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II. Grape Seeds and Skins
Grape is a woody vines of the genus Vitis, belong to the family Vitaceae, native to southern Turkey.
C. By Foods to prevent and treat diseases
Grapes Resveratrol is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in skins and seed of grape. Dr. Fabbrocini G,and the scientists at the University of Naples Federico in the study of resveratrol-containing hydrogel administered to 20 patients affected by acne vulgaris enrolled in this single-blind study, showed a 53.75% mean reduction in the GAGS score on the resveratrol-treated sides of the face compared with 6.10% on the vehicle-treated sides of the face. These data were supported by histologic analysis, which showed a 66.7% mean reduction in the average area of microcomedones on the resveratrol-treated sides of the face. The comparison with the vehicle-treated side of the face (9.7% reduction) showed a clinically relevant and statistically significant decrease of lesions in areas treated with resveratrol-containing hydrogel(1).
In the study to determine the effect of resveratrol on hippocampal damage and behavioral deficits in 7-day-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury, showed that treatment with resveratrol decreased anxiety and increased cortex/hippocampus dependent memory of animals subjected to blunt head trauma. These results show that acute treatment of resveratrol has a neuroprotective role against trauma induced hippocampal neuron loss and associated cognitive impairment in rats(2).
3. Alzheimer's disease
Resveratrol is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in skins and seed of grape wine, nuts, peanuts, etc. In the investigation of the neuroprotective properties of resveratrol found that Resveratrol has neuroprotective features both in vitro and in vivo in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it has proved to be beneficial also in ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and epilepsy, according to "Neuroprotective properties of resveratrolin different neurodegenerative disorders" by Albani D, Polito L, Signorini A, Forloni G.(3). Others, in the elucidation of the neuroprotective effect and influence of resveratrol on the extracellular levels of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator during ischemia/reperfusion in rats, found that chronic treatment with resveratrolremarkably reduced the release of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, aspartate and neuromodulator d-Serine during ischemia and reperfusion; and significantly increased the basal extracellular levels of inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino-n-butyric acid, glycine and taurine. Chronic treatment with resveratrol also ameliorated O-phosphoethanolamine levels and excitotoxic index during ischemia and reperfusio, according to "Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol on ischemic injury mediated by modulating the release of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in rats" by Li C, Yan Z, Yang J, Chen H, Li H, Jiang Y, Zhang Z(3)
4. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Resveratrol found abundantly in red wine and the skin and seed of grape is said to have an anti RA effect. In the study of Effects of resveratrol in inflammatoryarthritis, showed that according to control group in the resveratrol group, significantly decreased cartilage destruction was determined by H&E staining (p = 0.04). Loss of matrix proteoglycan content in the cartilage was much lower, as determined by safranin O staining (p = 0.03). We also observed marked synovial inflammation after intra-articular injection to control knees, but not in the resveratrol treated group knees (p = 0.01)(4).
5. Polymalagia Arthritis(PMR)
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
a. Immune system
a. 1. In the investigation of the immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated greentea extract in rain bow of the study of "Immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" by Sheikhzadeh N, Nofouzi K, Delazar A, Oushani AK.(32), researchers found that showed that decaffeinated green tea in lower doses of administration could be optimum to enhance the immunity of rainbow trout(5).
a.2. In the investigation of Green tea and Arthritis of the study of "Green teapolyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate in arthritis" by Ahmed S., researcher indicated that although these findings provide scientific evidence of the anti-rheumatic activity of EGCG, further preclinical studies are warranted before phase clinical trials could be initiated with confidence for patients with joint diseases(6).
In the study to evaluate the potential role that FoxO transcription factors play in modulating resveratrol's protective effects against oxidative stress in lens epithelial cells, showed that RES exerts a protective effect against oxidative damage in LEC cultures. The levels of expression of FoxO1A, FoxO3A, and FoxO4 appear to play a central role in determining the pro- or anti-apoptotic effects of RES. This has implications for future studies on oxidative stress-related lenticular disorders such as cataract formation(7).
7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
In the study to investigate the effect of dexamethasone versus resveratrol on the release of COPD-related inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and MCP-1) and matrix-metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) from alveolar macrophages exposed to gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), found that resveratrol almost completely reduced the release of all cytokines and MMP-9 without significant differences between the cohorts. Our data provide evidence for a corticosteroid resistance of alveolar macrophage-dependent inflammatory responses induced by gram-negative bacteria in COPD and thus question the utility of corticosteroids in COPD therapy. Instead, resveratrol may prove an alternative(8).
8. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
Resveratrol is a photochemical found abundantly in skin and seeds of grape. In the study of a chronic fatigue murine model by six repeated injections of Brucella abortus antigen to mice, which was manifested as reduced daily running activity and hippocampal atrophy, showed that resveratrol may be effective for improvingfatigue symptoms and enlarging the atrophic hippocampus by repressing apoptosis and promoting neurogenesis(9).
10. Autoimmune diseases
Mast cells are immune cells critical in the pathogenesis of allergic, but also inflammatory and autoimmune diseases through release of many pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8 and TNF. Compared the flavonoid quercetin (Que) and cromolyn on cultured human mast cells. Que and cromolyn (100 µM) can effectively inhibit secretion of histamine and PGD(2). Que and cromolyn also inhibit histamine, leukotrienes and PGD(2) from primary human cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs) stimulated by IgE/Anti-IgE. However, Que is more effective than cromolyn in inhibiting IL-8 and TNF release from LAD2 mast cells stimulated by SP. Moreover, Que reduces IL-6 release from hCBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Que inhibits cytosolic calcium level increase and NF-kappa B activation. Interestingly, Que is effective prophylactically, while cromolyn must be added together with the trigger or it rapidly loses its effect(10).
In the study to investigate the antifungal action by resveratrol in Candida albicans, which is a human infectious fungi as an agent of candidiasis, showed that A significant accumulation of intracellular trehalose was induced by stress responses to resveratrol action, and a remarkable arrest of cell-cycle processes at the S-phase in C. albicans occured. Therefore, the fungicidal effects of resveratrol demonstrate that this compound is a potential candidate as an antifungal agent in treating infectious diseases by candidal infections(11).
12. Crohn's disease
in the study to examine the response to resveratrol by cultured smooth muscle cells isolated from colons of untreated Lewis rats, found that resveratrol decreases intestinal smooth muscle cell numbers through its effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and also decreases collagen synthesis by the cells. These effects could be useful in preventing the smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition that characterize stricture formation in Crohn's disease(12).
In the study to investigate the effects of resveratrol on human endometriotic implants in a nude mouse model and to examine its impact on human endometrial stromal (HES) cell invasiveness in vitro, found that resveratrol decreased the number of endometrial implants per mouse by 60% (P < 0.001) and the total volume of lesions per mouse by 80% (P < 0.001). Resveratrol (10-30 μM) also induced a concentration-dependent reduction of invasiveness of HES by up to 78% (P < 0.0001). Resveratrol inhibits development of endometriosis in the nude mouse and reduces invasiveness of HES cells. These observations may aid in the development of novel treatments of endometriosis(13).
14. Flu (influenza)
In the study of assayed the bioactivity of resveratrol as antiproliferative and antiviral drug in cultured fibroblasts. Studies by other Authors showed that this natural compound inhibits the proliferation of different viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and influenza A. Resveratrol can effectively inhibit the synthesis of polyomavirus DNA. A possible interpretation is that, due to the damage caused by resveratrol to the plasma membrane, the transfer of the virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus, may be hindered thus inhibiting the production of viral DNA(14).
Resveratrol (RES), a well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound is associated of reduced risk of chronic liver diseases, researchers at the Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy indicated that enhancement of the dissolution of RES through a nanoparticle engineering process can result in increased hepatoprotective effects mediated by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Consequently, we suggest that RESN deserves further study, perhaps in prophylaxis of chronic liver diseases(15).
16. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
In the study of Resveratrol is a polyphenolic plant-derived antioxidant abundantly found in certain grapes, roots, berries, peanuts and red wine, indicated that using primary human cardiomyocytes, evaluated the effects of AZT and pre-treatment with resveratrol on mitochondrial ROS generation and the cell death pathways. AZT induced concentration-dependent cell death, involving both caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation, coupled with increased mitochondrial ROS generation in human cardiomyocytes(16).
17. Genital herpes
Resveratrol, a phytochemicals found in skin and seed of grape and red wineesveratrol (i) suppresses HSV induced activation of NF-kappaB within the nucleus and (ii) impairs expression of essential immediate-early, early and late HSV genes and synthesis of viral DNA(17).
18. Liver disease
Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that has a potential as a food source to extend lifespan and healthspan in model organism. In the study of the effect of resveratrol on mTOR signalingshowed that
resveratrol is an inhibitor of global protein synthesis, and that this effect is mediated through modulation of mTOR-dependent and independent signaling(18)
19. Multiple Sclerosis
In the study to investigate whether polyphenols modulate the expression and activity of the enzymes gelatinases A (MMP-2) and B (MMP-9), involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS),
indicate that the flavonoids and non-flavonoids (flavonoids quercetin (QRC) and cathechins [green tea extract (GTE)] and the non-flavonoids resveratrol (RSV)and tyrosol/hydroxytyrosol (Oliplus)) tested exert their inhibitory effect on MMPs, displaying different mechanisms of action, possibly related to their structure. Therefore, their combined use may represent a powerful tool for the down-regulation of MMPs in the course of MS(19).
In the study to investigate the molecular mechanism of how resveratrol can modulate the lineage commitment of human mesenchymal stem cells to osteogenesis other than adipogenesis, showed that
resveratrol promoted spontaneous osteogenesis but prevented adipogenesis in human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal progenitors. Resveratrol upregulated the expression of osteo-lineage genes RUNX2 and osteocalcin while suppressing adipo-lineage genes PPARγ2 and LEPTIN in adipogenic medium. Furthermore, the osteogenic effect of resveratrol was mediated mainly through SIRT1/FOXO3A with a smaller contribution from the estrogenic pathway(20).
21. Parkinson's disease
In the study to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease in rats. 6-OHDA-inducedParkinson's disease rat model involves chronic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, and the loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is the predominant lesion, found that resveratrol treatment also significantly decreased the levels of COX-2 and TNF-alpha mRNA in the substantia nigra as detected by real-time RT-PCR. COX-2 protein expression in the substantia nigra was also decreased as evidenced by Western blotting. These results demonstrate that resveratrol exerts a neuroprotective effect on 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease rat model, and this protection is related to the reduced inflammatory reaction(21).
22. Pelvic inflammatory disease
Anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol and its potential use in therapy of immune-mediated diseases review provides an up-to-date discussion on recent advances regarding anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol, mechanisms of action, and its potential for therapeutic use(22).
23. Thyroid disorders
In the study of resveratrol, the main ingredient found in skin and seed of grape and its impact on aging and thyroid function, showed that resveratrol is believed to regulate several biological processes, mainly metabolism and aging, by modulating the mammalian silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) of the sirtuin family. Resveratrol may arrest, among various tumors, cell growth in both papillary and follicular thyroid cancer by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway as well as increase of p53 and its phosphorylation. Finally, resveratrol also influences thyroid function by enhancing iodide trapping and, by increasing TSH secretion via activation of sirtuins and the phosphatidylinositol- 4-phosphate 5 kinase γ (PIP5Kγ) pathway, positively affects metabolism(23)
1. Overdose may cause headache, itchy scalp, dizziness, and nausea, abdominal pain etc.
2. Do not take the herbs if you have high blood pressure
3. Grape seed extract may interact with other medication, such blood thinner, NSAID painkiller, etc.
4. Do not take the herb in children or if you are pregnant without approval of the related field specialist.
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