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Hua Ju Hong or Ju Hong is also known as pummelo peel. The warm, acrid, fragrant and bitter herb has been used in TCM to treat cold and cough, itchy throat, indigestion, chronic stomachache, flatulence, etc., as it regulates Qi, soothes the Middle Burner, stops nausea and vomiting, dries Dampness, transforms Phlegm, etc., by enhancing the functions of lung and spleen channels.
6. Anthranilic acid
7. Methyl ester
1. Antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity
In the evaluation of the EOs of Citrus maxima and Citrus sinensis essential oils (EOs), obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical profile was determined through GC and GC-MS analysis and their antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity found that both the EOs and their 1:1 combination showed broad fungitoxic spectrum against different food contaminating moulds. The EOs and their combination completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production at 500 ppm, whereas, DL-limonene, the major component of EOs showed better antiaflatoxigenic efficacy even at 250 ppm. Both the oils exhibited antioxidant activity as DPPH free radical scavenger in dose dependent manner. The IC(50) for radical scavenging efficacy of C. maxima and C. sinensis oils were to be 8.84 and 9.45 microl ml(-1), respectively. The EOs were found non-mammalian toxic showing high LD(50) for mice (oral, acute), according to “Chemical profile, antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity of Citrus maxima Burm. and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their cyclic monoterpene, DL-limonene” by Singh P, Shukla R, Prakash B, Kumar A, Singh S, Mishra PK, Dubey NK.(1).
In the isolation of two flavone glycosides, rhoifolin and cosmosiin from Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Leaves for their effect on diabetes, showed that in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, rhoifolin and cosmosiin showed dose-dependent response in concentration range of 0.001-5 microM and 1-20 microM, respectively, in biological studies beneficial to diabetes. Particularly, rhoifolin and cosmosiin at 0.5 and 20 microM, respectively showed nearly similar response to that 10 nM of insulin, on adiponectin secretion level. Furthermore, 5 microM of rhoifolin and 20 microM of cosmosiin showed equal potential with 10 nM of insulin to increase the phosphorylation of insulin receptor-beta, in addition to their positive effect on GLUT4 translocation, according to “Insulin-mimetic Action of Rhoifolin and Cosmosiin Isolated from Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Leaves: Enhanced Adiponectin Secretion and Insulin Receptor Phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 Cells” by Rao YK, Lee MJ, Chen K, Lee YC, Wu WS, Tzeng YM.(2).
3. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities
In the investigation of the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of fresh red pummelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] juice, found that the total phenolic content of red pummelo juice extracted by methanol (8.3 mg/mL) was found to be significantly higher than that of white pummelo juice (5.6 mg/mL). The carotenoid content of red pummelo juice was also significantly higher than that in white pummelo juice. The contents of vitamin C and delta-tocopherol in red pummelo juice were 472 and 0.35 mug/mL, respectively. The ability of the antioxidants found in red pummelo juice to scavenge radicals were found by methanol extraction to approximate that of BHA and vitamin C with a rapid rate in a kinetic model. The ability of methanol extracts of freeze-dried peel and flesh from red pummelo to scavenge these radicals was 20-40% that of BHA and vitamin C effects. Fresh red pummelo juice is an excellent source of antioxidant compounds and exhibited great efficiency in scavenging different forms of free radicals including DPPH, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide radicals, according to “Antioxidant content and free radical scavenging ability of fresh red pummelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] juice and freeze-dried products” by Tsai HL, Chang SK, Chang SJ.(3).
4. Anti Obesity
In the analyzing the effect of the juice obtained from two varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), Moro (a blood orange) and Navelina (a blond orange), on fat accumulation in mice fed a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD), showed that Dietary supplementation of Moro juice, but not Navelina juice significantly reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation regardless of the increased energy intake because of sugar content. Furthermore, mice drinking Moro juice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity with no alterations in food intake. Only the anthocyanin extract, but not the purified C3G, slightly affected fat accumulation, according to “Blood orange juice inhibits fat accumulation in mice” by Titta L, Trinei M, Stendardo M, Berniakovich I, Petroni K, Tonelli C, Riso P, Porrini M, Minucci S, Pelicci PG, Rapisarda P, Reforgiato Recupero G, Giorgio M.(4).
1. Do not use the herb in case of Yin and qi deficiency with hot hot phlegm
2. Do not use the Hua Ju Hong in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval first with the related field specialist
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