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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
What is Candida Albicans
Candida albicans are members of a large group of micro organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within the membranes, including yeast(2)(3), fungi(4)(5)(6), and mold(6) that live among the gut flora in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. In fact, under normal circumstances, Candida albicans that do not cause harmful effects, but overgrowth results in candidiasis. Non-albicansCandida (NAC) species cause 35-65% of all candidaemias in the general patient population(1). According to joint study, in many cases, biofilm(microorganisms with cells stick to each other on a surface) formation(7) gene mutations(8) and overexpression of genes(9)(10) are often associated with increased Candidaresistance toward antifungal agents.
Some life threatening implication of candida overgrowth
1. Toxic shock syndrome(TSS)
Candida overgrowth can cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS)(157), a potentially fatal illness by producing toxins to suppress the immune system(158)(159), leading to infection cause of high fever, accompanied by confusion, extreme fatigue and weakness, headache, severe diarrhea, sore throat, vomiting, widespread red rash, coma(161), and multiple organ failure(160).
2. Scalded skin syndrome (SSS)
Scalded skin syndrome is defined as a condition of skin infection caused of damage to the skin with marked shedding due to toxins(162) released by candida in suppressing the immune system(162). Depending its severity, it can causes bloodstream infection(163) and electrolyte imbalance, involved in regulate myocardial and neurological function(164), fluid balance(165), oxygen delivery, etc., resulting in high morbidity and mortality(166).
3. Candida and chronic diseases
a. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)(167)(168)
As the condition worsen, candida takes advantage of weakness immune system and imbalances in the digestive system, allowing fungus to overrun the digestive tracts(169), leading to gases which irritate the intestinal and stomach linings(171) cause of pain(170)(172).
b. Chronic Sinusitis(173)
As candida growth occurs in the sinus cavities(173), it causes fungal serious infections, with symptoms of nasal congestion, facial pain, pressure, congestion, or fullness, reduced or absent sense of smell. Both chronic and acute fungal sinusitis require immediate treatment(174).
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic condition that causes intense pain in various places around the body, including muscles, connective tissues and joints, as well as a host of other symptoms, as a result of production of mycotoxins by overgrowth candida(175), causing autoimmune diseases(143)(144)(136) by triggering inflammation in the intestinal tract(151). Fibromyalgia syndrome affects more than 6 million people in the United States.
d. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is defined as a health condition of persistent fatigue unrelated to exertion, it interferes with the patient daily activity, causing trouble staying on top of their responsibilities at home and on the job, etc.(176) due to production of mycotoxins by overgrowth candida(177)(178), triggering inflammation(179) in the intestinal tract. Symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome include headache, tender lymph nodes, fatigue, weakness, muscle, joint aches, inability to concentrate,(180) etc.
Thrush is defined as condition of infection of the mouth caused by over growth candida fungus(181)(182).
f. Eczema, or Atopic Dermatitis
Eczema is a general term for many types of skin inflammation (dermatitis). The most common form of eczema is atopic dermatitis in some case caused by over growth of candida(183)(184) as a result of immune suppressive factors(185).
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(1) Non-albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance by Krcmery V1, Barnes AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review by Mishra NN1, Prasad T, Sharma N, Payasi A, Prasad R, Gupta DK, Singh R.(PubMed)
(3) Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida by Prasad R1, Kapoor K.(PubMerd)
(4) New evidence that Candida albicans possesses additional ATP-binding cassette MDR-like genes: implications for antifungal azole resistance. by Walsh TJ1, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Landsman D, Chanock SJ.(PubMed)
(5) Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicansisolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters.by Sanglard D1, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J.(PubMed)
(6) Structural analysis of phospho-D-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of Candida albicans NIH A-207 serotype A strain by Shibata N1, Fukasawa S, Kobayashi H, Tojo M, Yonezu T, Ambo A, Ohkubo Y, Suzuki S.(PubMed)
(7) The effect of antifungal combination on transcripts of a subset of drug-resistance genes in clinical isolates of Candida species induced biofilms by Ibrahim NH1, Melake NA2, Somily AM3, Zakaria AS4, Baddour MM5, Mahmoud AZ6(PubMed)
(8) Antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. by Vanden Bossche H1, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D.(PubMed)
(9) The genetic basis of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicansby Morschhäuser J1.(PubMed)
(10) A proteomic approach to understanding the development of multidrug-resistantCandida albicans strains by Kusch H1, Biswas K, Schwanfelder S, Engelmann S, Rogers PD, Hecker M, Morschhäuser J.(PubMed
(157)Effect of strain of Staphylococcus aureus on synergism with Candidaalbicans resulting in mouse mortality and morbidity. Carlson E.(PubMed)
(158)Lesson of the month 2: toxic shock syndrome.
Shalaby T1, Anandappa S2, Pocock NJ2, Keough A2, Turner A2.(PubMed)
(159)Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome: superantigen-mediated enhancement of endotoxin shock and adaptive immune suppression. Kulhankova K1, King J, Salgado-Pabón W.(PubMed)
(160) Toxic Shock Syndrome, C health
(161)Group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with extremely aggressive course in the third trimester. Sugiyama T1, Kobayashi T, Nagao K, Hatada T, Wada H, Sagawa N.(PubMed).
(162) Scalded skin syndrome, the university of Maryland medical center
(163)Candida bloodstream infections in intensive care units: analysis of the extended prevalence of infection in intensive care unit study. Kett DH1, Azoulay E, Echeverria PM, Vincent JL; Extended Prevalence of Infection in ICU Study (EPIC II) Group of Investigators.(PubMed)
(164) [Infectious and metabolic nervous system complications of systemic cancer].[Article in Spanish]Ortiz N1.(PubMed)
(165) [Voriconazole compromises renal function in an elderly CDK patient withCandida albicans infection].[Article in Italian] Anastasio P1,.(PubMed)
(166)Endogenous thrombospondin-1 regulates leukocyte recr Marcarelli F, Bilancio G, Mele AA, De Santo NGuitment and activation and accelerates death from systemic candidiasis. Martin-Manso G1, Navarathna DH, Galli S, Soto-Pantoja DR, Kuznetsova SA, Tsokos M, Roberts DD.(PubMed)
(167) [Life-threatening complications of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: a systematic analysis of admissions to an ICU during 18 years]. [Article in German] Huber W1, Herrmann G, Schuster T, Phillip V, Saugel B, Schultheiss C, Hoellthaler J, Gaa J, Hartel M, Schmid RM, Reindl W.(PubMed)
(168)The role of Candida albicans in the pathogenesis of food-intolerant irritable bowel syndrome. Shepherd C.(PubMed)
(169) Yeasts in the gut: from commensals to infectious agents. Schulze J1, Sonnenborn U.(PubMed)
(170) Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome. Vanuytsel T1, Tack JF, Boeckxstaens GE.(PubMed)
(171) Current gut-directed therapies for irritable bowel syndrome. Chang HY1, Kelly EC, Lembo AJ.(PubMed)
(172) Abdominal pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a review of putative psychological, neural and neuro-immune mechanisms.Elsenbruch S1.(PubMed)
(173) [Changes of etiology of chronic sinusitis].[Article in Chinese] Deng Q1, Peng P.(PubMed)
(174)Invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus. Lee DH1, Yoon TM1, Lee JK1, Joo YE2, Park KH3, Lim SC1.(PubMed)
(175) Occurrence of killer yeasts in isolates of clinical origin. Robledo-Leal E1, Villarreal-Treviño L, González GM.(PubMed)
(176)Experiences of daily activity in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and their implications for rehabilitation programmes.Pemberton S1, Cox DL.(PubMed)
(177) Chronic illness associated with mold and mycotoxins: is naso-sinus fungal biofilm the culprit? Brewer JH1, Thrasher JD, Hooper D.(PubMed)
(178) Detection of mycotoxins in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.Brewer JH1, Thrasher JD, Straus DC, Madison RA, Hooper D.(PubMed)
(179) Exposure to zearalenone mycotoxin alters in vitro porcine intestinal epithelial cells by differential gene expression.Taranu I1, Braicu C2, Marin DE3, Pistol GC3, Motiu M3, Balacescu L2, Beridan Neagoe I2, Burlacu R4.(PubMed)
(180)Therapeutic effects of oral NADH on the symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Forsyth LM1, Preuss HG, MacDowell AL, Chiazze L Jr, Birkmayer GD, Bellanti JA.(PubMed)
(181) Identification of Candida albicans genes induced during thrush offers insight into pathogenesis. Cheng S1, Clancy CJ, Checkley MA, Handfield M, Hillman JD, Progulske-Fox A, Lewin AS, Fidel PL, Nguyen MH.(PubMed)
(182) Is endometrial infection with Candida albicans a cause of recurrent vaginalthrush?Smith JR1, Wells C, Jolly M, Shah P, Savage M, Reginald P, Kitchen VS.(PubMed)
(183) Candida albicans-specific lymphoproliferative and cytokine (IL-4 and IFN-gamma) responses in atopic eczema dermatitis syndrome. Evidence of CD4/CD8 and CD3/CD16+CD56 ratio elevations in vitro. Kosonen J1, Luhtala M, Viander M, Kalimo K, Terho EO, Savolainen J.(PubMed)
(184) Candida albicans mannan- and protein-induced humoral, cellular and cytokine responses in atopic dermatitis patients. Savolainen J1, Kosonen J, Lintu P, Viander M, Pène J, Kalimo K, Terho EO, Bousquet J.(PubMed)
(185) Guidelines for treatment of atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) Part II.
Ring J1, Alomar A, Bieber T, Deleuran M, Fink-Wagner A, Gelmetti C, Gieler U, Lipozencic J, Luger T, Oranje AP, Schäfer T, Schwennesen T, Seidenari S, Simon D, Ständer S, Stingl G, Szalai S, Szepietowski JC, Taïeb A, Werfel T, Wollenberg A, Darsow U; European Dermatology Forum; European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology; European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis; European Federation of Allergy; European Society of Pediatric Dermatology; Global Allergy and Asthma European Network.(PubMed)