Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy - Popular Chinese Herbs - Huang Yao Zi (Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Huang Yao Zi (Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae)

Huang Yao Zi is also known as Tuber Dioscoreae. The bitter, acrid, cool and slightly toxic herb has been used in TCM to treat swelling of the thyroid glands as a result of Iodin deficiency, get rid of toxin, relieves swelling, etc., as it resolves masses, treats goitre, reduces phlegm, clears Heat, expels toxins, cools Blood, stops bleeding, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver and lung channels.

1. Saponin
2. Tannin
3. Diosbulbin B
4. β-sitosterol
5. Diosbulbin A-H
6. D-sorbitol
7. 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyphenanthrene
8. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antitumor activity
The investigation of water extract (fraction A), ethanol extract (fraction B), ethyl acetate extract (fraction C), non-ethyl acetate extract (fraction D) and compound diosbulbin B isolated from Dioscorea bulbifera L. (DB), showed that compound diosbulbin B demonstrated anti-tumor effects in the dose-dependent manner at the dosage of 2 to 16 mg/kg without significant toxicity in vivo. Furthermore, on the basis of chemical analysis of the above extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD), diosbulbin B was found to be the major antitumor bioactive component of DB, according to “Antitumor activity of Dioscorea bulbifera L. rhizome in vivo” by Wang JM, Ji LL, Branford-White CJ, Wang ZY, Shen KK, Liu H, Wang ZT.(1).

2. Oral Cancer
In the evaluation of the evaluated chemopreventive efficacy of Antitumor B, a Chinese herbal mixture of six plants (Sophora tonkinensis, Polygonum bistorta, Prunella vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis L., Dictamnus dasycarpus, and Dioscorea bulbifera) on the development of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) induced oral squamous cell carcinomas in A/J mice, found that plasma concentrations had reached a steady-state level at 1 wk. There was no significant body weight loss and there was no other obvious sign of toxicity in Antitumor B-treated mice. These results suggest that Antitumor B is a promising agent for human oral cancer chemoprevention, according to “Chemopreventive effect of a mixture of Chinese Herbs (antitumor B) on chemically induced oral carcinogenesis” by Wang Y, Yao R, Gao S, Wen W, Du Y, Szabo E, Hu M, Lubet RA, You M.(2).

3. Cytotoxic activity
In the study of two new steroidal saponins, diosbulbisides D (1) and E (2), along with five known saponins (3- 7) isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea bulbifera L., found that Compounds 6 and 7, two 3- O-trisaccharides of diosgenin spirostanes, showed moderate cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, with IC₅₀ values of 3.89 µM and 7.47 µM on SMMC7721, and 10.87 µM and 19.10 µM on Bel-7402 cell lines, according to “Steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Dioscorea bulbifera and their cytotoxic activity” by Liu H, Chou GX, Wang JM, Ji LL, Wang ZT.(3).

4. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory
In the demonstration of the aqueous and methanol extracts from the dry bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera L. var sativa (Dioscoreaceae)-evaluated orally at the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg against pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, suggested that the bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera var sativa possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities may results from the inhibition of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serotonin and prostaglandins. Thus, the analgesic activity of the bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera may be at least partially linked to its anti-inflammatory activity, according to “Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Extracts from the Bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera L. var sativa (Dioscoreaceae) in Mice and Rats” by Mbiantcha M, Kamanyi A, Teponno RB, Tapondjou AL, Watcho P, Nguelefack TB.(4).

5. Against multidrug-resistant bacteria
showed that that the compound was effective in the reversal of bacterial resistance to various antibiotics. In addition, the compound did not show any cytotoxicity against a broad range of human cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7 (breast cancer), SiHa (cervical cancer) and A431 (epidermal carcinoma), and hence has the potential to be used as a lead compound for drug discovery programmes, according to “A potential plasmid-curing agent, 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, from Dioscorea bulbifera L. against multidrug-resistant bacteria” by Shriram V, Jahagirdar S, Latha C, Kumar V, Puranik V, Rojatkar S, Dhakephalkar PK, Shitole MG.(5).

6. Etc.

Side effects

1. Overdoses or consumption can increase the risk of burning sensation of the mouth and tongue, etc.
2. Prolonged period of uses or large dose can cause and kidney damage
3. The roots contains chemical ingredients which can damage to liver(a)
4. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without consulting first with the related field specialist
5. Etc.

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