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Friday, May 27, 2016

Phytochemicals In Foods: The effects of Betanin

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                               Betanin 

Betanin is Phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Chronic myeloid leukemia Cell
In the evaluation of the antiproliferative effects of betanin, a principle betacyanin pigment, isolated from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica on human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line (K562) showed that dose and time dependent decrease in the proliferation of K562 cells treated with betanin with an IC(50) of 40 microM. Further studies involving scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the apoptotic characteristics such as chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing. Agarose electrophoresis of genomic DNA of cells treated with betanin showed fragmentation pattern typical for apoptotic cells, according to "Betanin a betacyanin pigment purified from fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica induces apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia Cell line-K562" by Sreekanth D, Arunasree MK, Roy KR, Chandramohan Reddy T, Reddy GV, Reddanna P.(1)

2. Neutrophil oxidative metabolism, DNA damage and apoptosis
In the evaluation of the effect of betanin, one of the beetroot major components, on ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human resting and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate polymorphonuclear neutrophils, one of the key elements of the inflammatory response, indicate that betanin may be responsible for the effect of beetroot products on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and its consequences, DNA damage and apoptosis. The dose and time dependent effects on these processes require further studies, according to "The Beetroot Component Betanin Modulates ROS Production, DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils" by Zielińska-Przyjemska M, Olejnik A, Kostrzewa A, Luczak M, Jagodziński PP, Baer-Dubowska W.(2)

3. Breast cancer
In the investigation of the effect of a wide range of dietary phytochemicals on the activity and expression of DNMTs in human breast cancer MCF7 cell line and their effect on DNA and histone H3 methylation, found that all phytochemicals inhibited the DNA methyltransferase activity with betanin being the weakest while rosmarinic and ellagic acids were the most potent modulators (up to 88% inhibition), according to "The effect of dietary polyphenols on the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells" by Paluszczak J, Krajka-Kuźniak V, Baer-Dubowska W.(3)

4. Low-density lipoproteins
In the study of the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the presence of nitrite, now considered a key step in the pathophysiology of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, showed that betanin, a phytochemical of the betalain class, inhibits the production of lipid hydroperoxides in human LDL submitted to a MPO/nitrite-induced oxidation. Kinetic measurements including time-course of particle oxidation and betanin consumption, either in the presence or in the absence of nitrite, suggest that the antioxidant effect is possibly the result of various actions. Betanin scavenges the initiator radical nitrogen dioxide and can also act as a lipoperoxyl radical-scavenger, according to "Betanin inhibits the myeloperoxidase/nitrite-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins" by Allegra M, Tesoriere L, Livrea MA.(4)

5. Antioxidants
In the study of the pH-dependent free radical-scavenging activity of betanin in the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, suggest that the exceptionally high antioxidant activity of betanin is associated with an increasing of its H-donation and electron-donation ability when going from cationic state to mono-, di- and tri-deprotonated states present at basic solutions, according to "Betanin, the main pigment of red beet: molecular origin of its exceptionally high free radical-scavenging activity" by Gliszczyńska-Swigło A, Szymusiak H, Malinowska P.(5)

6. Anti cancers
In the evaluation for betacyanins, anthocyanins, pure betanin, bixin, lycopene, chlorophyll, beta-carotene, and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were isolated from Beta vulgaris, Bixa orellana,Lycopersicum esculentum, Spinacia oleracea, Daucus carrota, and Prunus cerasus, relative potencies against cyclooxygenase enzymes and tumor cell growth inhibition by using MCF-7 (breast), HCT-116 (colon), AGS (stomach), CNS (central nervous system), and NCI-H460 (lung) tumor cell lines, found that all pigments tested gave COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition and showed a dose-dependent growth inhibition against breast, colon, stomach, central nervous system, and lung tumor cells, respectively. The mixtures of these pigments were also evaluated for their synergistic effects and chemical interactions at various concentrations. The mixture of anthocyanin and betanin negated their efficacy in the cell growth inhibitory assay and did not enhance the COX enzyme inhibitory activity. This is the first report of a comparative evaluation and the impact on biological activities of these pigments alone and in combination, according to "Relative inhibition of lipid peroxidation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, and human tumor cell proliferation by natural food colors" by Reddy MK, Alexander-Lindo RL, Nair MG.(6)

7. Myeloperoxidase and hypochlorous acid
In the evaluation of Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the most powerful oxidant produced by human neutrophils and contribution to the damage caused by these inflammatory cells, produced from H2O2 and chloride by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), found that at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C. Formation of ferric (native) MPO from compound II occurs with a second-order rate constant of (1.1+/-0.1) x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) (betanin) and (2.9+/-0.1) x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) (indicaxanthin), respectively. In addition, both betalains can effectively scavenge hypochlorous acid with determined rates of (1.8+/-0.2) x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) (betanin) and (7.7+/-0.1) x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) (indicaxanthin) at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C., according to "Mechanism of interaction of betanin and indicaxanthin with human myeloperoxidase and hypochlorous acid" by Allegra M, Furtmüller PG, Jantschko W, Zederbauer M, Tesoriere L, Livrea MA, Obinger C.(7)

8. Chemoprevention of lung and skin cancer
In the study of the in vitro inhibitory effect of Beta vulgaris (beet) root extract on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) induction using Raji cells revealed a high order of activity compared to capsanthin, cranberry, red onion skin and short and long red bell peppers, indicated that an in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity evaluation against the mice skin and lung bioassays also revealed a significant tumor inhibitory effect. The combined findings suggest that beetroot ingestion can be one of the useful means to prevent cancer, according to "Chemoprevention of lung and skin cancer by Beta vulgaris (beet) root extract" by Kapadia GJ, Tokuda H, Konoshima T, Nishino H.(8)

9. Healthy additives
In a short-term bioassay was used to determine the ability of red-beet betalain pigments to initiate or promote hepatocarcinogenesis in rat liver, found that Comparison of the results obtained for the experimental groups with those for positive and negative control groups indicated that the betacyanin pigments tested in this assay did not initiate or promote hepatocarcinogenesis in rat liver. These findings provide further evidence that betalain colourants may be viable alternatives for synthetic dyes currently used as food additives, according to "Inability of red beet betalain pigments to initiate or promote hepatocarcinogenesis" by Schwartz SJ, von Elbe JH, Pariza MW, Goldsworthy T, Pitot HC.(9)


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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17482444
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22076941
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19840838
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19840838
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17071510
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16277432
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15913556
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8620443
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6140212

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