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Wednesday, July 27, 2016

Phytochemicals in Foods - The Effects of Coumestans

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                Coumestans

Coumestans (phytoestrogens) a derivative of coumarin, are orgic compound in the class of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in split peas, pinto beans, lima beans, alfalfa and clover sprouts, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Hepatoprotective effect
In the investigation of the effect of coumestans isolated form the leaves of W. calendulacea in paracetamol induced liver damage, revealed that coumestans of W. calendulacea afforded a significant protective action in the alleviation of paracetamol induced hepatocellular injury, according to "Hepatoprotective effect of coumestans isolated from the leaves of Wedelia calendulacea Less. in paracetamol induced liver damage" by
Emmanuel S, Amalraj T, Ignacimuthu S.(1)

2. Breast cancer
In the evaluation whether phytoestrogen intake associated with reduced breast cancer risk, using a novel phytoestrogen database, found that Among all women, lignan intake was associated with a reduced breast cancer risk (Q5 vs. Q1 MVOR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.99); however, following stratification by BMI, this reduction in risk was statistically significant only among overweight (BMI > 25) women. Total phytoestrogen intake was also associated with a risk reduction among overweight women only. Among pre-menopausal women, total phytoestrogen intake was associated with a significant reduction in breast cancer risk among overweight women only (Q5 vs. Q1 MVOR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.87). Among post-menopausal women, no statistically significant association was observed between breast cancer risk and isoflavones or lignans, according to "Dietary phytoestrogen intake--lignans and isoflavones--and breast cancer risk (Canada)" by Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, Kreiger N, Mills CA, Thompson LU.(2)

3. Colorectal cancer
In the evaluation of the suggestion of dietary phytoestrogens may reduce the risk of certain hormonal cancers (e.g. breast and prostate), found that Dietary lignan intake was associated with a significant reduction in colorectal cancer risk [OR (T3 vs. T1) = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94], as was isoflavone intake [OR (T3 vs. T1) = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.86], according to "Dietary phytoestrogen intake is associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk" by

Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, Manno M, Gallinger S, Okey A, Harper P.(3)

4. Anticoccidial effects
In the examination of the anticoccidial efficacy of a product containing coumestansfrom Eclipta alba, found that Coumestan-treated groups showed a significant decrease in the oocyst counting since the 21 th day of life and displayed a reduced number of macroscopic lesions. Histopathological evaluations of cecum fragments showed that both treatments induced the migration of defense cells at the site of infection. A severe destruction of the cecal lining was found in the intestinal tract of broilers fed with a coumestans dose of 180 ppm, according to "Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production" by Michels MG, Bertolini LC, Esteves AF, Moreira P, Franca SC.(4)

5. Inhibition of snake venoms
In the investigation of the effect against phospholipase A(2) and the myotoxic activities of snake venomextracts from in natura aerial parts and roots, both native and genetically modified (in vitro), Among the modified roots, clone 19 showed higher concentrations of these coumestans. Our results show that the in natura extracts of plants collected from Botucatu and Ribeirão Preto were efficient in inhibiting snake venom phospholipase A(2) activity. Regarding in vitro material, the best effect against Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was that of clone 19. Clone 19 and isolated coumestans (wedelolactone and demethylwedelolactone) inhibited the myotoxic activity induced by basic phospholipases A(2) isolated from the venoms of Crotalus durissus terrificus (CB) and Bothrops jararacussu (BthTX-I and II), according to "Inhibition of snake venoms and phospholipases A(2) by extracts from native and genetically modified Eclipta alba: isolation of active coumestans" by Diogo LC, Fernandes RS, Marcussi S, Menaldo DL, Roberto PG, Matrangulo PV, Pereira PS, França SC, Giuliatti S, Soares AM, Lourenço MV.(5)

6. Cardioprotective effects
In nthe review of higher dietary intake of phytoestrogens, plant-derived compounds with partial estrogen agonist properties, have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and breast and uterine cancer than women with a lower dietary intake of these substances, indicated that Food and food supplements containing phytoestrogens are often advocated as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with contraindications to the use of conventional estrogen replacement or those wanting a natural alternative. In light of the recent trial results with HRT (estrogen plus progesterone), it would be prudent not to recommend phytoestrogens as cardioprotective substances until adequate safety and efficacy studies are completed, according to "Phytoestrogens as cardioprotective agents" by
Park D, Huang T, Frishman WH.(6)

7. Bone health
In the review of many studies performed on soyabean isoflavones (genistein and daidzein), either in the purified form or as a soyabean-based product or extract and in vitro studies using primary cell cultures or stabilised cell lines indicate that treatment with genistein may lead to a reduction in bone resorption, but effects on bone formation have also been shown. Investigations using animal models have provided convincing evidence of major improvements in bone mass or bone turnover following soyabean feeding.
found that cross-sectional observations in South-East Asian populations with moderately high intakes of soyabean isoflavones (50 mg/d) have shown that women in the high quartile of intake have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced bone turnover, an effect that has not been shown in populations with low average intakes. Human trials have given an indication of a possible effect on lumbar spine BMD, although they have been either short term (<6 months) or methodologically weak. Unresolved issues are: the optimal dose compatible with safety; the individual differences in response that can be related to diet and genotypes; the duration of exposure, according to "Dietary phyto-oestrogens and bone health" by Branca F.(7)

8. Endometrial cancer
In the investigationof three classes of phytoestrogens (isoflavones, coumestans, and lignans) and the risk of endometrial cancer found that some phytoestrogenic compounds, at the levels consumed in the typical American-style diet, are associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer in doses depending manner, according to "Phytoestrogen intake and endometrial cancer risk" by Horn-Ross PL, John EM, Canchola AJ, Stewart SL, Lee MM.(8)

9. Metabolic syndrome
In the proposal of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)as a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome including obesity and type-2 diabetes, found that he bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOAc-soluble extract of the stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica led to the isolation of a new coumestan, erythribyssin N (1), and two new benzofurans, erythribyssin F (2) and erythribyssin H (3), along with five known compounds (4-8). When tested for their stimulatory effects on AMPK activity at a concentration of 10 muM, compounds 4 and 5 showed potent activation, while compounds 1, 2, and 7 had moderate effects. These results suggest that benzofurans and coumestans may be new lead compounds for regulating the AMPK enzyme, according to "AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by benzofurans and coumestans isolated from Erythrina abyssinica" by Nguyen PH, Nguyen TN, Dao TT, Kang HW, Ndinteh DT, Mbafor JT, Oh WK.(9)

10. Long-term postmenopausal diseases
In the review of whether, Phytoestrogens (PEs) a natural compounds, with a biological activity like estrogen, which comprise isoflavones, lignans andcoumestans associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer and postmenopausal illness, found that indicates that PEs prevent bone resorption, increase bone density and reduce cholesterol. The estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens can be useful in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, according to "Dietary phytoestrogens in the prevention of long-term postmenopausal diseases" by Chiechi LM.(10)

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12018530
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17992574
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17116718
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21177038
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19320636
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15596022
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15018488
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12902445
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Coumestans%20and%20diabetes
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10576238


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