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What is Candida Albicans
Candida albicans are members of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that do not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis. Non-albicansCandida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candidaresistance toward antifungal agents.
Depending to types and places of infection, you may experience some of the below symptoms.
1. Salivary changes included low hydration level, high saliva viscosity, below-average pH, reduced salivary flow and low saliva buffer capacity, according to "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy(20).
2. Persistence drowsiness
3. Lack of coordination
5. Mood swing
6. Loss of balance
8. Mucus in stool
9. Betching and wind
10. Bad breath
11. Dry mouth
12. Postnasal drop
13. Nasal itch and/or congestion
14. Nervous irritability
15. Dry mouth or throat
16. Ear sensitive or fluid in ear
17. Heartburn and indigestion
18. Symptoms worse in damp day
The Risk Factors
Human aging is a biological process. As we age, our immune system is no longer function properly(24)(25) in regulating the balance of microorganisms in the body(22) due to free radicals accumulated(23) over the year. Through weakening the toll-like receptors which plays an important role in the innate immune system. and natural killer cell may induce the onset or progression ofcandidiasis(21).
2. Chronic illness
Chronic illness, such as immunodeficiency(29), chronic liver diseases(30), diabetes(31)(32)(34), obesity(33)(34) weakens the defense system in regulating the microorganism(26)(27) in the digestive track, leading to over growth of candida(28).
3. Use of catheters(34)
Catheters is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel allowing drainage, administration of fluids or gases, or access by surgical instruments. Use of catheter might sometime provides the candida(35)(36)with a deeper, easy for organisms to get to site foe easy multiplying
4. Inhalant medicine
Repeated use of the steroid inhalant such as residual inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) on the oral mucosa can result in the development of fungal overgrowth(37)(38) induced candidiasis(39).
Candidiasis is also seen in people who have undergone radiotherapy treatment for cancer or as a side effect of certain types of medication(40)(41)(42).
6. Low level of stomach acids
Low level of stomach acids increase the presence of undigested food in the small intestine and colon, causing an overgrowth of harmful bacteria and microorganism, leading to candida(43)(44).
Studies have shown that pregnant women are more susceptible to candida infections(45)(46) than any other time in their lives, due to weakened immune system and changes in hormonal status(47), especially in the second trimester(48).
8. Use of contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy
Use of contraceptive pill(49)(50) or hormone replacement therapy(53)(54) promotes the surge in hormones in contributing over growth of candida, resulting in unpleasant symptoms that come along with it.
9. Drug used for controlling intestinal flora
Antibiotic drugs induced antibiotic-induced changes in the bacterial microbiome may lead to C. albicans colonization(55)and exhibit severely impairing digestion(56)(57) and assimilation of nutrients(58) induced fatigue, aggression, depression and toxicity.
9. Women who have sex with women
According to Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, University College, the odds of candidiasis are proportionally associated to with sexual activity between women(51)
as bacterial vaginosis (BV) may be sexually transmitted between women(52).
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(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3) Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicansisolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters.by Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicansby Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistantCandida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed)
(20) Salivary changes related to systemic diseases in the edentulous patients by Preoteasa E1, Tâncu A1, Iosif L1, Melescanu Imre M1, Murariu-Măgureanu C1, Preoteasa C2.(PubMed)
(21) Age-related alteration of expression and function of TLRs and NK activity in oral candidiasis by Oouchi M1, Hasebe A, Hata H, Segawa T, Yamazaki Y, Yosida Y, Kitagawa Y, Shibata KI.(PubMed)
(22) Treatment of invasive candidiasis in the elderly: a review by Flevari A1, Theodorakopoulou M, Velegraki A, Armaganidis A, Dimopoulos G.(PubMed)
(23) Enzymatic dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I of the Candida albicans goa1 mutant is associated with increased reactive oxidants and cell death by Li D1, Chen H, Florentino A, Alex D, Sikorski P, Fonzi WA, Calderone R.(PubMed)
(24) The role of nutrition in enhancing immunity in aging by Pae M1, Meydani SN, Wu D.(PubMed)
(25) As we age: Does slippage of quality control in the immune system lead to collateral damage? by Müller L1, Pawelec G2.(PubMed)
(26)The prevalence of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection compared with serious bacterial illness in hospitalized neonates by Caviness AC1, Demmler GJ,Almendarez Y, Selwyn BJ.(PubMed)
(27) Rhinovirus infection associated with serious illness among pediatric patients by McMillan JA1, Weiner LB, Higgins AM, Macknight K.(PubMed)
(28) Burden of Fungal Disease - Ireland by Dorgan E1, Denning DW2, McMullan R3.(PubMed)
(29) Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy and other primary immunodeficiency diseases help to resolve the nature of protective immunity against chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis by Kisand K1, Peterson P.(PubMed)
(30) Candidiasis and other oral mucosal lesions during and after interferon therapy for HCV-related chronic liver diseases by Nagao Y1, Hashimoto K, Sata M.(PubMed)
(31) Oral candidiasis in patients with diabetes mellitus: a thorough analysis by Bartholomew GA1, Rodu B, Bell DS.(PubMed)
(32) Prevalence of Candida in the oral cavity of diabetic subjects by Kumar BV1, Padshetty NS, Bai KY, Rao MS.(PubMed)
(33) Candida albicans colonization on an intragastric balloon by Kotzampassi K1, Vasilaki O, Stefanidou C, Grosomanidis V.(PubMed)
(34) Incidence of Candida species isolated from human skin and nails: a survey by Jautová J1, Virágová S, Ondrasovic M, Holoda E.(PubMed)
(35) Pulmonary vascular candidiasis and use of central venous catheters in neonates by Knox WF, Hooton VN, Barson AJ.(PubMed)
(36) [Could antifungal lock be useful in the management of candidiasis linked withcatheters?].[Article in French] by Cateau E1, Rodier MH, Imbert C.(PubMed)
(37) Posterior pharyngeal candidiasis in the absence of clinically overt oral involvement: a cross-sectional study by Glavey SV1, Keane N, Power M, O'Regan AW.(PubMed)
(38) Once-daily fluticasone furoate is efficacious in patients with symptomatic asthma on low-dose inhaled corticosteroids by Bleecker ER1, Bateman ED, Busse WW, Woodcock A, Frith L, House KW, Jacques L, Davis AM, Haumann B, Lötvall J.(PubMed)
(39) Influence of dentures on residual inhaled corticosteroids in the mouths of elderly asthma patients by Ohbayashi H1, Adachi M.(PubMed)
(40) [Oropharyngeal candidiasis and radiotherapy].
[Article in French] by Pinel B1, Cassou-Mounat T, Bensadoun RJ.(PubMed)
(41) Oral pseudomembranous candidiasis, herpes simplex virus-1 infection, and oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwash by Nicolatou-Galitis O1, Dardoufas K, Markoulatos P, Sotiropoulou-Lontou A, Kyprianou K, Kolitsi G, Pissakas G, Skarleas C, Kouloulias V, Papanicolaou V, Legakis NJ, Velegraki A.(PubMed)
(42) Risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients who receive radiation therapy for malignant conditions of the head and neck by Epstein JB1, Freilich MM, Le ND.(PubMed)
(43) Low stomach acid can cause Candida by Dr. D ND
(44) Candida and stomach acid connection by Cure zone
(45) Topical treatment for vaginal candidiasis (thrush) in pregnancy by Young GL1, Jewell D.(PubMed)
(46) Treatment of vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy with a single clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal pessary by Lindeque BG, van Niekerk WA.(PubMed)
(47) Study results on the use of different therapies for the treatment of vaginitis in hospitalised pregnant women by Novakov Mikić A1, Stojic S.(PubMed)
(48) Vulvovaginitis candidiasis recurrence during pregnancy by Fardiazar Z1, Ronaci F, Torab R, Goldust M.(PubMed)
(49) The epidemiology of vulvovaginal candidiasis among university studentsby Geiger AM1, Foxman B, Gillespie BW.(PubMed)
(50) Risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis: a case-control study among university students by Geiger AM1, Foxman B.(PubMed)
(51) Vulvovaginal candidiasis in women who have sex with women by Bailey JV1, Benato R, Owen C, Kavanagh J.(PubMed)
(52) Bacterial vaginosis in lesbians and bisexual women by Bailey JV1, Farquhar C, Owen C.(PubMed)