to "670 nm Laser Light and EGCG Complementarily Reduce Amyloid-β Aggregates in Human Neuroblastoma Cells: Basis for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease?" by Sommer AP, Bieschke J, Friedrich RP, Zhu D, Wanker EE, Fecht HJ, Mereles D, Hunstein W.(12)

13. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166354201001899
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20527725
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20438794
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17584048
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2701648/?tool=pmcentrez
(6) http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282%2811%2901103-4/abstract
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22173123
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22127270
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22115591
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22057492
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22042325
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22029866

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