Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Most Common Diseases of 50 Plus: Thyroid Disease : Euthyroid sick syndrome as a result of Sepsis - The Complications

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

                         Thyroid disease

Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is over active and produces too much thyroid hormones.

             Euthyroid sick syndrome as a result of Sepsis

Sepsis is defined as a condition caused by chemicals released into the bloodstream to fight the infection trigger inflammation throughout the body as a result of severe infection(a)(b). according to the study by the University of Utah, sepsis is the commonest cause of admission to medical ICUs across the world. Mortality from sepsis continues to be high. Besides shock and multi-organ dysfunction occurring following the intense inflammatory reaction to sepsis, complications arising from sepsis-related immunoparalysis contribute to the morbidity and mortality from sepsis(c).

                                              The Complications

1. Impaired wound healing
Sepsis is one of the main causes for morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Moreover, sepsis associated complications involving impaired wound healing are common(19).

2. Damage to Peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles
Among the critical illness myopathies, three main types have been identified: a non-necrotizing "cachectic" myopathy (critical illness myopathy in the strict sense), a myopathy with selective loss of myosin filaments ("thick filament myopathy") and an acute necrotizing myopathy of intensive care. Clinical manifestations of both critical illness myopathies and CIP include delayed weaning from the respirator, muscle weakness, and prolonging of the mobilization phase, according to the study by Ruprecht-Karls University, Heidelberg(20).

3. Organs failure
Bacterial translocation is the invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the gut mucosa to normally sterile tissues and the internal organs. Bacterial translocation may be a normal phenomenon occurring on frequent basis in healthy individuals without any deleterious consequences. But when the immune system is challenged extensively, it breaks down and results in septic complications at different sites away from the main focus. The factors released from the gut and carried in the mesenteric lymphatics but not in the portal blood are enough to cause multi-organ failure, according to Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research(21).

4. Morbidity and mortality
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and often catastrophic complication in hospitalized patients; however, the impact of AKI in surgical sepsis remains unknown. We used Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End stage (RIFLE) consensus criteria to define the incidence of AKI in surgical sepsis and characterize the impact of AKI on patient morbidity and mortality(22). Other study indicated that in patients with sepsis who are admitted to an ICU, cardiac troponin T elevations are independently associated with in-hospital and short-term mortality but not long-term mortality(23).

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