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What is Candida Albicans
Candida albicans are members of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that do not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis. Non-albicansCandida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candidaresistance toward antifungal agents.
1. Amalgam filling
Amalgam filling is the use of amalgam as a filling material containing mainly mercury to treat cavity of your teeth by dentist. As a highly toxic chemical(59)(60), mercury causes damage to the kidneys(61) and central nervous system(62). Chelation therapy can be effective in removing all forms of mercury from the body(63), but cannot reverse the damage of central nervous system. As it weakens the immune system(64)(65), it can cause the over growth of bad microorganisms, candidiasis(66)(67).
2. Anti fungus drugs
Antifungal drug is a medication used to treat fungal infections and serious systemic infections(68) by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells(69), to kill the fungal organism without dangerous effects on the host(70). Unfortunately, people successfully treated with antifungal drugs, 5 to 15% develop another infection in the next year(71)(72). The use of the medication may also cause serious side effects associated with their use, including liver damage(73), weakened immune system(74) and heart failure(75)(76).
3. Genetic due to blood types and secretors status
3.1. Genetic mutations
a. People with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome, due to mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription1(STAT1)(78)(79), 3 (STAT3), a protein responded to cytokines and growth factors, are at increased risk of mucocutaneous candidiasis caused by percentage of STAT1, STAT3 mutant neutrophils migrating into blisters and in peripheral blood(77)(80).
b. Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene
Patient with Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, may susceptible to risk of Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, due to Increased IL-17A secretion, mediators of cellular inflammatory responses, in response(81).
3.2. Blood types and secretors status
Secretors status and blood types are defined as a person who secretes their blood type antigens into body fluids and secretions such as the saliva, mucus, etc. People with certain blood type and secretor status are susceptible to mold allergies and molds. According to Rambam Medical Center, individuals with blood group O with non-secretors of antigens showed to have a higher carrier frequency of Candida(82)(83). In dispute of that result, the study by Seoul National University, Korea indicted of no significantly related to blood group or secretor status in oral Candida carriage(84)
4. Steroid in foods
Steroid has been used for commercial profits in order to produce larger food stock both in animals(85) and vegetation(86). Steroid in foods suppresses the immune response such as medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in inhibition of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms(87), thereby increasing colonization and promoting the spread of candida(88)(89).
5. Blood sugar imbalance
Blood sugar imbalance cause fluctuation of glucose in the blood stream in patients with diabetes, may lead to Candida albicans overgrowth, due to increased extracellular enzyme activity(90) and production of hydrolytic enzymes(91), as yeast organisms craving for sugar, their natural diet.
6. Immune system deficiency
Immune system deficiency allows candida over growth(92)(93) as it is not longer perform its function in regulating the balance of all microorganism(94) in the intestine track(95)(97).
7. Biochemical and metabolic individually
Slow metabolizers' bodies chemistry is often more alkaline due to lower production of lactic acid and low levels of gastric hydrochloric acid, leading to constipation(96). The combination of these factors can result in candida overgrowth(97).
8. Drugs due to suppress immune system during transplant
Drugs suppressing immune system disrupt function of immune system in rpoduction of T cells and phagocytic cells, and the cytokines that mediate the interactions with fungal pathogen(98) and regulation the balance of microorganism in the body(99)(100).
Stress can cause insulin imbalance(101)(102) and weaken the liver(103) and immune function(104), that allow unchecked of over growth candida albicans(105)(106).
10. Deficiency of nutrient
Deficiency of nutrient weakens the body systems in performing their function properly, including the immune system in regulating the balance of microorganism(107)(108).
11. Chronic use of antibiotics
Antibiotic therapy use are known to increase the tendency for chronic infection due its effect in killing bacteria indiscriminately, leading to bad microorganism over growth(109)(110).
12. The pill
The use of the pill can suppress the hormonal balance(111), causing fluctuation of sugar levels(112) and significantly increasing the risk for candida yeast overgrowth(113).
14. Sexual transmitting diseases
Sex with several partners without precautions increases the risk of candida, if your partner happens to have a candida infection at the time you have sex then you could get it too(114).
Gastric hydrochloric acid deficiency is widespread and allows yeast to survive passage through the stomach, causing over growth of candidiasis(115)(116).
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(61) Environmental heavy metal exposure and chronic kidney disease in the general population. by Kim NH1, Hyun YY1, Lee KB1, Chang Y2, Rhu S2, Oh KH3, Ahn C3.(PubMed)
(62) Mercury neurotoxicity: mechanisms of blood-brain barrier transport by Aschner M1, Aschner JL.(PubMed)
(63) Mercury binding to the chelation therapy agents DMSA and DMPS and the rational design of custom chelators for mercury by George GN1, Prince RC, Gailer J, Buttigieg GA, Denton MB, Harris HH, Pickering IJ.(PubMed)
(64)Mercury compounds and the immune system: a review by Moszczyński P1.(PubMed)
(65) Immune system alteration in the rat after indirect exposure to methyl mercurychloride or methyl mercury sulfide by Wild LG1, Ortega HG, Lopez M, Salvaggio JE.(PubMed)
(66) [Basic aspects of neuroendocrinoimmunology] [Article in Spanish] BY Correa SG1, Rodríguez-Galán MC, Sotomayor CE.(PubMed)
(67) CD8+ T cells but not polymorphonuclear leukocytes are required to limit chronic oral carriage of Candida albicans in transgenic mice expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by Marquis M1, Lewandowski D, Dugas V, Aumont F, Sénéchal S, Jolicoeur P, Hanna Z, de Repentigny L.(PubMed)
(68) The protective role of immunoglobulins in fungal infections and inflammation by Elluru SR1, Kaveri SV, Bayry J.(PubMed)
(69) Differences in the way a mammalian cell and yeast cells coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progressionIan Conlon and Martin Raff*(Journal of biology)
(70) Antifungal medicationClotrimazole (Canesten) antifungal cream by Bayer AG (AU)
(71) Candidal vulvovaginitis by Wikipedia
(72) Recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Results of a cohort study of sexual transmission and intestinal reservoir by Spinillo A1, Carratta L, Pizzoli G, Lombardi G, Cavanna C, Michelone G, Guaschino S.(PubMed)
(73) Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model by Kumar L1, Chhibber S1, Harjai K1.(PubMed)
(74) [Candida infection in the severely burned patient--a successful treatment concept with liposomal amphotericin B].[Article in German] by Pallua N1, Schneider W.(PubMed)
(75) Heart disease health centre Font size: AAA Share this: Common antibiotic linked with heart deaths By Nicky Broyd WebMD UK Health News Medically Reviewed by Dr Keith David Barnard
(76) FDA: Popular antibiotic can cause fatal heart rhythms By CNN Staff Updated 12:54 PM ET, Wed March 13, 2013
(77) Intermediate phenotypes in patients with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome caused by somatic mosaicism by Hsu AP1, Sowerwine KJ, Lawrence MG, Davis J, Henderson CJ, Zarember KA, Garofalo M, Gallin JI, Kuhns DB, Heller T, Milner JD, Puck JM, Freeman AF, Holland SM.(PubMed)
(78) Use of ruxolitinib to successfully treat chronic mucocutaneous candidiasiscaused by gain-of-function signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) mutation by Higgins E1, Al Shehri T2, McAleer MA3, Conlon N4, Feighery C4, Lilic D5, Irvine AD6.(PubMed)
(79) Gain-of-function mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1): chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis accompanied by enamel defects and delayed dental shedding by Frans G1, Moens L1, Schaballie H2, Van Eyck L3, Borgers H1, Wuyts M1, Dillaerts D1, Vermeulen E4, Dooley J5, Grimbacher B6, Cant A7, Declerck D8, Peumans M8, Renard M9, De Boeck K9, Hoffman I9, François I9, Liston A5, Claessens F10, Bossuyt X1, Meyts I11.(PubMed)
(80) Recurrent Skin and Lung Infections in Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome with Transactivation Domain STAT3 Mutationby Cooper CJ1, Said S1, Hernandez GT1.(PubMed)
(81) Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in APECED or thymoma patients correlates with autoimmunity to Th17-associated cytokines.
Kisand K1, Bøe Wolff AS, Podkrajsek KT, Tserel L, Link M, Kisand KV, Ersvaer E, Perheentupa J, Erichsen MM, Bratanic N, Meloni A, Cetani F, Perniola R, Ergun-Longmire B, Maclaren N, Krohn KJ, Pura M, Schalke B, Ströbel P, Leite MI, Battelino T, Husebye ES, Peterson P, Willcox N, Meager A.(PubMed)
(82) Oral Candida carriage and blood group antigen secretor status.
Ben-Aryeh H1, Blumfield E, Szargel R, Laufer D, Berdicevsky I.(PubMed)
(83)Oral carriage of Candida albicans, ABO blood group and secretor status in healthy subjects.
Burford-Mason AP1, Weber JC, Willoughby JM.(PubMed)(84)The relationship between oral Candida carriage and the secretor status of blood group antigens in saliva.
Shin ES1, Chung SC, Kim YK, Lee SW, Kho HS.(PubMed)
(85)Human food safety and environmental hazards associated with the use of methyltestosterone and other steroids in production of all-male tilapia.
Mlalila N1, Mahika C, Kalombo L, Swai H, Hilonga A(PubMed)
(86)Disturbances in production of progesterone and their implications in plantstudies.
Janeczko A1, Oklestkova J2, Novak O2, Śniegowska-Świerk K3, Snaczke Z3, Pociecha E3.(PubMed)
(87)Effect of progestins on immunity: medroxyprogesterone but not norethisterone or levonorgestrel suppresses the function of T cells and pDCs.
Huijbregts RP1, Michel KG1, Hel Z2.(PubMed)
(88)Effects of amphotericin B gargles on oral colonization of Candida albicans in asthmatic patients on steroid inhalation therapy.
Fukushima C1, Shimoda T, Kawano T, Tomari S, Mitsuta K, Obase Y, Matsuo N, Matsuse H, Kohno S.(PubMed)
(89)Oral candidiasis associated with inhaled corticosteroid use: comparison of fluticasone and beclomethasone.
Fukushima C1, Matsuse H, Tomari S, Obase Y, Miyazaki Y, Shimoda T, Kohno S.(PubMed)
(90)Phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of Candida albicansisolated from oral cavities of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Tsang CS1, Chu FC, Leung WK, Jin LJ, Samaranayake LP, Siu SC.(PubMed)
(91) Hydrolytic enzyme production is associated with Candida albicans biofilm formation from patients with type 1 diabetes.Rajendran R1, Robertson DP, Hodge PJ, Lappin DF, Ramage G.(PubMed)
(92)Role of neutrophils in IL-17-dependent immunity to mucosal candidiasis.
Huppler AR1, Conti HR, Hernández-Santos N, Darville T, Biswas PS, Gaffen SL.(PubMed)
(93)Interleukin-17-induced protein lipocalin 2 is dispensable for immunity to oralcandidiasis.
Ferreira MC1, Whibley N, Mamo AJ, Siebenlist U, Chan YR, Gaffen SL.(PubMed)
(94) A novel mutation in the complement component 3 gene in a patient with selective IgA deficiency.Santos-Valente E1, Reisli I, Artaç H, Ott R, Sanal Ö, Boztug K.(PubMed)
(95) The diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: is endoscopy always necessary
Bianchi Porro G1, Parente F, Cernuschi M.(PubMed)
(96) [Alkaline alteration of metabolism in hronic gastroenteropathy, gastrointestinal autointoxication and constipation].[Article in German]Reinstein H.(PubMed)
(97)A case of hypopituitarism associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis andcandidiasis: lymphocytic hypophysitis or Sheehan's syndrome?Iwaoka T1.(PubMed)
(98) Protective and pathologic immune responses against Candida albicans infection by Ashman RB1.
(99) [Immunosuppressants].[Article in Japanese]Mimori T1.(PubMed)
(100) Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive candidiasis.
(101) Amelioration of oxidative stress and insulin resistance by soy isoflavones (from Glycine max) in ovariectomized Wistar rats fed with high fat diet: The molecular mechanisms.
Sankar P1, Zachariah B2, Vickneshwaran V3, Jacob SE4, Sridhar MG3.(PubMed)
(102) Stress responsive biochemical anabolic/catabolic ratio and telomere length in older adults.
Vasunilashorn S1, Cohen AA.(PubMed)
(103) Antioxidant supplements reduced oxidative stress and stabilized liverfunction tests but did not reduce inflammation in a randomized controlled trial in obese children and adolescents.Murer SB1, Aeberli I, Braegger CP, Gittermann M, Hersberger M, Leonard SW, Taylor AW, Traber MG, Zimmermann MB.(PubMed)
(104) Effects of stress on immune function: the good, the bad, and the beautiful.Dhabhar FS1.(PubMed)
(105) Perceived stress in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.Ehrström S1, Kornfeld D, Rylander E.(PubMed)
(106) Signs of chronic stress in women with recurrent candida vulvovaginitis.Ehrström SM1, Kornfeld D, Thuresson J, Rylander E.(PubMed)
(107) Oral candidiasis and nutritional deficiencies in elderly hospitalised patients.Paillaud E1, Merlier I, Dupeyron C, Scherman E, Poupon J, Bories PN.(PubMed)
(108) Nutritional factors and oral candidosis.
Samaranayake LP (PubMed)
(109) Relative risk of vaginal candidiasis after use of antibiotics compared with antidepressants in women: postmarketing surveillance data in England.Wilton L1, Kollarova M, Heeley E, Shakir S.(PubMed)
(110) Effect of antibiotics on vulvovaginal candidiasis: a MetroNet study.Xu J1, Schwartz K, Bartoces M, Monsur J, Severson RK, Sobel JD.(PubMed)
(111) Quantifying effect of combined oral contraceptive pill on functional ovarian reserve as measured by serum anti-Müllerian hormone and small antral follicle count using three-dimensional ultrasound.Deb S1, Campbell BK, Pincott-Allen C, Clewes JS, Cumberpatch G, Raine-Fenning NJ.(PubMed)
(112)[Oral contraception and carbohydrate metabolism--the physiopathological explanation].[Article in French], Hilal M.(PubMed)
(113) PPARγ ligands switched high fat diet-induced macrophage M2b polarization toward M2a thereby improving intestinal Candida elimination. Lefèvre L1, Galès A, Olagnier D, Bernad J, Perez L, Burcelin R, Valentin A, Auwerx J, Pipy B, Coste A.(PubMed)
(114) The epidemiology of vaginal colonisation with group B streptococci in a sexually transmitted disease clinic.Honig E1, Mouton JW, van der Meijden WI.(PubMed)
(115)Risk factors for Salmonella infection. Loss of gastric acid linked tocandidiasis. Larner AJ.(PubMed)
(116)Influence of gastric colonization with Candida albicans on ulcer healing in rats: effect of ranitidine, aspirin and probiotic therapy. Brzozowski T1, Zwolinska-Wcislo M, Konturek PC, Kwiecien S, Drozdowicz D, Konturek SJ, Stachura J, Budak A, Bogdal J, Pawlik WW, Hahn EG.(PubMed)
(117) Growth limitation in Candida lipolytica cultures and supersynthesis ofmetabolites]. [Article in Russian] Lozinov AB, Finogenova TV, Glazunova LM, Illarionova VI.(PubMed)
(118) Enterococcus faecalis inhibits superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-induced interleukin-8 from human vaginal epithelial cells through tetramic acids. Brosnahan AJ1, Merriman JA, Salgado-Pabón W, Ford B, Schlievert PM.(PubMed)
(119) The Toxic Effects of Yeast OvergrowthPosted by SoundHealth, in Disease
(110) Mercury Poisoning, Candida Yeast, Or Is It Both?
(111) Relation of blood acetaldehyde level to clinical symptoms in the disulfiram-alcohol reaction.
(112)Biofuels. Engineering alcohol tolerance in yeast.Lam FH1, Ghaderi A2, Fink GR3, Stephanopoulos G4.(PubMed)
(113 Cytotoxicity and metabolic stress induced by acetaldehyde in human intestinal LS174T goblet-like cells. Elamin E1, Masclee A2, Troost F2, Dekker J3, Jonkers D2.(PubMed)
(114) Effect of corilagin on membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Li N1, Luo M, Fu YJ, Zu YG, Wang W, Zhang L, Yao LP, Zhao CJ, Sun Y.(PubMed)
(115)A new look at the antibiotic amphotericin B effect on Candida albicans plasma membrane permeability and cell viability functions. Chudzik B1, Koselski M, Czuryło A, Trębacz K, Gagoś M.(PubMed)
(116) New insights into innate immune control of systemic candidiasis. Lionakis MS(PubMed)