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Cerebritis, Lupus, and Lupus Cerebritis
Cerebritis is defined as an inflammation of the cerebrum, a structure associated with memory, speech, etc., as a result of the formation of an abscess within the brain itself, found commonly in patients with lupus.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease as as a result of the development of autoantibodies that attack the systems and organs in the body.researchers at the indicated that saturated fatty acid palmitate, but not unsaturated oleate, induces the activation of the NLRP3-ASC inflammasome, causing caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18 production.
Lupus cerebritis is a disorder of nervous system problems (an autoimmune inflammatory disorder) caused by lupus as as a result of the development of autoantibodies that attack the systems and organs in the body. It causes migraine headache, if the duration of the central nervous system involvement last for a few minutes, or causes dementia that can lead to neurological deficits as a transient attacks or permanently.
Nutritional supplement against lupus
C.1. Free radical scavengers(20)
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group which helps to break down molecules into smaller units in releasing energy, excreted in bile and urine. It is a cellular antioxidant, by reverting to biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, once again when oxidized that inhibits the effects of mutagens.
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria.
Beta-Carotene, an organic compound and classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
a.1. It is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A that inhibits cancer cell in experiment. Beta-carotene also neutralize singlet oxygen before giving rise of free radicals which can damage of DNA, leading to improper cell DNA replication, causing cancers.
a.2. Cell communication
Researcher found that beta-carotene enhances the communication between cell can reduce the risk of cancer by making cells division more reliable.
a.3. Immune system
Beta-carotene promotes the immune system in identifying the foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria by increasing the quality of MHC2 protein in maintaining optimal function of white cells.
a.4. Polyunsaturated fat
Researchers found that beta-carotene also inhibits the oxidation of polyunsaturated fat and lipoprotein in the blood that reduce the risk of plaques build up onto the arterial walls, causing heart diseases and stroke.
a.5. There are more benefits of beta-carotene.
Alpha-carotene, one of the most abundant carotenoids in the North American diet, is a form of carotene with a β-ring at one end and an ε-ring at the other. It is the second most common form of carotene which not only protects cells from the damaging effects of free radicals and enhances the immune system in fighting against bacteria and virus invasion, but also stimulates the communication between cells thus preventing irregular cell growth cause of cancers.
Beta cryptoxanthin is an antioxidant, beside helping to prevent free radical damage to cells and DNA but also stimulates the repair of oxidative damage to DNA. it enhances the immune function infighting against inflammatory cause of polyarthritis, and irregular cell growth cause of cancer due to oxidation.
Lutein is one of the most popular North American carotenoids. It is found in greens like kale and spinach as well as the yolk of eggs. Lutein is also found in the human eye. Getting enough lutein in your diet may help to fight off age related macular degeneration, an eye condition.
Researcher has shown that people who do not have enough lutein in their diet will not have enough lutein present in the muscular part of the eye. This is what likely leads to age related macular degeneration that can result in blindness.
Zeaxanthin, a most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature, is one of the two primary xanthophyll carotenoids contained within the retina of the eye. Intake of foods providing zeaxanthin with lower incidence of age-related macular degeneration as a result of its function of reducing the risk oxidative stress.
Lycopene is a red carotene of the carotenoid group that can be found in tomatoes, watermelons, and grapefruits. This powerful antioxidant is believed to be a powerful fighter of prostate cancer. Lycopene has many anti-aging capabilities as well as one of the most powerful antioxidants in the carotenoid group.
Flavonoids also known as Vitamin P and citrin are a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. it has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. As he used vitamin C and flavonoids to heal the breakage of capillaries, which caused swelling and obstruction of blood flow. Most plants have more than one group or type act as predominate.
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants. it helps to neutralize many of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals.
Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy bacteria and cancerous cells, but when it is over produced, it causes the production peroxynitrite which may attack protein, lipid and DNA, Flavonoids inhibit NO production of peroxynitrite due to reduction of enzyme expression.
Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and studies show that quercetin may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as a antioxidant, quercetin scavenges free radicals, which damage cell membranes, cause mutation of cells with tampering DNA.
Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat and glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. It inhibits platelet aggregation, decreases the capillary permeability, makes blood thinner and improves circulation. As an antioxidant, it can reduce the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol caused by free radical that lowers the risk of heart diseases.
Catechin is a natural phenol antioxidant plant and natural anti-bacterial substance. Study showed catechin as good free radical scavenging power inhibits ROS production, thus it can be useful to the development of alimentary strategies to prevent OTA-induced cytotoxicity in human.
4. Uric acids
Uric acids may have a potential therapeutic role as an antioxidant becuase of its function of inducing oxidative stress, either through creating reactive oxygen species or inhibiting antioxidant systems.
High uric acid can cause arthritis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Metabolic syndrome, kidney stones, etc.
5. Thiols (R-SH)
Chemically, thiol, a organosulfur compound has strong odours resembling that of garlic. They are used as odourants to assist in the detection of natural gas. It presents in the amino acid cysseine which helps to the functioning of enzyme regulation, cell signaling, protein trafficking and control of gene expression. As a sulfide residue, thiol plays an important role in cell function of reversal oxidation by interacting with GSSG resulting in formation of intramucolar protein disulfide and GSG.
6. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 is discovered by Dr. Karl Folfers in 1957, beside promotes the chemical reaction, often by speeding it up or allowing it to proceed under less stringent conditions, it also enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the generation of free radicals during this process.
7. Vitamin A, C, E. D.
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.
b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.
c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.
d. Vitamin D
Reseacher found that vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.
C.2. Omega 3 fatty acid
1. Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities
In the examination of the inhibition of inflammation as well as of cancer formation and growth in the lung and colon in animal models., using a tocopherol mixture that is rich in gamma-T (gamma-TmT, which contains 57%gamma-T), found that when given in the diet at 0.3%, gamma-TmT inhibited chemically induced lung tumorigenesis in the A/J mice as well as the growth of human lung cancer cell H1299 xenograft tumors. gamma-TmT also decreased the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, gamma-H2AX, and nitrotyrosine in tumors. More evident anti-inflammatory and cancer preventive activities of dietary gamma-TmT were demonstrated in mice treated with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium. These results demonstrate the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities of tocopherols, according to "Inhibition of inflammation and carcinogenesis in the lung and colon by tocopherols" by Yang CS, Lu G, Ju J, Li GX.
2. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities
In the determination of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts, found that all examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms, according to "Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew" by Zia-Ul-Haq M, Cavar S, Qayum M, Imran I, de Feo V.
3. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
In the investigation of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of tocopherolsin mice and determination of whether the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is involved in these activities, indicated that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of γ-TmT in the colon are mostly due to the direct action oftocopherols in trapping reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, independent of the antioxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory proteins that are regulated by Nrf2; however, Nrf2 knockout appears to affect the serum levels of tocopherol metabolites, according to "The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities oftocopherols are independent of Nrf2 in mice" by Li G, Lee MJ, Liu AB, Yang Z, Lin Y, Shih WJ, Yang CS.
4. Cognitive effects
In the examination of the relation of all plasma vitamin E forms and markers of vitamin E damage (α-tocopherylquinone, 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Within the AddNeuroMed-Project, plasma tocopherols, tocotrienols, α-tocopherylquinone, and 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol were assessed in 168 AD cases, 166 MCI, and 187 cognitively normal (CN) people, found that compared with cognitively normal subjects, AD and MCI had lower levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, and total vitamin E. In multivariable-polytomous-logistic regression analysis, both MCI and AD cases had 85% lower odds to be in the highest tertile of total tocopherols and total vitamin E, and they were, respectively, 92% and 94% less likely to be in the highest tertile of total tocotrienols than the lowest tertile. Further, both disorders were associated with increased vitamin E damage. Low plasma tocopherols and tocotrienols levels are associated with increased odds of MCI and AD, according to "Tocopherolsand tocotrienols plasma levels are associated with cognitive impairment" by Mangialasche F, Xu W, Kivipelto M, Costanzi E, Ercolani S, Pigliautile M, Cecchetti R, Baglioni M, Simmons A, Soininen H, Tsolaki M, Kloszewska I, Vellas B, Lovestone S, Mecocci P; AddNeuroMed Consortium.
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