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Sunday, May 29, 2016

Phytochemicals In Foods: The effects of Indicaxanthin

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                          Indicaxanthin

Indicaxanthin is Phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Motility disorders
In the study of study of the mechanism of action underlying the observed response of spasmolytic effects on the intestinal contractility, found that indicaxanthin reduces the contractility of ileal longitudinal muscle by inhibition of PDEs and increase of cAMP concentration and raise the possibility of using indicaxanthin in the treatment of motility disorders, such as abdominal cramps, according to "Inhibitory effects of indicaxanthin on mouse ileal contractility: analysis of the mechanism of action" by Baldassano S, Rotondo A, Serio R, Livrea MA, Tesoriere L, Mulè F.(1)

2. Myeloperoxidase and hypochlorous acid
In the evaluation of Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the most powerful oxidant produced by human neutrophils and contribution to the damage caused by these inflammatory cells, produced from H2O2 and chloride by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), found that at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C. Formation of ferric (native) MPO from compound II occurs with a second-order rate constant of (1.1+/-0.1) x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) (betanin) and (2.9+/-0.1) x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) (indicaxanthin), respectively. In addition, both betalains can effectively scavenge hypochlorous acid with determined rates of (1.8+/-0.2) x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) (betanin) and (7.7+/-0.1) x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) (indicaxanthin) at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C., according to "Mechanism of interaction of betanin and indicaxanthin with human myeloperoxidase and hypochlorous acid" by Allegra M, Furtmüller PG, Jantschko W, Zederbauer M, Tesoriere L, Livrea MA, Obinger C.(2)

3. Lipoperoxyl radical-scavenging activity
In the investigation of the reaction of the phytochemical indicaxanthin with lipoperoxyl radicals generated in methyl linoleate methanol solution by 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), and in aqueous soybean phosphatidylcholine unilamellar liposomes by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride, found that Indicaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol, simultaneously incorporated in liposomes, exhibited cooperative antioxidant effects and reciprocal protective interactions. The extent of synergism decreased at the increase of the ratio (indicaxanthin)/(alpha-tocopherol), according to "Kinetics of the lipoperoxyl radical-scavenging activity of indicaxanthin in solution and unilamellar liposomes" by Tesoriere L, Allegra M, Butera D, Gentile C, Livrea MA.(3)

4. Cytoprotective effects
In the abservation of the dietary indicaxanthin for its protective effects on human beta-thalassemic RBCs indicated that indicaxanthin can be incorporated into the redox machinery of beta-thalassemic RBC and defend the cell from oxidation, possibly interfering with perferryl-Hb, a reactive intermediate in the hydroperoxide-dependent Hb degradation. Opportunities of therapeutic interest for beta-thalassemia may be considered, according to 'Cytoprotective effects of the antioxidant phytochemical indicaxanthin in beta-thalassemia red blood cells"by Tesoriere L, Allegra M, Butera D, Gentile C, Livrea MA.(4)

5. Antioxidant activitiesIn the study of the antioxidant effects of Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) produce yellow, red, and white fruits, due to the combination of two betalain pigments, the purple-red betanin and the yellow-orange indicaxanthin, found that The extract from the white fruit showed the highest protection in all models of lipid oxidation. Purified betanin and indicaxanthin were more effective than Trolox at scavenging the [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt cation radical. Cyclic voltammetric measurements show two anodic waves for betanin and indicaxanthin, and differential pulse voltammetry shows three anodic waves for betanin, with calculated peak potentials of 404, 616, and 998 mV, and two anodic waves for indicaxanthin, with peak potentials of 611 and 895 mV, according to 'Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin" by Butera D, Tesoriere L, Di Gaudio F, Bongiorno A, Allegra M, Pintaudi AM, Kohen R, Livrea MA.(5)

6. Antispasmodic effects
In the investigation of the effects of a hydrophilic extract from Opuntia ficus indica fruit pulp (cactus fruit extract, CFE) on the motility of mouse ileum, using an organ bath technique and researched the extract component(s) responsible, found that CFE is able to exert direct antispasmodic effects on the intestinal motility. The CFE inhibitory effects do not involve potassium channels or voltage-dependent calcium channels but rather pathways of calcium intracellular release. The fruit pigment indicaxanthin appears to be the main component responsible for the CFE-induced effects, according to "Inhibition of the mechanical activity of mouse ileum by cactus pear (Opuntia Ficus Indica, L, Mill.) fruit extract and its pigment indicaxanthin" by Baldassano S, Tesoriere L, Rotondo A, Serio R, Livrea MA, Mulè F.(6)

7. Etc.


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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21371457
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15913556
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17364949
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16984002
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12405794
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20518499

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