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What is Candida Albicans
Candida albicans are members of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that do not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis. Non-albicansCandida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candidaresistance toward antifungal agents.
1. Candida spit test(produced by a multi-million dollar corporation, Global Health Trax Inc.)
If you doctor suspects that you may have Candida, he/she would ask for a Candida saliva or candida spit test. With this test, you are asked to place a glass filled clear water by your bed at night. When you wake in the morning, work up a bit of saliva and spit into it, then check the water every 15 minutes or so for up to one hour.
a) If you have Candida, you will see strings traveling down into the water with the saliva floating on the top, or cloudy saliva sinks to the bottom of the glass, or cloudy specks is suspended in the water.
b) If there is only saliva still floating after at one hour, you have Candida under control.
Unfortunately, according to Vaughter wellness, "One problem with the spit test is that a significant percentage of people who don’t have Candida test “positive”. A much bigger problem is that a significant percentage of people who do have Candida test negative"(11).
2. Medical test
With the medical Candida tests included immunological test of IgG, IgM, IgA, Candida antigen, and immune complexes, you will have to visit the doctor and they will order the tests. The specimens will be sent to a lab and the results sent to the doctor. You will then visit the doctor a second time to get your results. The doctor will recommend a treatment program, if you are tested positively.
a) Candida Immune Complexes test
It is a blood test to determine if you have had an immune response to Candida albicansa, large presence of these antibodies(15) would indicate a Candida overgrowth(12)(13)(14).
b) Combination of IgA, IgG and IgM testsb.1. Immunoglobulin A (IgA)(15)(16)(17)
It is an antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity, which is found in high concentrations in the mucous secretions, including tears, saliva, colostrum and particularly those lining the respiratory passages, gastrointestinal andgenitourinary tract.
b.2. Immunoglobulin IgG(15)(16)(17)
It is a antibody molecules that corresponds to maturation of the antibody response in protecting our body against bacterial and viral infections, found in all body fluids.
b.3. Immunoglobulin IgM(18)(19)
It is a basic antibody that is produced by B cells, the first antibody to appear in response to initial exposure to antigen, found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid.
By analyzing the antibody in the combination results of all 3 tests, your doctor can determine that you have Candidiasis or not.
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(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3) Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicansisolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters.by Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicansby Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistantCandida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed)
(11) Spit Test: Reliable Candida diagnosis?(Vaughter wellness)
(12) Candida parapsilosis-specific monoclonal antibodies and their use for detection of Candida antigens in experimental systemic candidiasis by Wong SF1, Mak JW.(PubMed)
(13) Potential use of a monoclonal antibody for the detection of Candida antigens in an experimental systemic candidiasis model by Wong SF1, Mak JW, Pook CK.(PubMed)
(14) [Biological diagnosis of systemic candidiasis: difficulties and future prospects].[Article in French]
by Anane S1, Khalfallah F.(PubMed)
(15) [Local humoral immunity in vulvovaginal candidiasis].[Article in French] by Amouri I1, Hadrich I, Abbes S, Sellami H, Ayadi A.(PubMed)
(16) [IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses to Candida albicans in serum and vaginal fluid from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis].[Article in Portuguese] by de Carvalho RJ1, Cunha CM, Silva DA, Sopelete MC, Urzedo JE, Moreira TA, Moraes Pde S, Taketomi EA.(PubMed)
(17) IgA and IgG antibodies to Candida albicans in the genital tract secretions of women with or without vaginal candidosis by Gough PM, Warnock DW, Richardson MD, Mansell NJ, King JM.(PubMed)
(18) In situ IgM production and clonal expansion of B-1 cells in peritoneal cavity promote elimination of C. albicans infection in IgH transgenic mice with VH derived from a natural antibody by Tian R1, Fu M, Zhang Z, Ren J, An J, Liu Y, Li W(PubMed)
(19) Efficacy of combination immunotherapy of IgM MAb B6.1 and amphotericin B against disseminated candidiasis by Han Y1.(PubMed)