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Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Phytochemicals in Foods- The Effects of Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                            Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate




Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, a theaflavin derivative, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly in black tea.

Health Benefits
1. Antioxidant capacities
In the comparison of TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF(1)), theaflavin-3-gallate(TF(2)A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF(2)B), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF(3))) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, indicated that positive antioxidant capacities of TF(2)B on singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses" by Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY.(1)

2. Antimicrobial activities
In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of seven green tea catechins and four black tea theaflavins, found that (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-catechin-3-gallate, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3-gallate showed antimicrobial activities at nanomolar levels; (ii) most compounds were more active than were medicinal antibiotics, such as tetracycline or vancomycin, at comparable concentrations; (iii) the bactericidal activities of the teas could be accounted for by the levels of catechins and theaflavins as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography; (iv) freshly prepared tea infusions were more active than day-old teas; and (v) tea catechins without gallate side chains, gallic acid and the alkaloids caffeine and theobromine also present in teas, and herbal (chamomile and peppermint) teas that contain no flavonoids are all inactive, according to "Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus" by Friedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N.(2)

3. Edema, 4. anti inflammation
found that a single topical application of equimolar of black tea constituents (TF,theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate) strongly inhibited TPA-induced edema of mouse ears. Application of TFs mixture to mouse ears 20 min prior to each TPA application once a day for 4 days inhibited TPA-induced persistent inflammation, as well as TPA-induced increase in IL-1beta and IL-6 protein levels. TFs also inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism via both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase pathways, according to "Inhibitory effects of black tea theaflavin derivatives on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and arachidonic acid metabolism in mouse ears" by Huang MT, Liu Y, Ramji D, Lo CY, Ghai G, Dushenkov S, Ho CT.(3)

5. Allergic effect
In the investigation of the preventive effects of black tea theaflavins, theaflavin-3-gallate (3-TF) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG), on oxazolone-induced type IV allergy in male ICR mice.
found that oral administration of 3-TF(theaflavin-3-gallate) and TFDG at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) body weight prevented the increases in levels of some proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), according to "Preventive effects of black tea theaflavins against mouse type IV allergy" by Yoshino K, Yamazaki K, Sano M.(4)

6. Anti cancers
In the investigation of the inhibition effects of tea theaflavins complex (TFs),theaflavin-3-3'-digallate (TFDG), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), and an unidentified compound (UC) on the growth of human liver cancer BEL-7402 cells, gastric cancer MKN-28 cells and acute promyelocytic leukemia LH-60 cells, found that the inhibition effects of theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B), TFDG, and UC on BEL-7402 and MKN-28 were stronger than TFs. The relationship coefficients between monomer concentration and its inhibition rate against MKN-28 and BEL-7402 were 0.87 and 0.98 for TF2B, 0.96 and 0.98 for UC, respectively. The IC50 values of TFs, TF2B, and TFDG were 0.18, 0.11, and 0.16 mM on BEL-7402 cells, and 1.11, 0.22, and 0.25 mM on MKN-28 cells respectively, according to "The theaflavin monomers inhibit the cancer cells growth in vitro" by Tu YY, Tang AB, Watanabe N.(5)

7. Leukemia
in the investigation of the inhibitory effects of five tea polyphenols, namely theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and gallic acid, and propyl gallate (PG) on xanthine oxidase (XO) found that Tea polyphenols and PG all have potent inhibitory effects (>50%) on PMA-stimulated superoxide production at 20 approximately 50 microM in HL-60 cells. Gallic acid (GA) showed no inhibition under the same conditions. At 10 microM, only EGCG, TF3, and PG showed significant inhibition with potency of PG > EGCG > TF3, according to "Inhibition of xanthine oxidase and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HL-60 cells by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and propyl gallate" by Lin JK, Chen PC, Ho CT, Lin-Shiau SY.(6)

8. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887850
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496576
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16404705
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20597096
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15248026
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10898615


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