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Friday, May 27, 2016

Phytochemicals In Foods: The effects of Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide)


Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine-S-oxide) is a phytochemical compound sulfoxide,. a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, belonging to the class of sulfur compounds, found abundantly in fresh garlic and onion.

Health Benefits
1. Antioxidant properties
In the investigation of the antioxidant properties of garlic compounds representing the four main chemical classes, alliin, allyl cysteine, allyl disulfide, and allicin, prepared by chemical synthesis or purification, showed that Alliin scavenged superoxide, while allyl cysteine and allyl disulfide did not react with superoxide. Allicin suppressed the formation of superoxide by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, probably via a thiol exchange mechanism. Alliin, allyl cysteine, and allyl disulfide all scavenged hydroxyl radicals; the rate constants calculated based on deoxyribose competitive assay were 1.4-1.7 x 10(10), 2.1-2.2 x 10(9), and 0.7-1.5 x 10(10) M (1) second(1), respectively, according to "The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide" by Chung LY.(1)

2. Anti diabetes
In comparison of the production and therapeutic efficiency of alliin extracted from garlic leaves of plants grown under ex situ and in situ conditions, found that Alliinproduction noted ~50% enhancement in leaves from plants grown under in situ conditions. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol in diabetic rats treated with alliin produced from in situ grown plants noted significant reduction of ~54%, 15%, 14%, 20%, 24%, and 15%, while 35%, 14%, 10%, 12%, 17% and 11% reduction was noted in diabetic rats treated with alliin produced from ex situ grown plants in comparison with those administered with distilled water. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol did not show any significant change. Leaf extract of plants lowered serum enzyme levels (alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase) toward the norm better than glibenclamide, according to "Alliin obtained from leaf extract of garlic grown under in situ conditions possess higher therapeutic potency as analyzed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats" by Nasim SA, Dhir B, Kapoor R, Fatima S, Mahmooduzzafar, Mujib A.(2)

3. Antibacterial activity
In the investigation of an antimicrobial sulfur compound newly isolated from heated garlic extract, showed that the compound was CH₂=CH-CH₂-S-S-S-CH₂-CH(NH₂)COOH, 3-(allyltrisulfanyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid, a derivative of cysteine, presumably derived from alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide). This novel compound has comparatively potent anti-yeast activity and rather weak antibacterial activity, similar to other antimicrobial compounds in garlic, according to "3-(allyltrisulfanyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid, a novel nonvolatile water-soluble antimicrobial sulfur compound in heated garlic" by Kang SS, Lim DR, Kyung KH.(3)

4. Ovarian cancer
In the investigation of a chemical conjugate between daidzein and the garlic enzyme alliinase and its effect on human ovarian cancer cells, suggest that the targeted alliinase conjugates in the presence of alliin, generated therapeutically effective levels of allicin which were capable of suppressing tumor progression of intraperitoneal ovarian cancer in an animal model, according to "Conjugates of daidzein-alliinase as a targeted pro-drug enzyme system against ovarian carcinoma" by Appel E, Rabinkov A, Neeman M, Kohen F, Mirelman D.(4)

5. Mitochondrial dysfunction
In the evaluation of the preventive role of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (SACS) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats, showed that oral administration of SACS for a period of 35 days to the normal control rats did not show any significant effect. Histopathological studies of the myocardial tissue showed a protective role of SACS in the myocardial-infarcted rats. The effect at a dose of SACS 80 mg/kg was more effective than the dose 40 mg/kg. The results of the study conclude that SACS protect the mitochondria of the ISO-induced myocardial-infarcted rats, according to 'Preventive effect of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (Alliin) on mitochondrial dysfunction in normal and isoproterenol induced cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats: a histopathological study" by Sangeetha T, Darlin Quine S.(5)

6. Anti-fungal efficacy
In the evaluation of the in vitro anti-fungal efficacy of the active principle of garlic, pure allicin and polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with allicin.
found that that pure allicin has stronger in vitro anti-fungal efficacy to six tested fungi than alliinase and alliin. Moreover, it has improved significantly after pure allicin being wrapped into PBCA NP, which may be due to the NP's good prolonged release effect and nano-scale dimensions, according to "Anti-fungal efficacy of polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles of allicin and comparison with pure allicin" by Luo DQ, Guo JH, Wang FJ, Jin ZX, Cheng XL, Zhu JC, Peng CQ, Zhang C.(6)

7. Antithrombotic and anticancer effects
In the review of modern scientific research has revealed that the wide variety of dietary and medicinal functions of garlic can be attributed to the sulfur compounds present in or generated from garlic, indicated that although garlic produces more than 20 kinds of sulfide compounds from a few sulfur-containing amino acids, their functions are different from one another; e.g., allicin, methyl allyl trisulfide, and diallyl trisulfide have antibacterial, antithrombotic, and anticancer activities, respectively, according to "Antithrombotic and anticancer effects of garlic-derived sulfur compounds: a review" by Ariga T, Seki T. (7)

8. Anti-angiogenesis
In the demonstartion of dose-dependent of Alliin, a compound derived from garlic, in inhibition of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2)-induced human endothelial cell (EC) tube formation and angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, showed that these data indicated a synergistic effect of antioxidants on the anti-angiogenesis and anticancer efficacy of alliin. These data also suggest the implication of cellular NO and p53 as mediators of anti-angiogenesis and anticancer effects of alliin, according to "Anti-angiogenesis efficacy of the garlic ingredient alliin and antioxidants: role of nitric oxide and p53" by Mousa AS, Mousa SA.(8)

9. Serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness
in the testing the effect of dried garlic (Allium sativum) powder on blood lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in a 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Seventy-five healthy, normo-lipidaemic volunteers (men and women aged 40-60 years) were assigned to dried garlic powder tablets (10.8 mg alliin (3-(2-propenylsulfinyl)-L-alanine)/d, corresponding to about three garlic cloves) or placebo, showed that garlic powder was associated with a near-significant decrease (12 %) in triacylglycerol concentration (P=0.07). In conclusion, garlic powder tablets have no clinically relevant lipid-lowering and blood pressure-lowering effects in middle-aged, normo-lipidaemic individuals. The putative anti-atherosclerotic effect of garlic may be linked to risk markers other than blood lipids, according to "Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) powder tablets on serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normo-lipidaemic volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial" by Turner B, Mølgaard C, Marckmann P.(9)

10. Hepatoprotective effect
In the study of the interaction of the non-protein amino acid alliin with the enzyme alliinase (alliin lyase, EC 4.4.1.4). D-Galactosamine highly sensitizes the host response of the experimental animal to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) and causes fulminant hepatitis within 8h after administration, indicated that In D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-induced hepatitis rats, a significant increase of lipid peroxidation and decreased liver antioxidant enzyme levels are observed. Pretreatment with allicin, the active component of freshly crushed garlic cloves, prevented these alterations, according to "Hepatoprotective effect of allicin on tissue defense system in galactosamine/endotoxin challenged rats" by Vimal V, Devaki T.(10)

11. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16822206
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21391887
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20828317
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20678009
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19262997
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19105898
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16823096
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16351512
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15522140
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14698523

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