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Thursday, July 28, 2016

General health: Cerebritis, Lupus, and Lupus Cerebritis Treatment and Management in Herbal Medicine Perspective

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Cerebritis, Lupus, and Lupus Cerebritis


Cerebritis is defined as an inflammation of the cerebrum, a structure associated with memory, speech, etc., as a result of the formation of an abscess within the brain itself, found commonly in patients with lupus.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease as as a result of the development of autoantibodies that attack the systems and organs in the body.researchers at the indicated that saturated fatty acid palmitate, but not unsaturated oleate, induces the activation of the NLRP3-ASC inflammasome, causing caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 production.

Lupus cerebritis is a disorder of nervous system problems (an autoimmune inflammatory disorder) caused by lupus as as a result of the development of autoantibodies that attack the systems and organs in the body. It causes migraine headache, if the duration of the central nervous system involvement last for a few minutes, or causes dementia that can lead to neurological deficits as a transient attacks or permanently.

               The Treatment and Management 


B. In herbal medicine perspective

Herbs used to treat and manage lupus are associated to anti inflammation and enhanced immune system as the diseases are characterized as lupus is mainly thought of as an autoimmune disorder also considered a rheumatic condition
B.1. Immune system enhancing herbs
1. Andrographis
Andrographis paniculata (Burma) Wall. ex Ness (AP) beside have been used to treat upper respiratory tract infection (URI) as well as acute diarrhea, but its leaves also have exerted the activity of anti-bacteria against infection, according to the study of "Undetectable anti-bacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata(Burma) wall. ex ness" by Leelarasamee A, Trakulsomboon S, Sittisomwong N.(43)

2. Astragalus
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) isolated from astragalus enhances the immune system by enhancing and regulating the function of T cells, by suppressing the CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg activity, at least in part, via binding TLR4 on Tregs and trigger a shift of Th2 to Th1, according to the study of "Astragalus polysaccharides attenuate postburn sepsis via inhibiting negative immunoregulation of CD4+ CD25(high) T cells" by Liu QY, Yao YM, Yu Y, Dong N, Sheng ZY., posted in PubMed(44)

3. Echinacea
In the observation of ethanolic extract of fresh Echinacea purpurea and the changes in cytokine production in blood samples from 30 volunteers before and during 8-day oral administration found that Echinaforce regulates the production of chemokines and cytokines according to current immune status, such as responsiveness to exogenous stimuli, susceptibility to viral infection and exposure to stress, according to the study of "Effects of Echinaforce® treatment on ex vivo-stimulated blood cells" by Ritchie MR, Gertsch J, Klein P, Schoop R.(46)

4. Goldenseal
In the investigation of new potential sources of antimicrobial agents to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) resistance found that Extracts of Arctostaphylos uva ursi (kinnikinnick or bearberry), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Prunus serotina (black cherry), and Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) inhibited the growth of all Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 32 μg/mL, 4 to 32 μg/mL, 16 to >32 μg/mL, and 32 to 64 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts of Acorus americanus (sweet flag), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Equisetum arvense (field horsetail), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea), Ledum palustre (marsh Labrador tea), Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose), Sambucus nigra (elderberry), and Zanthoxylum americanum (prickly ash) had weak or no antimicrobial activity against the Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥256 μg/mL, according to "Extracts of Canadian first nations medicinal plants, used as natural products, inhibit neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles" by Cybulska P, Thakur SD, Foster BC, Scott IM, Leduc RI, Arnason JT, Dillon JA.(47)

5. Cat's Claw
a. Oral extract of Cat's claw has demonstrated the activity of protection against indomethacin-induced gastritis, and prevention of TNFalpha mRNA expression and apoptosis, according to the study of `Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis) are independent of their alkaloid content`by Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Zhang XJ, Condezo LA, Lao J, Angeles' FM, Musah RA, Bobrowski P, Miller MJ.(48)

b. Extract of U. tomentosa ingested daily for 15 days by a smoker has decreased the mutagenicity induced in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 by the subject's urine, according to the study of `Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities ofUncaria tomentosa and its extracts`by Rizzi R, Re F, Bianchi A, De Feo V, de Simone F, Bianchi L, Stivala LA.(49)

6. Etc.

B.2. Anti inflammatory herbs
1. Aloe Vera
Aloe Vera also is popular used in treating infection and inflamation as a result of its antioxidant property. according to the study of " In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Anthrone and Chromone from the Latex of Aloe harlana Reynolds" by Asamenew G, Bisrat D, Mazumder A, Asres K., (50)

2. Ginger
In the classification of the effect of ginger extract on the expression of NFκB and TNF-α in liver cancer-induced rats found that ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFκB and TNF-α in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFκB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α, according to "Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale) has Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Ethionine-Induced Hepatoma Rats" by Shafina Hanim Mohd Habib,I Suzana Makpol, Noor Aini Abdul Hamid, Srijit Das, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, and Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof (51)

3. Saw Palmetto
In the Investigate the antiinflammatory activity of Serenoa repens (SeR), LY, and) on proinflammatory phenotype in rat peritoneal macrophages (Ms) found that the Ly-Se-SeR association caused a greater inhibitory effect on the expression of COX-2, 5-LOX, and iNOS. The Ly-Se-SeR association showed a higher efficacy in reducing the loss of IκB-α, the increased NF-κB binding activity, the enhanced mRNA levels of TNF-α, the elevated MDA, and nitrite content, according to "Effect of Serenoa repens, lycopene, and selenium on proinflammatory phenotype activation: an in vitro and in vivo comparison study" by Bonvissuto G, Minutoli L, Morgia G, Bitto A, Polito F, Irrera N, Marini H, Squadrito F, Altavilla D.(52)

4. Astragalus
Astragalus has exerted an anti-inflammatory effect as a result of inactivation the p38 and Erk1/2 and inhibition NFkappaB-mediated transcription, according to the study of "Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk" by Ryu M, Kim EH, Chun M, Kang S, Shim B, Yu YB, Jeong G, Lee JS., posted in PubMed(45)

5. Green tea
In the investigation of l-Theanine is a unique amino acid in green tea effects on ethanol-induced liver injury of the study of "l-Theanine prevents alcoholic liver injury through enhancing the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes" by Li G, Ye Y, Kang J, Yao X, Zhang Y, Jiang W, Gao M, Dai Y, Xin Y, Wang Q, Yin Z, Luo L[5a], researchers found that l-theanine significantly inhibited ethanol-induced reduction of mouse antioxidant capability which included the activities of SOD, CAT and GR, and level of GSH. These results indicated that l-theanine prevented ethanol-induced liver injury through enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities(53)



6. Etc.              

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