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Vanillin is a phytochemical in the class of phenolic acids, found abundantly in vanilla beans, cloves, roasted coffee and the Chinese red pine, etc.
In the investigation of examine the classification and concentration of phenolic compounds, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins in 127 lines of colored barley, found that the average content of phenolic compounds in unhulled barley groups (268.6 microg/g) was higher than that in hulled (207.0 microg/g) (P > 0.05). The proanthocyanidins content was determined by modified vanillin assay. The average content of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher in purple and blue barley groups compared with black (P < 0.05), according to"Relationship between phenolic compounds, anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity in colored barley germplasm" by Kim MJ, Hyun JN, Kim JA, Park JC, Kim MY, Kim JG, Lee SJ, Chun SC, Chung IM(1)
2. Antibacterial activity
In the examination of the antibacterial activity of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid against seven Cronobacter spp. in quarter-strength tryptic soy broth with 5 g/liter yeast extract (TSBYE) adjusted to pH 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 at 10, 21, and 37°C.
found that the thermal resistance of C. sakazakii was examined at 58°C in TSBYE supplemented with MBCs of each compound at pH 5.0 and 6.0. D-values at pH 5.0 were reduced from 14.56 ± 0.60 min to 0.93 ± 0.01, 0.63 ± 0.01, and 0.98 ± 0.02 min for vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid, respectively. These results suggest that vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid may be useful for the control of Cronobacter spp. in food during preparation and storage, according to "Effect ofvanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid on the growth and heat resistance of Cronobacter species" by Yemiş GP, Pagotto F, Bach S, Delaquis P.(2)
3. Antisickling activity
In the evaluation of in vitro with pyridyl derivatives of vanillin, including INN-312 and INN-298, showed as much as a 90-fold increased in antisickling activity compared with vanillin, found that these compounds may act to prevent sickling of SS cells by increasing the fraction of the soluble high-affinity Hb S and/or by stereospecific inhibition of deoxygenated Hb S polymerization, according to "Crystallographic analysis of human hemoglobin elucidates the structural basis of the potent and dual antisickling activity of pyridyl derivatives ofvanillin" by Abdulmalik O, Ghatge MS, Musayev FN, Parikh A, Chen Q, Yang J, Nnamani I, Danso-Danquah R, Eseonu DN, Asakura T, Abraham DJ, Venitz J, Safo MK.(3)
4. Oxidative brain damage
In the investigation of the degree of protection in brain tissue by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase, glutathione transferase, glutathione peroxidase and nitric oxide (NO)the degree of protection in brain tissue was evaluated by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase, glutathione transferase, glutathione peroxidase and nitric oxide (NO), found that Vanillin showed a significant brain-protective effect by decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation and NO(2) and elevated the activities of antioxidative enzymes and level of GSH. Consequently vanillin blocked oxidative brain damage induced by CCl(4) in rats, according to "Protective effect of vanillinagainst carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative brain injury in rats" by Makni M, Chtourou Y, Barkallah M, Fetoui H.(4)
5. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties
In the evaluation of the protective effects of vanillin against carbon tetrachoride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in rat, found that pretreatment with vanillin prior the administration of CCl(4) significantly prevented the decrease of protein synthesis and the increase in plasma alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases. Furthermore, it inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) formation and attenuated the (CCl(4))-mediated depletion of antioxidant enzyme catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and glutathione level (GSH) in the liver. In addition, vanillin markedly attenuated the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prevented CCl(4)-induced hepatic cell alteration and necrosis, as indicated by liver histopathology, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties of vanillin in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats" by Makni M, Chtourou Y, Fetoui H, Garoui el M, Boudawara T, Zeghal N.(5)
6. Antimicrobial activities
In the investigation of Antimicrobial activity of propolis oil extract from raw material harvested in Lithuania in experimental studies in vitro, and determination of the minimal concentration of phenolic compounds that inhibited respective microorganisms, found that phenolic compounds have effective antimicrobial activity in propolis oil extract; thus, it can be compatible with the semisolid preparation, according to "Propolis oil extract: quality analysis and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity" by Ramanauskienė K, Inkėnienė AM.(6)
7. Colorectal cancer
In the investigation of the toxicity of salicylates, the sensitivity of the DNA mismatch repair proficient SW480 human colorectal cancer cell line and testing four categories of compounds with varying degrees of structural similarity to acetylsalicylic acid. These compounds were: i) salicylic acid analogues with substituents at the 5-position; ii) ASA analogues with extended chain lengths in the acyl group; iii) vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde; and iv) bis(2-carboxyphenyl) succinate (BCS) and structurally similar derivatives thereof.
found that vanillin exhibited relatively limited toxicity against the SW480 colorectal cancer cell line. Commercially available and in-house synthesised BCS (diaspirin) were notably more inhibitory to cell growth than ASA itself, yet retained substantial specificity against colorectal cancer cell lines vs. non-colorectal cancer cell lines, according to "Activity of aspirin analogues and vanillin in a human colorectal cancer cell line" by Deb J, Dibra H, Shan S, Rajan S, Manneh J, Kankipati CS, Perry CJ, Nicholl ID.(7)
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