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What is Candida Albicans
Candida albicans are members of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that do not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis. Non-albicansCandida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candidaresistance toward antifungal agents.
Treatments and controllings
C. The Herbs
Berberis is a genus of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1-5 m tall with thorny shoots, belonging to the family Berberidaceae, native to the temperate and subtropical regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and South America. Europe has a few species, and North America only two. The stem, root bark, and fruit of barberry contain alkaloids and berberine have been used in traditional medicine or dietary supplement, to treat fungal infections(270), candida albicans(270), yeast(271), parasites, and bacterial/viral infections(270).
Berberine may also enhance the immune system through its antioxidant activity(272) by preventing candida yeasts from producing lipase(273)(274), an enzyme used to help them in colonization(274) and induced infection(274).
Clover used as a spice in cuisines all over the world, is the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the Syzygium, belonging to the family Myrtaceae, native to Indonesia. Tellimagrandin II, in clover oil exhibited significantly anti-herpesvirus(275) and anti-oxidant(275)(276) properties and antiseptic property through phytochemical eugenol(277) used in dentistry to relieve pain(277), prevent bacterial infection(278) and boost immune system(279).
3. Goldenseal((Hydrastis Canadensis)
Goldenseal is a perennial herb in the species of Hydrastis canadensis, belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and northeastern United States, used widely in traditional medicine to treat functional disorders of gastrointestine(280), including atonic dyspepsia, chronic constipation, liver toxicity(281), etc. Berberine, a compound found in goldenseal has demonstrated significant anti-fungal activity(282)(283)(284) by preventing candida yeasts from producing lipase, an enzyme involved in colonization.
4. Oregano(Origanum vulgare) Oil
Oregano is a common species of Origanum, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, native to warm-temperate western and southwestern Eurasia and theMediterranean region. Carvacrol, a monoterpenoid phenol phytochemical found in oregano oil inhibited the growth of several bacteria strains(285), including candida albicans due to its antimicrobial properties that disrupt the bacteria membrane(286).
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of trees from the genus Cinnamomum, belonging to the family Lauraceae, used in traditional medicine to treat digestive system disorder(287)(289), insulin sensitive(288)(290) and enhance the immune system in regulated cells growth due to its antioxidant activity(290). The cinnamon essential oil has antimicrobial properties(291)(292), which can prevent, limit or destroy the fungal overgrowth(293).
Allspice also called Jamaica pepper is a spice of dried unripe fruit of Pimenta dioica, belonging to the family Myrtaceae, native to the southern Mexico and Central America. It has been used in folk medicine in relieving indigestion and gas(294) and as a deodorant. Phenylpropene found in allspice volatile oils has shown to exhibit an antimicrobial property(295), including candida albicans(296)
7. Lavender(Lavandula angustifolia)
The lavender is a genus Lavandula of flowering plants in the mint family Lamiaceae, originated in Asia, used in herbal medicine to treat microbial infection(297) for the skin and reduce inflammation(298)(299). Its essential oil components linalool and linalyl acetate showed both fungistatic and fungicidal activity(300)(301) against C. albicans strains in reducing fungal progression and the spread of infection in host tissues(301).
Chamomile is a common name for several daisy-like plants, genus Matricaria belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Europe and western Asia used in traditional medicine to aid sleep(302), treat diarrhea(303) and reduce oxidative stress(304). Chamomile besides containing high amount of flavonoids is best known for its antioxidant(303), such as anti septic and anti biotic properties against virus bacteria invasion(305)(306(307)) including candida ablicans(308).
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(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3) Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicansisolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters.by Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicansby Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistantCandida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed)
(270) Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts and of berberine isolated from Berberis heterophylla by Freile ML1, Giannini F, Pucci G, Sturniolo A, Rodero L, Pucci O, Balzareti V, Enriz RD.(PubMed)
(271) Berberis aetnensis C. Presl. extracts: antimicrobial properties and interaction with ciprofloxacin. Musumeci R1, Speciale A, Costanzo R, Annino A, Ragusa S, Rapisarda A, Pappalardo MS, Iauk L.(PubMed)
(272) In vitro biological assessment of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine: antioxidants, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-diabetic and anticancer effects. Abd El-Wahab AE, Ghareeb DA1, Sarhan EE, Abu-Serie MM, El Demellawy MA.(PubMed)
(273) Inhibition of biofilm formation and lipase in Candida albicans by culture filtrate of Staphylococcus epidermidis in vitro. Bhattacharyya S1, Gupta P2, Banerjee G2, Jain A2, Singh M2.(PubMed)
(274) Differential Candida albicans lipase gene expression during alimentary tract colonization and infection. Schofield DA1, Westwater C, Warner T, Balish E.(PubMed)
(275) Medicinal Plants in Australia Volume 4: An Antipodean Apothecary
(2377) Oil of clover(Wikipedia)
(278) Anti-virulence potential of eugenyl acetate against pathogenic bacteria of medical importance by Musthafa KS1, Voravuthikunchai SP.(PubMed)
(279) Immunomodulatory activity of geranial, geranial acetate, gingerol, and eugenol essential oils: evidence for humoral and cell-mediated responses. Farhath S1, Vijaya P1, Vimal M2.(PubMed)
(280) Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni by Cwikla C1, Schmidt K, Matthias A, Bone KM, Lehmann R, Tiralongo E.(PubMed)
(281) Protective effects of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through inhibition of CYP2E1 in ratsby Yamaura K1, Shimada M, Nakayama N, Ueno K.(PubMed)
(282) In vitro antifungal activity of the berberine and its synergism with fluconazole by Iwazaki RS1, Endo EH, Ueda-Nakamura T, Nakamura CV, Garcia LB, Filho BP.(PubMed)
(283) Synthesis of 13-(substituted benzyl) berberine and berberrubine derivatives as antifungal agentsby Park KD1, Lee JH, Kim SH, Kang TH, Moon JS, Kim SU.(PubMed)
(284) Molecular mechanisms of action of herbal antifungal alkaloid berberine, in Candida albicansby Dhamgaye S1, Devaux F2, Vandeputte P3, Khandelwal NK4, Sanglard D3, Mukhopadhyay G5, Prasad R4.(PubMed)
(285) Effect of two monoterpene phenols on antioxidant defense system in Candida albicansby Khan A1, Ahmad A2, Ahmad Khan L3, Padoa CJ4, van Vuuren S5, Manzoor N6.(PubMed)
(286) Fungicidal activity of thymol and carvacrol by disrupting ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane integrity against Candidaby Ahmad A1, Khan A, Akhtar F, Yousuf S, Xess I, Khan LA, Manzoor N.(PubMed)
(287) Gastroprotective, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of Oleum cinnamomi on ethanol induced damageby Ozbayer C1, Kurt H, Ozdemir Z, Tuncel T, Moheb Saadat S, Burukoglu D, Senturk H, Degirmenci I, Gunes HV.(PubMed)
(288) Cinnamon may have therapeutic benefits on lipid profile, liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patientsby Askari F1, Rashidkhani B2, Hekmatdoost A3.(PubMed)
(289) Regular ingestion of cinnamomi cortex pulveratus offers gastroprotective activity in miceby Tankam JM1, Sawada Y, Ito M.(PubMed)
(290) An overview on chemical composition, bioactivity and processing of leaves of Cinnamomum tamalaby Sharma V1, Rao LJ.(PubMed)
(291) Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteriaby Mith H1, Duré R2, Delcenserie V2, Zhiri A3, Daube G2, Clinquart A2.(PubMed)
(292) The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plantsby Miller AB1, Cates RG, Lawrence M, Soria JA, Espinoza LV, Martinez JV, Arbizú DA.(PubMed)
(293) Anticandidal efficacy of cinnamon oil against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosisby Pires RH1, Montanari LB, Martins CH, Zaia JE, Almeida AM, Matsumoto MT, Mendes-Giannini MJ.(PubMed)
(294) Properties and Uses for Herbs and Spices
(295) Fumigant activity of (E)-anethole identified in Illicium verum fruit against Blattella germanica by Chang KS1, Ahn YJ.(PubMed)
(296) Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogensby Botelho MA1, Nogueira NA, Bastos GM, Fonseca SG, Lemos TL, Matos FJ, Montenegro D, Heukelbach J, Rao VS, Brito GA.(PubMed)
(297) Hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) - their chemical composition as well as aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant propertiesby Prusinowska R1, Śmigielski K, Stobiecka A, Kunicka-Styczyńska A.(PubMed)
(298) Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romaniaby Spiridon I1, Colceru S, Anghel N, Teaca CA, Bodirlau R, Armatu A.(PubMed)
(299) Lavender essential oil inhalation suppresses allergic airway inflammation and mucous cell hyperplasia in a murine model of asthmaby Ueno-Iio T1, Shibakura M2, Yokota K1, Aoe M1, Hyoda T1, Shinohata R1, Kanehiro A3, Tanimoto M3, Kataoka M1.(PubMed)
(300) Lavandula luisieri essential oil as a source of antifungal drugsby Zuzarte M1, Gonçalves MJ, Cruz MT, Cavaleiro C, Canhoto J, Vaz S, Pinto E, Salgueiro L.(PubMed)
(301) Antifungal activity of phenolic-rich Lavandula multifida L. essential oil by Zuzarte M1, Vale-Silva L, Gonçalves MJ, Cavaleiro C, Vaz S, Canhoto J, Pinto E, Salgueiro L.(PubMed)
(302) Hypnotic activities of chamomile and passiflora extracts in sleep-disturbed ratsby Shinomiya K1, Inoue T, Utsu Y, Tokunaga S, Masuoka T, Ohmori A, Kamei C.(PubMed)
(303) Antidiarrheal and antioxidant activities of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract in ratsby Sebai H1, Jabri MA2, Souli A3, Rtibi K3, Selmi S3, Tebourbi O4, El-Benna J5, Sakly M4.
(304) Induction of heme oxygenase-1 by chamomile protects murine macrophages against oxidative stressby Bhaskaran N1, Shukla S, Kanwal R, Srivastava JK, Gupta S.(PubMed)
(305) Study of antimicrobial activity of chamomile oilby Aggag ME, Yousef RT.(PubMed)
(306) Phenolic acids profile, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of chamomile, common yarrow and immortelle (Asteraceae)by Mekinić IG, Skroza D, Ljubenkov I, Krstulović L, Možina SS, Katalinić V.(PubMed)
(307) A novel colorimetric broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics and essential oils against Helicobacter pyloriby Weseler A1, Geiss HK, Saller R, Reichling J.(PubMed)
(308) All-natural composite wound dressing films of essential oils encapsulated in sodium alginate with antimicrobial propertiesby Liakos I1, Rizzello L2, Scurr DJ3, Pompa PP2, Bayer IS4, Athanassiou A5.(PubMed)